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MAJOR-GENERAL    J.    G.    R.    FORLONG, 

F.R.G.S.,    F.R.S.E.,    M.A.I.,    A.I.C.E.,    F.R.H.S., 

F.R.A.SocY.,    &c.,    &r.  i 


VOL..  I. 

LONDON    .  1883 


[All  rights  reserved.] 

RIVERS    OF    LIFE.       PLATE     V. 

C  0  N  T  E  N  T  S. 

VOL.  I. 



II.  TREE  WORSHIP             .                         .  .                                                            31-92 

III.  SERPENT  AND  PHALIK  WORSHIP  .            .                                     -        93-322 

IV.  FIRE  WORSHIP              ....  .                                     .     323-402 

V.  SUN  WORSHIP  .                                                 .     403-534 

VI.  ANCESTOR  WORSHIP  .     535-548 

VOL.    II. 





I.  A    COLORED    CHART    OF     ALL    FAITH     STREAMS,    74     FEET    BY    2J    FEET,    EITHER 


>        PREFACING  VOL-.  II 


TO    ANAM,    SHOWING   EARLY    TRIBES,    THEIR    SACKED (         END    OF    VOL.    II. 
PLACES,  &c.,     .  .  .  .  .  .  .  ) 

IV.  SYNOPTICAL    TABLE     OF    GODS,     GOD  -  IDEAS     AND     MANY-^ 

INCHES,  .  J 


None  but  those  usual  in  all  works.     English  is  used"  in  preference  to  Latin  or  other  languages,  su  that  B.C.  and 
A.C.  stand  for  "  Before"  and  "After"  Christ,  and  C.B.C.  is  "Century  B.C." 






NECTED  WITH   THE   DOCTRINES,  &C.,  &C.,  OF   ALL  8.       „       HEBRF^WS. 






3.  OF  EGYPTIANS.  '       14.      ,     SEIKS. 

VOL.  I. 

No.  Page 

1  Ficus  Indica,  with  Idols        .             .  .31 

2  The  Temptation,  as  understood  in  the  East  .         33 

3  The  Ficus  leaf,  a  fruit  ...         34 

4  A  Sivaik  Temple,  Sacred  Well,  &c.  .  .         39 

5  Tree  and  Fire  Worship-idea,  Amravati  J 

6  Dagoba,  with  Three  Emblems           .  r      40 

7  Nagas  worshipping  all  Emblems 

8  Keltik  and  Carthagenian  Tree-ideas  .         41 

9  Crown  of  Mary  or  Maya       .             .  .45 

10  The  Bael  Tree            .             .  .47 

11  Single  Lotus.             .  .         48 

12  The  Snake  as  Ananta  or  Eternity     .  .         49 

13  Sacred  Bean  of  Egypt  and  Japan     .  .         50 

14  Atropa  Madragora — Rachel's  Mandrakes  .         51 

15  The  Orchis  Mascula-idea       .             .     •  .         52 

16  The  Pomegranate  as  a  Religious  Emblem  .         56 

17  Palm  Tree  with  Cross  ...         62 

18  Mystic  Palm  and  all  Organs  .         63 

19  Scandinavian  Tree-Idea         .             .  .64 

20  Tor's  Hammer  and  Ancient  Crosses  .         65 

21  Mosk  with  Ficus,  Palm  and  Cedar  .  .71 

22  Mamojee  or  Great  Mother     .             .  .72 

23  Grove  or  Asherah  of  Jews  and  Asyrians  .         72 

24  Ishtar  or  Star  of  Love,  the  Eye        .  .         72 

25  Asyrian  Tree  of  Life,  Bull  and  Ark  .         72 

26  Tree-Idea,  Asia         .            .             .  .73 

27  Cross  or  Tree  and  Solar-Idea,  Rome  .         76 

28  Boat  and  Idol,  the  Arglm-Nat          .  .         80 

29  Maypole  and  Religious  Emblems     .  .         84 

30  Tor's  Hammer  and  Pincer-idea         .  .         84 

31  Earth-fast  Rock,  Snake  and  Lingam  Tree  .         91 

32  The  Serpent-Sun  of  Thebes               .  .         94 

33  Hygia  feeding  Serpent  from  her  Cup  .         97 

34  Tyrian  Coin,  Serpents  in  an  Ark      .  .         97 
Plate  IV.  here  intervenes  with  11  figures  .        98 
Plate  V.       „             „                     9       „  104 

35  The  Gorilla    .  .       108 

36  Sea,  Ark  and  Jhaveh                         .  .       110 

37  Serpent  House  or  Temple     .             .  .112 

38  Chinese  Maya,  Lingam,  Serpents  and  Tor 

toise                         .             .             .  .116 

39  The  "  Maha  Deva  "  or  Sri-Linga  of  India  .       120 

40  Rural  Lingam  and  Vase        .             .  .121 

41  Siva  as  God  of  Fire  ....       122 

42  Linga-in-Yoni  supported  by  the  Serpent  .       123 

43  Honor  and  Virtue,  Roman  Figure  of  .124 

44  Apollo  and  Lyre  in  Gateway             .  .127 


No.  P;ige 

45  The  Pythian  Apollo  .             .             .  .128 

46  The  Concha  Veneris  in  a  God's  Hand  .       129 

47  The  Noisy  or  Phalik  God,  with  Sacred  Shell       130 

48  Rudder  and  Shield-Ideas      .             .  .131 

49  Pallas- Athena,  Wisdom  and  Power  .       132 

50  Latona  between  Rocks  pursued  by  Jove  .       132 

51  Garden  of  Hesperides            .             .  .       133 

52  Mars  of  Campus  Martins      .             .  .133 

53  Roman  Standards     .             .  .       134 

54  Barmese  Pagodas,  Rangoon               .  .135 

55  Chief  Objects  in  Palm-day  Processions  .       138 

56  The  lonik  Virgin  and  Child              .  .       145 

57  Moses  with  Rod  on  Mount  .             .  .154 

58  Worship  of  Bakchus  by  Man  and  Woman  .       155 

59  Lochs  Stennes  and  Harray,  Orkney  .       156 

60  A  Sacred  Cave,  all  Symbols              .  .167 

61  Cherubim  of  Jewish  Ark      .             .  .       169 

62  Libra  or  "The  Scales  "-idea  .             .  .       170 

63  The  Serpent  "Balance  "  of  the  Capitol  .       172 

64  Mosk  of  Omar,  Jerusalem     .             .  .181 

65  Egyptian  Phalik  Worship     .             .  .184 

66  Symbolism  of  Hats,  Helmets,  &c.     .  .       185 

67  x 

f*ft       / 

6g   (.  The  Sacred  Shield  and  Priestly  Hat-idea        185 

70  ) 

71  The  Boat,  Argha  and  Lamp-idea      .  .186 

72  Egyptian  Ark  and  Ram  God             .  .       190 

73  Ark  of  Phile  led  by  Fire       .             .  .191 

74  Twizel  Moor  Circle,  Ireland              .  .193 

75  A  Druid  Circle  of  Dekan,  W.  India  .       193 

76  Jewish  Altar  and  Symbols  .             .  .194 

77  Pyx  Monstrance  and  Sacred  Emblems  .       196 

78  Theban  Worship  of  Amon  Ra          .  .       199 

79  Worship  of  Isis,  and  Adon  Ra          .  .       200 

80  The  Isinian  Car  with  Phalus             .  .201 

81  Aphrodite  in  Ocean  Shell      .             .  .       202 

82  The  Solar  Christ  in  Cradle,  with  Heart, 

Cup  and  Virgin  Worship               .  .       202 

83  The  Vernal  Horus     .             .             .  .204 

84  Harpokratian  Worship  of  Yoni  in  Nineveh       205 

85  Budhist  Seer  in  Shoe  of  Ass             .  .       206 

86  Asyrian  Worship  of  Virgo  and  Sun  .       206 

87  „                 „           Lingam  and  Yoni  .       206 

88  Glans  of  Asyrian  Phalus      .             .  '  .207 

89  Nun  and  Stole-idea  .             .             .  .211 

90  Asyrian  Worship  of  Fertility  .       213 



List  of  Illustrations. 

91  Solomon's  Molten  Sea  or  Kauldron  . 

92  Egyptian  Mirror  and  Woman 

93  Soloman's  Temple  in  Plan  and  Section 

94  Serpent  in  Ark  with  Phalik  Emblems 

95  Various  Coins  of  Greece  and  Asia    . 

96  The  Gaulik  Serpent  Goddess 

97  Egyptian  Tau 

98  Sri-Linga,  bird-idea 

99  Planetary  and  Sectarian  Symbols    . 

100  Mahamadan  Fish  Nymph     .  .  . 

101  Isis,  Babe  and  Fish-idea       .  . 

102  Danes,  Fish  and  Sun  Gods 

103  Woman  as  the  Snake  Goddess 

104  Phalo-Serpeut,  and  Fire  Worship  at  Pornpii 

105  Sacred  Hieroglyphs 

106  Isis  and  Horus  in  lOnik  bell  flower 

107  Diana  of  Ephesus      . 

108  Heaven  and  the  four  Elements 

109  The  Bulla 

110  Fish  and  Woman-idea 

111  Asyrio-Phenician  Fish-God  with  Rod 

112  Egyptian  Themis,  and  Solar  Python 

113  Time  and  Truth,  worshipping  Lingam 

114  Vishnu  in  the  Fish- Avatar 

115  Mermaid,  Clonfert,  Ireland 

116  Pisco-Phalik  Worship  ... 

117  Tombstone  of  Ophites,  India 

1 1 A  "\ 

/  Common  Ancient  and  Modern  Sculptur- 

f      ings,  India,  serpents  and  all  symbols      < 

121  Lituae  and  Crozier-idea 

122  Crozier  of  Cashel       .... 

123  Serpent  Cross  of  Killamery  . 

124  Buclhist  Constellation,  Rahu 

125  The  Parnassus-idea  . 

126  Symbolism  in  Constantinople 

127  Landscape  View  of  Hippodrome,  Constan 

tinople    . 

128  Ceres,  Apollo,  and  Earth-idea 

129  Greek  Ornphe  Worship 

130  Serapis  as  Abraxas   . 

Plate  VI.  here  intervenes  with  12  figures  . 

131  Tyrian  Herakles,  Stones,  and  Column  of  fire 

132  Stonehenge  as  a  Liuga-in-Yoni 

133  Serpent  Mound,  Loch  Nell  . 

Plate  VII.  here  intervenes  with  8  figures    . 

134  The  Bread  Makers  of  Barma 

135  Tumulus  with  Pillar,  Karnak 

136  1 

137  I 

138  I.  Galgals  with  Menhirs,  Bread  Mill  and 

139  (     Column-ideas     .  . 

140  | 

141  J 





























"  232 




























-  251 





































•  303 




The  Conception  by  Holy  Ghost,  Venice 
Ceres  issues  from  Cave 
The  Roman  Alb-idea 

„     Chasuble-idea  in  plan 

„     Ancient  Pallium-idea 
Priest  in  Ancient  Pallium    . 
The  Great  Obo  of  Mongolia 
A  Moslem  Tombstone  and  Fire  tower 
The  Delhi  Lat  and  Gateway 
Temple  of  Vesta  and  Sivaik  ring     . 
Asyrian  Eagle-headed  Gods  at  Worship 
A  Christian  Church  Altar    . 
The  Christian  Church-idea  . 
Pergamos  as  Mountain-god-idea 
Phalo-Arkite  ideas  in  Mountains,  &c. 

Do.         in  Architecture 
The  Arko-foot-idea  .... 
Sacred  feet  in  Argha 
The  topographical  feature-idea  of  Rome 

Do.          '  of  Palatine  Hill 

The  God-idea,  Roman  Nympheum 
Mars  on  Campus  Martius     . 
Plate  VIII.  here  intervenes  with  8  figures 
Two  views  of  "  Newton  Stone  " 
Vernal  Equinox         .... 
Curves  of  Festal  Intensity    . 
Mother  and  Holy  Child,  Kaklia 

Do.         Asyria 

Do.        as    Ama    the    Eastern     Solar 
Virgin  , 

Worship  of  Devi  and  Krishna 
Hindu  Devi  with  Phalus 
The  Conception-idea,  Venetian  picture 
The  Polynesian  "  great  God  "-Ta- Aroa 
Solar  Saint  and  Cross -idea  . 
Old  German  God  Tuisko       . 
"  Jack  in  the  box  "    . 
St  Michael's  Mount,  Lands-end 
The  "Fall  of  Mithras" 
The  Jewish  Cherubim 
Hippa  of  Arkadia— "  the  Door  of  Life  '' 

Phali  in  Mexico,  Pheuicia  and  Ireland 

£•  Hands  and  Suns  on  Irish  Crosses 

Ferozsha's  Lat,  Delhi 

Egyptian  God  Serapis 

Sun  as  Mihr  or  Mitr  the  Fertilizer 

Ablanathabla,  the  Gnostic  Charm    . 

Key  and  Lunar  Sceptre 

Egyptian  Kun  or  Venus 

Venus  with  Apple    . 

Asyrian  Mary  and  Child 

Tor  attacking  the  Giant  Clouds 









3  Rev.  Dr  Legge's  Chinese  Classics. 

1  Buddha  Ghosh a's  Parables. 

1  Buddhism.     H.  Alabaster's  Wheel  of  Law. 

1  Modern  Buddhist.      By  H.  Alabaster,  1870. 

2  The  Bui-man.      By  Shway  Yoe, 

1  Prof.  S.  Beale's  Texts  from  the  Buddhist  Canon 

Dhammapada,  1878. 

1  Prof.  S.  Beale's  Buddhist  Tripitaka. 
1  Do.  Legends  of  Buddha. 

•Do.  Fah  Hian. 

1  Rhys  David's  Buddhism.   Tract  Society  Edition. 
1          Do.  do.        Hibbert  Lectures,  1881. 

1  Japan,  Travels  of  a  Naturalist,  1870. 

1  Upham's  Buddhism. 


Buddhisme  en  Norvege.     Prof.  Holmboe. 
Buddha  Gaya.      R.  L.  Mitra. 

Mind  of  Mencius. 
Japan  History  of. 
Do.,    Travels  in. 
Japan  and  China, 
History  of  China. 
Chinese  Buddhism. 
Religion  in  China. 
China's  Place  in  Philology,   do. 
Hue's  Travels. 

Yule's  Burmah  and  Amerapura. 
Manual  of  Buddhism.      Spence  Hardy. 

Rev.  E.  Faber. 
Sir  E.  Reed. 
Miss  Bird. 
Dr  Kempfer,  1728. 
Archdeacon  Gray. 
Dr  J.  Edkins. 





2      Hwen  Tsang's  Travels,  Julien's  translation. 



5  Dr  J.  Muir's  Sanskrit  Texts,  185 8-6 3. 

1  Griffith's  Ramayana. 

1  Gust's  Linguistic  and  Oriental  Essays. 

1  Do.      Pictures  of  Indian  Life. 

1  W.  W.  Hunter's  Orissa. 

1  Antiqs.  of  Orissa.    Dr  R.  Lalla  Mitra,  1 875-78. 

2  Tod's  Rajistan,  Annals  and  Antiqs.,  1829-32. 
2  Sherring's  Hindu  Tribes  and  Castes. 

1          Do.         Benares. 

1  H.  H.  Wilson's  Essays  on  Hinduism. 

1  Indian  Wisdom.      Prof.  M,  Williams. 

1  Hinduism.  do. 

1  Modern  India.  do.        Tract  Soc.  Ed. 

2  Indian  Castes.      Dr  J.  Wilson. 
1  Indian  Arts.  Dr  Birdwood. 

4  History  of  Hindostan.   Rev.  T.  Maurice,  1795. 

1  Caves  of  Elora,  Capt.  Seely,  1824. 

Indian  Antiquities.      Rev.  T.  Maurice,  1800. 

Abbe  Dubois'  Mceurs  des  Indes. 

Hindu  Pantheon.     E.  A.  Rodriguez,  1841-45. 

Do.  Major  Moor. 

Oriental  Fragments.          do. 
Heber's  Indian  Journals,  1823-5. 
Archeological  Surveys  of  India  from  beginning. 
Indian  Antiquary  from  beginning. 
Ancient  and  Medieval  India.      Mrs  Manning. 
Bhagavat  Gita.     Thomson's  Translation. 
Sanhita  of  Sama  Yeda.     Dr  Stevenson's  Trans. 
Mythology  of  Hindus.      C.  Coleman,  1832. 
Manu's  Code. 
Burgess'  Elephanta,  1871. 
Indo- Aryans.     Dr  R.  Mitra. 
Macpherson's  Indian  Khonds. 
Hist.  Maha  Rajas  of  Bombay,  1865. 




Vols.  Vo 

5  Canon  Rawlinson's  Ancient  Monarchies,  1873.  1 

4  Do.  Herodotus,  1875.  1 

1  Do.  Origin  of  Nations,  1877.  1 

1  Phenicia.      Rev.  J.  Kenrick,  1855.  1 

-  M.  Lenortnant's  Manual  Anc.  Hist,  of  East.  2 

1  Do.  Chaldean  Magic.  1 

2  Higgins'  Anacalypsis,  1833.  2 

3  Jacob  Bryant's  Mythology,  1774.  2 
1               Do.             Observ.  on  Scripture,  1803.  1 

1  Lord  Carnarvon's  Travels,  Syria,  &c.  1 
3  Rev.  Dr  Faber's  Origin  of  Pagan  Idolatry..  1 

2  Do.  Cabin.  1 

3  Bentham's  Etruria  and  Ancient  Researches.  1 
1  Heath's  Phenician  Inscriptions.  1 
I  Isaac  Taylor's  Etruscan  Researches.  1 
I  Dr  Davis'  Carthage  and  its  Remains.  1 

Rev.  J.  Hislop's  Two  Babylons. 

Giant  Cities  of  Bashan.     Rev.  J.  Porter. 

Pheaician  Ireland.      H.  O'Brien,  1833. 

Babylonian  and  Assyrian  Lectures.   Prof.  Sayce. 

Assyrian  Reader  and  Grammar.  do. 

Fergusson's  Palaces  of  Nineveh. 

Layard's  Nineveh  and  its  Remains.     Ed.  1873. 

Do.       Nineveh  and  Babylon.      1874. 

Do.  do.  N.York,  1^53. 

Prof.  Haug's  Essays  on  Zoroasti-ians. 
History  of  Prehistoric  Times.     Baldwin,  1869. 
Geo.  Smith's  Chaldean  Genesis. 
Do.         Assyrian  Canon. 
Do.        A  nc.  Hist.  Assyria  for  P.  C.  K.  Sue, 
W.  Vaux's  Do.  for  Do. 

Cory's  Ancient  Frags.      Hodge's  Ed.,  187(5. 



0  Sir  Wm.  Muir's  Mahomet  &  Hist,  of  Islam,  1858. 

1  W.  W.  Hunter's  Indian  Musulmans. 

1  Dr  Professor  Goldziher's  Hebrew  Mythology. 

1  Jewish  Cabala.      Frank's. 

1  Talmud  Selections.      Palano. 
1          Do.      Miscellany.  •  Hershon. 

1  Sale's  Koran. 

2  Conder's  Tent  Work,  Palestine,  1878. 
Journals  of  Palestine  Exploration  up  to  1882. 

1  Land  of  Gilead.      L.  Oliphant. 

1  Saracens.      Rev.  S.  Ockley,  1  7 1 8. 

2  Palgrave's  Arabia. 

1  S.  Sharpe's  Hebrew  Nation. 

1  Jewish  Antiquities.     Rev.  Dr  Jennings,  1823. 

1  Josephus'      Do. 

4  Prideaux's  Connection  O.  ,and  N.  Test.,  1721. 

1  Rabbi  Jeshua. 

1  Races  of  European  Turkey.      E.  L.  Clark. 

1  Kuenen's  Hib.  Lecture,  1882. 

1  Modern  Judaism.     J.  Allen,  1830. 

1  Meredith's  Prophet  of  Nazareth,  1864. 

1  Maundrell's  Journeys,  Jerusalem,  1697. 

1  Jerusalem  and  Sinai.      F.  Arundale,  1837. 

1  Worship  of  Baalim.      Dr  Oort,  1865. 


2  Hist,  of  Egypt,  Brugsch  Bey,  1879. 
2  Do.  Canon  Rawlinson. 

2  Do.  Baron  Bunsen. 

1    Hist.  Ancienne,  par  Prof.  Maspero,  1878. 
1    Egyptian  Beliefs.      Bon  wick. 
Do.     Pyramids.     Do. 

Comparative  Grammar,  Egypt,  «fcc.  Hyde  Clarke. 

Grammar,  Ancient  Egypt.      Renouf. 

Religion  of  Egypt.    Renouf.    Hib.  Lects.,  1879. 

Isis  and  Osiris:     Plutarch. 

1  Anct.  Egypt.    Dr  Birch.     Soc.  P.  Christ.  K.  Ed. 

2  Horus  and  Serpent  Myths.     Cooper,  Vic.  Inst. 
1    Bible  illustrated   from   Egyptian   Monuments, 

by  Dr  W.  CY Taylor,  1838. 
I   Burckhardt's  Travels,  Nubia,  &c. 

1  Gumpach's.Hist.  Antiqs.  of  Egypt,  1863. 

1  Skertchly's  Dahomey  as  it  is. 

2  Osburn's  Monumental  Egypt. 
1         Do.       Antqs.  of  Egypt. 

1  S.  Sharpe's  Egypt. 

1  Serpent  Worship.     Rev.  J.  B.  Deane. 

1 3  Records  of  Past,  Egypt  and  Assyria. 

1  Hist,  of  Egyptian  Religion.    Prof.  Tiele,  1881. 

2  Savory's  Letters  on  Egypt,  1787. 

2  Ancient  Egypt.     Rev.  J.  Kenrick. 

1  Egp.  Pentateuch  and  other  Lects.      Cooper. 

2  Wilkinson's  Ancient  Egypt. 

2  Do.  Dr  Birch's  Edition. 

1  Egypt  of  the  Past.     Sir  E.  Wilson. 

1  Rede  and  other  Lects.     By  Dr  S.  Birch. 





1  Toland'a  History  of  Druids. 

1  Higgins'  Druids,  1827. 

1  Bishop  Stukely's  Stonehenge,  &c. 

1  Rev.  E.  Davis'  Celtic  Researches,  1804. 

1  Do.  British  Druids,  1809. 

1  Hermes  Britanicus.     Rev.  W.  Bowles,  1828. 

1  Old  Celtic  Romances.     Dr  Joyce,  1879. 

2  Pennant's  Tours  in  Scotland,  <fec.,  1776. 

3  Thorpe's  Northern  Mythology,  1851. 
2  Mallet's  Northern  Antiquities,  1770. 
1  J.  Macpherson's  Ossian,  1762. 

6  Ancient  Historians,  Scotland. 

1  Indo-European  Trads.  and  Folk  Lore.      Kelly. 

1  History  of  Irish  Names.      Dr  Joyce. 

1  Wright's  Kelt,  Roman,  and  Saxon. 

2  O'Brien's  Diet.,  Anc.  Irish  Round  Towers. 

2  Petrie's         do.       do.       Origin  and  Use,  1845. 

6  Procs.  Soc.  Antiquaries,  Scotland. 

1  Scottish  Myths.      Dr  C.  Maclagan. 

1  Stonehenge,  Antiquity  of.     Herbert,  1849. 

1  Eskimo  Tales  and  Traditions.     Dr  Rink,  1875. 

2  Nordenskiold's  Voyage  of  Vega. 


3     Skene's  Celtic  Scotland. 

1      Druids    and   Towers   of   Ireland.      Father    R. 

Smiddy,  1873. 
1      Towers  and  Temples  of  Ireland.     M.  Keane. 

1  Guide  to  Landsend  and  St  Michael.     Physician. 

2  Cornwall  Antiquities,  etc.    Dr  Borlase,  1769. 

1      Cross  and  Serpent  Worship.    Rev.  W.  Haslam. 

1  Ancient  Stones  of  Scotland.      Moore. 

2  Land  of  Midnight  San.     Du  Chaillu,  1881. 

5      Gen.Vallancey's  Colec.  de  Rebus  Hibern.,  1876. 
1  Do.  Ancient  Irish  Language,  1 802. 

1  Do.  Essay  on          Do.  1818. 

2  Ancient  Races  of  Scotland.   Col.  Forbes  Leslie. 
1      Ceylon.  Do. 

1      Archeological  Essays.      Sir  J.  Simpson. 
1      Archaic  Sculpturings.  Do. 

Dr  Latham's  Ethnology  British  Islands. 

Hist.  Celtic  Language.      L.  Maclean,  1840 

Rimmer's  Anc.  Stone  Crosses. 

Father  Shearman's  Loca  Patriciana 

Dr  Pritchard's  East.  Origin  Celtic  Nations,  1 831. 

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12  Gibbon's  Roman  Empire. 

1  Callimachus.     Dodd's  Translation. 
1          Do.          Hesiod  and  Theognis.      Bohn's  Eel. 

1  Hymns  of  Orpheus.     Thos.  Taylor's  Ed.,  1787. 

2  Prof.  C.  0.  Muller's  Doric  Race,  1830. 

3  Pausanias,  trans.  1824.     Taylor  1 

1  Travels  of  Anach  arsis  in  Greece.      Barthelemy, 


1 2  Grote's  History  of  Greece. 

2  Pindar's  Odes.     Dr  West's  Translation,  1824. 
6  Plutarch's  Lives. 

1  Lucretius'  Nature  of  Things.      Bohn's  Edition. 

1  Lives  of  Ancient  Philosophers,  1702. 

1  Apuleius'  Meta.      Bohn's  Edition. 

1  Canon  Wordsworth's  Greece,  Descriptive  and 

Historical,  1844. 

1  Gen.  P.  Di  Cesnola's  Cyprus'. 

1  Major  do.  do.   or  Salaminia,  1882. 

1  Antiqs.  Herculaneum,  &c.      Pistolesi. 

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1  Antqs.  de  la  Nismes.     M.  Menard,  1831. 

1  Hermes  Trismegiste,  par  L.  Menard,  1867. 

1  Religion  of  Ancient  Greeks.    Septchenes,  1788. 

1  Dr  Schliemann's  Ilios. 

1  Do.  Mycenae  and  Tiryns,  1878. 

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1  Xenophon's  Anabasis.      Bohn's  Edition. 

1  Arriaii's  History.      Rooke's  Translation,  1813. 

1  Tacitus'  Works.     Bohn's  Edition. 

2  Roman  Antiquities.      Rev.  B.  Kennett,  1737. 

1  Grecian         do.  Bishop  Potter,  1778. 

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1  Propertius,  &c.,*&c.     Bohn's  edition. 

2  Travels  in   Gree.ce   and  Albania.      Dr  Clarke 

and  Hobhouse. 

1  Plotinus' Five  Books.  Thos.  Taylor's  Trans.  1794. 

1  Lucan's  Pharsalia.      Bohn's  Edition. 

3  Strabo's  Geography.  do. 
1  Eusebius  Eccles.  History,  do. 
1  Herodotus.                           ,do. 
7  Pliny's  Natural  History,  do. 
1  Ovid's  Fasti.  do. 
1  Do.     Meta.                        do. 

1  Becker's  Gallus.    Metcalfe's  Translation,  1866. 




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2  Do.                do.,          by  Rev.  Dr  R.  Jamieson.  1 

4  Do.     Kittos'. 

5  Do.     for  the  Young.      Drs  Oort,  Hooykass  1 

and  Kuenen,  1873. 

1  Dictionary,  Fiirst,  Hebrew  and  Chaldee,  1867.  1 

Do.  '  Parkhui-st,  Heb. and  Chaldee,  180 7.  1 

Do.  S.  Newman,  Eng.  and  Heb.,  1832.  1 

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Do.  do.  Turkish.  J.  W.  Red-  1 

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1          Do.          Pali  and  English.     Childers,  1875.  9 

1         Do.          Greek    do.       Liddell  Scott,  1864.  1 

1          Do.  do.        do.       Dunbar. 

1          Do.             do.        do.       Parkhurst,  1804.  1 

1  Do.          Latin,  Dr  A.  Littleton,  1723.  2 

2  Do.          Ttaliano-Inglese-Francese  di  S.  E.  2 

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2  Do.          Christian    Antiquities.      Dr    Wm. 

Smith  and  Cheetham,  1875-80.  1 

3  Do.          of  Bible.     Dr  Wm.  Smith,  1863.  1 
3         Do.          Greek  and  Roman  Biography  and  20 

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2          Do.          Greek     and     Roman     Geography.  2 

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1          Do.          Classical.      Dr  Wm.  Smith,  1864.  1 

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Rev.  Baring  Gould's  Lost  and  Hostile  Gospels. 

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Do.          Life  of  Jesus. 
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Metrical  Texts  fron  Sanskrit.     Dr  J.  Muir. 
Science  of  Language.      Prof.  Sayce. 
Origin  of        Do.  Kavanagh. 

Shrines  and  Sepulchres.     Madden,  1857. 
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Dean  Stillingfleet's  Origines  Sacrse.,  1680. 

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tian  Faith,  1670. 

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Monumental  Christianity.      Lundy. 

3  Buckle's  Civilization. 

2  Draper's  Intellectual  Development. 
1        Do.      Religion  and  Science. 

3  Hallam's  Middle  Ages,  &c. 

1  Mandalay  to  Momien.      Anderson,  1876. 

3  Marshman's  History  of  India. 

1  Fremenville's  Early  Races.     Finisterre. 

1  Lubbock's  Prehistoric  Times,  1872. 

1        Do.         Origin  of  Civilization,  1870. 

1  Jenning's  Rosicrucians. 

1  Grimm's     Teutonic     Mythology.     Stallybrass' 

Translation,  1880. 

1  Christianity  as  old  as  Creation.    Tindal,  1730. 

1  Civil   and   Ecclesiastical   Rites,   &c.      Rev.   J. 

Godwyn,  1685. 

1  Biblical  Apocrypha.      Cooper. 
1  Do.  Hone. 

1  Lares    and     Penates,   or    Histoiy     of    Cilicia. 

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2  Brand's  Antiquities.      Bonn's  Edition. 

6  Duncker's  Hist,  of  Antiquities,  1877-82. 

1  Dean  Stanley's  Sinai  and,  Palestine 

1  Do.  Christian^Institutions,  1881. 

1  Russian  and  Turk.     Dr  Latham,  1878. 

1  Vanbury's  Bokara. 

1  Prehist.  Compar.  Philology.      Hyde  Clarke. 

1  Ludwig  Noire's  Philosophy  of  Language. 

1  Ancient  Pagan  and  Mod.  Christian  Symbolism. 

Dr  Inman,  1869-1874. 

1  Ancient  Faiths  and  Modern.    Dr  Inman,  1876. 

1  Pilgrimage  to  Nejd.     Lady  A.  Blunt. 

1  Ancient     Symbol  Worship.     Dr  Wilder,  U.S.- 

1  Symbolic  Language.     R.  Payne  Knight. — 

1  Freemasonry  Mysteries.     J.  Fellows.  1871. 

1  E.  Renaudot's  India  and  China,  1718,  1733. 

1  History    Ancient    Religions.      Prof.  Tiele. 

1  Apostolic  Fathers.      Rev.  Dr  Donaldson. 

2  Clavis  Calendaria.     J.  Brady,  1815. 
2  Isis  Unveiled.     .Bhlavatsky,  1877. 

2  The  Lost  Solar  System.      J.  Wilson,  1856. 

3  Supernatural  Religion,  4th  Ed.,  1879. 

1  Gregg's  Creed  of  Christendom. 

1'  Abrege  de  1'Origine  de  Cultes.    Dupuis,  1700  ? 

2  Hist.  Abrege  de  Difierens  Cultes.  Delaure,  1825. 
2  Prof.  Gubernatis'  Zoological  Mythology,  1872. 
2  Do.  Myfchol.desPlantes,  1878-82. 

4  T.  Wheeler's  History  of  India. 

1  Dr  J.  M.  Arnold's  True  and  False  Religions,  1853. 

1  Rev.  Dr  J.  Robinson's  Cyclopedia  of  Religious 

Knowledge,  1816. 

1  F.  W.  Newman's  Theism. 









F.  W.  Newman's  Phases  of  Faith. 
Do.  The  Soul. 

Christian  Iconography.      M.  Didron,  1841. 

Socrates'  Eccles.  Hist.     Bohn's  Edition,  1853. 

Dryden's  Fables,  1721. 

Secret    Societies    of    Middle  Ages.     Knight's 
Edition,  1837. 

Bellamy's  History  of  Religions,  1813. 

Religion  of  Israel.     Rev.  J.  Knappert,  1877. 

Freemasonry  Lectures.    Rev.  G.  Oliver,  1826. 

W.  W.  Hunter's  Brief  Hist.  India. 
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Do.  Non- Aryan  Languages/ 

C.  0.  Miiller's  System  of  Mythology,  1854. 

Hib.  Lect,  1878,  Muller's  Origin  of  Religion. 
Do.  1880,  Early  Roman  Christy.  Kenan. 

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History  of  Magic.     J.  Ennemoser,  1843. 

Rousselet's  India  and  its  Princes. 

Fergusson's  Rude  Stone  Monuments. 

Do.  Tree  and  Serpent. 

1  Do.  Rock-Cut  Temples,  India. 

Chas.  Darwin's  Works 
1   Young's  Corruptions  in  Religions,  1733. 
1   Rev.  R.  Taylor's  Diegesis. 
1    Gregorie's  Works  and  Scripture  Notes,  1684. 
"-'   Lord  Amberley's  Analysis  of  Religious  Belief. 
I    La  Bible  dans  L'liide,  par  Louis  Jacolliot,  1869. 
I   Spenser's  Faerie  Queene,  1589. 
1   E.  Bunsen's  Angel  Messiah. 
1    Climate  and  Time.  J.  Croll,  Geological  Survey. 
1    Glennie's  Pilgrim  Memories. 
1    Credulities  of  Past  and  Present. 
I   Religion  of  Future.     Crozier. 
1   Transactions  Oriental  Congress,  1874. 
1   Myth,  de  la  Femme.     C.  Schoebel. 
1    Pitcairn's  Criminal  Trials. 

1    Stephen's  Hist,  Eng.  Thought,  Eighteenth  Cent. 
'2   Lecky's  England,  Eighteenth  Century. 
4       Do.     Rationalism  and  European  Morals. 
1    Ceremonial  Institutions.      Herbert  Spencer.  • 
1   Principles  of  Sociology  Do. 

6   Proceedings  of  Society  of  Antiquaries,  Scotland. 
1    Heathen  Mythology.      Abbe  de  Tressan. 
1    History  of  Heavens.     Abbe"  Pluche,  1790. 
I  Do.       Heathen  Mythology.  H.  North,  180  6. 

1   Pantheon.      Prof.  Tooke. 
1   Development  of  Creation.      Thos.  L.  Strange. 
1    Legends  of  Old  Testament.  do. 

1   Bible,  Is  it  the  Word  of  God  ?  do. 

1    Sources  of  Christianity.  do. 

1    What  is  Christianity]  do. 

1   Controversial  Writings.     Thos.  L.  Strange. 


10  Anti-Nicene  Library  of  Christian  Fathers. 
20   Asiatic  Researches. 
10   Calcutta  Review,  1844-48. 
14  Transactions,  Biblical  Archeological  Society. 
Journals,     Anthropological      Society ;      Royal 
Society,  Edinburgh  ;  Royal  Asiatic  Society  ; 
Royal   Geographical   Society ;    Bengal  and 
Bombay  Asiatic  Societies,  for  many  years. 
1   Roscoe's  Life  of  Leo.  X. 
1   Idolomania.      London,  1858. 
1   Prof.  Heeren's  Manual  Anc.  Hist.,  1829. 

1  (Edipus  Judaicus.      Sir  W.  Drununond,  1811. 

3  Do.          Anc.  Hist.    Gottingen,  1815-24. 

2  Dr  Davidson's  Canon  of  Bible  and  New  Test. 
1   Keary's  Outlines  Primitive  Belief. 

1  Prof.  Bain's  Mind  and  Body. 

1  Mind  in  Animals.      Professor  Biichner. 

2  Haeckel's  History  of  Creation. 
2  Strauss'  Life  of  Jesus. 

1       Do.      Old  Faith  and  New. 
1    Kuenen's  Prophets  of  Israel. 

7  Colenso's  Pentateuch.     Parts  I.  VII. 

1        Do.        Lects.  on  do.  and  Moabite  Stone. 

1   Musee  Secret  Herculanum  et  Pompee,  Tome  8. 

par  H.  R.  Ain6,  1  872. 
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1    Emp.  Julian's  Arguments  against  Christianity. 
1    Mrs  Gray's  Sculptures  of  Etruria. 
1   Truth  of  Christianity.      H.  Grotius,  1809. 
1   Origin  of  Mankind.     Sir  M.  Thales,  1677. 

8  Theodore  Parker's  Works. 

1    Canon  Farrar's  Families  of  Languages. 
1    Bishop  Butler's  Analogy. 

1  History    of    Apostles'    Creeds,    1711.      Lord 

Chancellor  King? 

2  History  of  Missions.     Rev.  W.  Brown,  1854. 
1   Religions  of  World,by  Missionary  Societies,  1 876. 
1   Religious  Ceremonies  of  all  Nations.     Rev.  J. 

Nightingale,  1-821. 

6  Mosheim's  Ecclesiastical  History. 

1  W.  E.  Gladstone's  Juventus  Mundi. 
1  Do.  Homeric  Synchronisms. 

1  Horae  Hellenics).      Professor  J.  S.  Blackie. 

1  Sabean  Researches.     Landseer,  1823. 

1  Court  of  Gentiles.     Gall,  Oxon.,  1669. 

1  Sellon's  Hindu  Annotations. 

1  Milner's  Church  History. 

1  Compar.  View  Indian  Monuments.    Lon.,  1785. 
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2  Massey's  Book  of  Beginnings,  1881. 

1  K.  S.  Maquoid,  Through  Brittany. 

2  Bastian's  The  Beginnings  of  Life. 

4  Dr  R.  Cudworth's  Intellectual  System,  1820. 

1   Freemasonry,  Mysteries  of.      J.  Fellows,  1871. 


IT  being  now  several  years  since  the  first  part  of  these  volumes  was  written,  the 
author  craves  the  pardon  of  those  who  put  their  names  down  for  copies  in  response 
to  a  prospectus  of  1876  which  he  issued  on  his  intended  return  to  duty  in  the 
East.  The  work  then  contemplated  was  by  no  means  so  large  or  serious  an  under 
taking  as  the  present,  and  it  fell  more  easily  from  the  author's  hand  as  the  every 
day  thoughts  and  observations  of  Indian  life  on  the  living  faiths  around  him.  But  on 
retirement  from  Her  Majesty's  service  in  1877,  it  seemed  advisable  to  halt,  and  read 
up  further  matter  for  which  hitherto  there  had  neither  been  opportunity  in  the  way  of 
ancient  literature,  nor  time,  from  the  exigencies  of  heavy  executive  and  administrative 
work.  He  had  long  been  anxious  to  take  up  more  thoroughly  and  systematically  the 
earliest  developments  of  Western  faiths  as  founded  on  and  closely  interlaced  with,  all 
the  oldest  as  well  as  modern  religions  of  Central  and  Eastern  Asia.  Indeed,  the  strik 
ing  parallelisms  had  always  been  an  engrossing  study  especially  during  every  visit  to 
Europe,  and  had  led  up  gradually  to  the  formation  of  divers  synchronous  charts  of 
all  Eeligions  or  Faith-ideas,  and  to  various  Synoptical  tables,  such  as  that  contained 
in  Appendix  IV.  of  Vol.  II.,  besides  having  entailed  a  good  deal  of  correspondence  in 
Indian  Journals.  The  writer  fortunately  has  had  not  only  leisure  to  study  most  of 
what  has  been  written  regarding  the  ancient  ruins,  shrines  or  places  sacred  in  the 
religious  and  legendary  histories  of  Egypt,  Western  Asia  and  Europe,  but  had  person 
ally  inspected  these  from  the  upper  Nile  to  over  most  part  of  Syria  ;  portions  of  Asia 
Minor,  Turkey,  Greece,  Italy,  Spain,  and  particularly  the  Reltik  remains  of  the  West ; 
while  of  the  East  and  its  faiths,  especially  India  and  its  surroundings,  he  felt  able  to 
speak  with  the  authority  and  confidence  which  is  begotten  by  living  among  the  people, 
talking  several  of  their  languages,  and  closely  studying  their  faiths,  rites  and  customs 
during  the  third  part  of  a  century.  It  has  been  urged  upon  the  author  that  even  at  the 
risk  of  being  thought  obtrusive  he  should  here  inform  his  readers  of  these  and  some 
other  little  matters  of  personal  history,  necessary  for  them  to  understand  the  circum 
stances  which  have  directed  his  studies  and  given  him  a  certain  confidence  in  pursuing 
them.  From  these  it  will  be  seen  that  he  has  enjoyed  as  favourable  opportunities  of 

xiv  Preface. 

acquiring  a  practical  knowledge  of  all  the  faiths  of  India  and  its  circumjacent 
nationalities,  as  of  the  sects  in  his  own  country. 

It  is  now  nearly  forty  years  since  the  author  began  to  study  the  religions  and 
languages  of  India,  and  he  was  led  to  do  so  in  days  when  the  latter  was  not  compul 
sory,  from  a  fervent  belief  in  his  own  faith,  and  a  sincere  desire  to  save  "the  lost." 
He  approached  the  vast  subject — how  vast  will  be  seen  in  page  290  of  \7ol.  II. — with 
all  the  usual  zeal  and  no  doubt  dogmatism,  which  generally  distinguishes  those  who 
are  not  only  entirely  ignorant  of  the  old  religions  they  so  valiantly  attempt  to  over 
throw,  but  who  know  very  little  even. about  the  foundations  of  the  one  they  seek  to 
propagate.  Long  years  of  careful  study  and  many  well  fought  encounters  with  the 
able  adversaries  of  current  creeds,  had  however,  the  usual  effect  when  one  determines 
to  know  and  accept  all  truth,  come  from  whatever  book,  shrine  or  priest  it  may.  He 
found  it  impossible  to  walk  like  so  many  of  his  good  comrades,  with  neither  eyes  nor 
ears  for  the  ancient  faiths  around  him,  and  truly  there  is  nothing  gained  by  shutting 
out  facts,  truths  or  comparisons  however  uncomfortable.  Better  far  to  know  the  real 
foundations  of  every  story,  doctrine  and  rite — the  root  from  whence  sprang  every 
emblem,  God  or  divine  idea,  than  to  believe  implicitly  the  ancient  writings  of  more 
or  less  interested  persons. 

The  first  scene's  of  the  author's  study  on  entering  the  Army  had  been  Madras, 
Central  India,  the  Dekan,  and  then  the  high  and  holy  places  of  the  Western 
Ghats  of  the  Bombay  Presidency,1  from  whence  above  2000  years  ago  had  issued 
Budhists  and  Jains,  pushing  before  them  Aryan,  and  vastly  ancient  Turanian  Nature 
worshipers.  Afterwards  he  was  called  to  civil  duties  on  and  around  the  Mysore  High 
lands,  where  he  gazed  with  amazement  on  the  remains  perchance  of  the  "  River  drift " 
or  "  Cave  man,"  and  on  Druid-like  shrines,  surpassing  far  those  of  his  native  land. 

A  somewhat  roving  and  extensive  Engineering  charge  followed,  which  afforded 
ample  opportunity  for  becoming  intimately  acquainted  with  all  Southern  India,  and 
which  necessitated  a  systematic  study  of  its  languages.  A  close  acquaintance  was 
thus  attained  with  the  Aryan,  Dravidian,  and  especially  with  the  ruder  non-Aryan 
populations,  their  shrines,  deities,  symbolisms,  rites,  traditions  and  legends.  But  it  is 
not  easy  to  search  out  many  of  the  more  ancient  of  these,  and  to  collect  or  fathom, 
when  found,  the  dim  pre-historic  faith-legends  of  the  non-Aryan  and  Dravidian  of 
the  jangles.  Many  of  the  most  sacred  shrines,  and  revered  but  shrineless  spots,  lie 
far  from  the  busy,  haunts  of  Aryan  life,  on  high  and  all  but  inaccessible  mountains  or 

1  The  reader  will  better  understand  the  following  if  he  will  keep  before  him  the  Map  of  Indi.-i 
at  end.  of  Vol.  II. 

Preface.  xv 

cliffs,  beside  secret  caves  or  in  vales  where,  by  a  dark  pool,  sacred  tree  or  holy  well, 
there  is  often  only  found  a  solitary  pious  man,  but  one  mayhap  full  of  the  tales  and 
traditions  of  a  faith  which,  in  his  opinion,  is  passing  or  has  passed  away.  He  who 
rests  but  for  a  day  or  two  at  such  Indian  shrines,  and  knows  merely  Brahmanas  and 
Puranas,  or  even  Vedas,  will  hear  only  of  those  higher  gods.  Siva  will  be  the  peaked 
mountain  or  dark  stream,  and  Vishnu  or  Lakshmi  the  ovicular  cliff  or  mound  or  deep 
gorge  ;  but  these  places  had  gods  and  rites  and  symbolisms  before  the  earliest  deities 
of  any  literature  were  known,  and  to  such  points  the  careful  student  must  address 
himself  if  he  would  learn  the  roots  of  faiths,  and  from  whom  Puranik  or  Vedik  gods 
sprang.  This  requires  some  experience,  much  study  and  time,  and  the  writer  looks 
back  with  much  pleasure  to  the  many  enjoyable  holidays  he  often  spent,  encamped 
beside  strange  shrines  or  sacred  groves,  even  when  he  could  not  get  within  them,  for  many 
have  laws  forbidding  "the  unclean"  to  approach.  By  selecting,  however,  a  suitable  time, 
and  showing  a  respectful  and  real  interest  in  the  faith  and  its  god- ideas,  and  having  a 
practical  acquaintance  with  its  literature  and  the  vernacular  languages,  one  can  often 
acquire  much  substantial  knowledge,  as  well  as  hints  of  an  important  kind,  such  as 
no  writings  on  Eastern  faiths  impart.  Priests  and  devotees  also  readily  return  visits, 
and  thus  many  evenings  of  friendly  talk  can  be  arranged,  when  all  the  past  and 
present  faiths  of  the  land  can  be  freely  discussed.  Tn  these  matters  there  is  often  an 
unspoken  meaning,  born  of  true  sympathy,  which  can  only  spring  from  such  friendly 
intercourse,  when  this  is  continued  long  enough,  and  whilst  priests  and  people  are 
engaged  in  the  daily  round  of  their  religious  rites  and  duties.  And  this  knowledge 
will  be  all  the  more  complete,  if  we  know  the  people  administratively  and  socially. 
It  will  utterly  fail  .if  a  breath  of  proselytizing  feeling  is  thought  to  exist,  or  even  if  we 
cannot  show  that  we  fully  appreciate  the  pious  yearnings  of  the  worshipers. 
If  we  can  do  this,  and  what  earnest  thoughtful  man  cannot  so  sympathize  with  the 
longings  of  his  fellows  as  they  pass  through  their  various  stages  of  civilization  ?  then 
we  can  read  as  it  were  between  the  lines,  and  find  a  clue  to  many  divine  ideas, 
symbolisms,  rites  and  words  which  no  writings  have  yet  made  clear;  but  the  problems 
must  be  read  backwards  as  described  at  page  409,  and  from  the  living  Religions — well 
and  practically  grasped — :we  must  try  to  get  at  the  original  inceptions  and  radical 
emblems  now  separated  from  us  by  a  vast  mental  chasm. 

Faiths  are  linked  together  by  symbolisms  and  a  nomenclature  which  has  proved 
all  but  indestructible  as  this  work  will  abundantly  show,  and  these  the  more  religious 
and  advanced  thinkers  seized  from  the  rudest  nature  worshipers,  and  used  as  pious 

xvi  Preface. 

devices  to  render  apparent  to  the  multitude,  what  they  longed  to  discern  of  the  unseen 
and  the  limitless.  So  early  Christians  put  crosses  on  the  ancient  stones,  and  built 
their  churches  on  sites  endeared  to  Pagans  by  the  worship  of  ages,  just  as  Hindus  had 
before  acted  in  regard  to  Budhists,  and  they  to  Vedantists,  and  so  on  for  untold  time. 
The  hallowed  associations  connected  with  old  names  and  emblems,  rites  and  fete  days, 
were  always  esteemed  by  reformers  as  the  best  means  of  furthering  their  schemes — 
usually  the  best  interests  of  their  fellows.  It  was  found  that  the  revered  name  and 
symbol  best  comforted  the  miserable,  gave  strength  to  the  ignorant,  and  aided  greatly 
him  who  was  striving  to  associate  himself  with  the  divine  ;  and  this  we  call  "  Keligion." 
Before  leaving  Southern  India,  the  writer  had  many  opportunities  of  seeing  and 
studying  the  faiths  and  shrines  of  all  the  Eastern  coast  of  India  from  Tamulian 
Madras  to  the  northern  limits  of  that  ancient  Andhra  nation  now  and  for  a  millenium 
known  only  as  the  Telagu,  Telingana  or  country  of  the  Tri-Lingas.  And  no  region  is 
more  interesting,  whether  we  consider  the  intense  energy  of  the  people  so  long  mani 
fested  in  colonization  or  their  very  ancient  lineage  and  far  northern  possessions.  It 
was  Audhras  in  their  ancient  Turano-Kusite  or  Meru-opian  stage,  who  stemmed  the 
advancement  of  Sanskrit- Aryans  at  the  northern  fortress  of  Kal-linga ;  for  this  (our 
Kalinjar)  long  looked  down  watchfully  upon  the  new  Aryan  possessions — once  probably 
theirs,  in  the  valley  of  the  Jamuna  or  Jumna,  which  river  was  also  more  anciently  known 
as  the  Kal-linga — a  significant  name  which  the  reader  has  yet  to  become  familiar  with.1 
The  Andhras  would  then  as  now  truly  merit  the  Vedik  designation 2  of  "  Followers  of 
Sisna-Deva,"  the  Priapian  or  Lingam  God,  for  they  claimed  his  Triune  sway  from  three 
great  shrines  embracing  the  whole  breadth  and  half  the  length  of  all  India.  When  they 
lost  control  of  these  shrines  they  substituted  others,  and  in  lieu  of  Northern  and  much  of 
Southern  India  expended  their  surplus  energies  in  colonizing  trans-oceanik  countries. 
It  was  they  and  theirs  who  founded  the  old  Talain,  Taliny  or  Tra-ling  Kingdom  of 
Banna,  and  who  principally  pressed  their  Indian  civilization,  arts,  faiths  and  symbolisms 
on  Barma,  Siam  and  Kambodia,  and,  by  -the  help  of  their  Tamil  brethren,  on  all  the 
Indian  Archipelago.  To  trace  their  age  and  probable  deeds  we  must  dig  even  below 
those  wondrous  old  temples  buried  in  the  primeval  forests  of  Siam,  Kambodia,  Java, 
Bali,  &c.,3  and  learn  how  they  but  followed  here  in  the  footsteps  of  those  far 

1  Of.    Wilson's    Vishnu   Vurana,  Hall's  ed.,  iv.  203.     Pliny's  Nat.  Hist.,  vi.   22,  and  our  vol.  ii. 

2  Riy  Veda,  vii."25,  5  ;  x.  99,  3,  en  which  see  Dr  Muir's  tians.  Texts. 

3  Cf.  vol.  i.  pp.  113-117,  and  other  parts. 

Preface.  xvii 

more  ancient  Turano-Bali  or  Baal  worshipers,  who  had  also  left  their  South  Indian  and 
Ceylonese  homes — by  no  means  their  cradle — to  bear  in  mythologic  times  a  wondrous 
civilization  into  Celebes  and  Sunda  groups,  nay  onwards  into  Oceana  and  the  Amerikas. 

War,  followed  by  civil  duties,  called  the  writer  to  this  Eastern  side  of  the  Indian 
Ocean,  where,  during  nearly  seven  years,  he  had  ample  opportunity  of  practically 
acquainting  himself  with  the  purest  Budhism  that  anywhere  exists  nationally. 
Here  also  he  had  to  study  his  first  Turanian  language,  the  character  of  which  was, 
however,  found  to  be  a  close  approximation  to  that  with  which  he  had  been  so 
familiar  in  Telingana.  All  trans-Indian  languages  have  here  borrowed,  though  the 
Lingam  worshipers  had  long  ago  been  driven  away  except  from  the  seaports — 
hateful  no  doubt  from  their  social  and  comparatively  recent  caste  pretensions — yet 
lower  Barma  still  markedly  showed  their  ancient  influence. 

The  faith  of  the  great  Prophet  of  Budha-Gaya  had  long  been  one,  the  practices  of 
which  the  writer  had  anxiously  desired  to  study,  for  it  crosses  the  student's  path  in  all 
research  concerning  Hinduism  or  the  Neo-Brahmanism  which  it  had  developed,  as  well 
as  that  earlier  Hermaik  and  then  Vedik  Brahmanism  from  which  it  had  sprung  as  a 
reforming  and  conquering  faith.  It  seemed  a  vain  hope  to  thoroughly  master  Budhism 
without  a  personal  acquaintance  with  it  as  a  living  faith,  and  here — throughout 
Barma,  Siam  and  their  coasts — it  was  working  under  numerous  and  much  respected 
leaders ;  perhaps  the  least  worldly  of  priesthoods,  with  a  fervor  and  purity  far 
beyond  that  manifested  by  the  vastly  more  numerous  Budhists  of  China  and 
Japan.  The  Barmese  had  indeed  looked  upon  Ceylon  as  a  sort  of  Myamu,  Eden  or 
Paradise,  where  was  concentrated  all  that  they  held  lovely  and  pure  in  faith — 
"a  divine  gem,". as  they  said,  "in  a  wicked  world;"  but  being  long  an  appanage 
of  idolatrous  India  and  then  of  "  white  Kalds  who  neither  fear  gods  nor  devils,"  it 
had  then  (thirty  years  ago)  fallen  from  its  lofty  pedestal,  and  the  high  priests  of  the 
Irawady  were  learning  to  trust  to  themselves  and  seek  for  no  aid  from  India  beyond 
an  occasional  relic  of  their  Master. 

From  the  straits  of  Malaka  to  the  northern  capital  of  the  Barmese  Monarch,  and 
from  the  forest-clad  shores  of  Arakan  and  the  hills  where  dwell  the  wild  dark  Khyens, 
to  over  many  of  the  mountains  of  the  red  Karen  and  of  the  little  known  Shan  tribes, 
all  of  whom  are  practically  Nature  and  Nat  or  Fetish  worshipers,  the  writer  sought 
a  knowledge  of  present  and  past  faiths.  Almost  every  shrine  and  sacred  mountain 
spot  within  or  near  our  own  borders  was  visited,  and  priests  and  people  freely  dwelt 
amongst  as  in  their  Khyoungs  and  Ziyats,  where  the  most  friendly  intercourse 

xviii  Preface. 

could  be  long  continued,  and  all  the  faiths  and  legends,  past  and  present,  freely 

A  year  and  more  was  then  spent  in  Eastern  Bengal  where,  as  Superintending 
Engineer  of  a  wide  circle,  extending  all  round  Calcutta  and  even  east  to  Daka, 
throughout  the  Sunderbans  and  downwards  towards  Orisa — long  a  sacred  land  of 
Budhists,  and  now  not  less  so  of  Hindus — the  writer  had  a  prolific  field  for  all 
religious  and  archeological  studies. 

From  Calcutta  he  was  moved  into  Northern  and  Eastern  Bengal,  where  during 
a  year  or  two  he  was  able  to  visit  most  of  the  wild  hilly  retreats  of  the  Sontalis, 
Mimds,  Kols,  etc. — strange  and  ever  interesting  "non-Aryan  aborigines,"  whom  Aryan 
and  Dravidian  have  alike  pushed  aside  into  almost  impregnable  fastnesses.  Much 
will  be  found  in  the  present  and  future  volumes  regarding  these  old  persistent  nature 
worshipers,  as  well  as  the  inhabitants  of  the  Tibetan  highlands,  to  the  borders  of 
which,  at  Darjelmg,  some  8000  feet  high,  the  author's  charge  extended.  But 
nothing  could  exceed  in  interest  the  whole  Gangetic  valley  around  his  head 
quarters.  These  Provinces  of  Bihar  and  Baniires  were  the  nucleus  of  the  great 
Magadha  Empire,  where  300  years  B.C.  Megasthenes  the  Greek  wrote  what  enables  us 
to  check  the  misty  chronology  of  ancient  Indian  history.  Here  the-  archeologist  can 
study  the  half-mythical  stories  of  the  great  cities  of  Kiluoj,  Kasi,  etc.,  on  his  west, 
and  to  the  eastward  seek  for  Gour  and  other  capitals  of  early  Bengal  amid  the 
swamps  and  jungles  of  the  Ganges.  But  to  the  student  of  Eeligions  all  around  is 
classic  ground,,  and  a  land  on  which  one-third  of  the  human  race  still  look  with 
affectionate  reverence.  In  the  north,  by  the  little  lake  of  Kapila  Vasta,  not  far  from 
Ayodhya,  the  holy  capital  of  Kama  and  Seta,  "the  Great  Teacher"  was  born,  and  from 
there  he  fled  as  a  solitary  pious  man  to  give  his  great  lessons  to  half  of  Asia.  Here 
too  is  the  sacred  mound  and  stupa  of  Vaisali,  where  he  had  often  preached  and  spent 
thoughtful  days  with  his  favourite  disciple  Ananda ;  and  beyond  it,  to  the  far  north, 
may  be  seen  the  Devisthan — suitable  name  for  another  great  stupa — where  by  Kosia- 
nagara  he  rested  from  his  labors  and  embraced  Nirvana. 

Near  the  southern  water-sheds  of  the  great  river  lie  the  sacred  hills  of  Rajagriha, 
and  the  forests  where,  under  an  ever  holy  Bodh  tree,  the  pious  ascetik  had  so  long- 
pondered  over  all  the  miseries  and  unsatisfactoriness  of  life.  Here  for  seven  years  he 
had  thought  only  of  past  faiths  and  his  own  salvation,  but  from  here  also  he  had 
roused  himself  above  selfish  aims  and  determined  to  be  "up  and  doing,"  and  dedicate 
the  rest  of  his  life  to  advance  the  happiness  and  best  interests  of  humanity.  It  was 

Preface.  xix 

from  this  retreat  that  he  passed  into  the  busy  life  of  the  world  in  Bilnares ;  but  his 
disciples  then  forsook  him  and  fled.  At  Nalanda  he  planted  his  first  woodland  colleges, 
from  which  issued  teachers  who  changed  the  whole  face  of  Indian  life,  and  swept  away 
an  effete  faith  which  had  become  an  oppressive  scourge  to  all  ranks  and  conditions 
except  the  pampered  priestly  castes.  Here  too  lay  the  early  scenes  of  that  mongrel 
Budhism  which  has  in  India  outlived  Sakya  Muni's  in  the  Jainas  of  Gujerat  and  Malwa. 
But  older  far  than  all  these  may  be  seen  the  ancient  sites  of  the  aboriginal  Nature  wor 
shipers,  as  at  Deogarh,  Parasu-Kama's  mountain,  and  at  no  doubt  many  another,  sacred 
to  more  primitive  divine-ideas  than  this  Hindu  Avatar  and  Jaina  saint,  aye,  even  more 
ancient  than  Vedik  gods,  if  one  had  only  the  necessary  knowledge  and  leisure  for 
such  researches. 

From  these  provinces  the  author  was  transferred  to  the  north-west — "  Agra  and 
Central  India,"  as  the  vast  and  wild  districts  are  called  which  stretch  from  the  fertile 
plains  of  the  Jamuna  over  all  the  lands  watered  by  its  great  tributaries  the  Chambul, 
Sind,  etc.,  which  rise  amidst  the  Aravalis  and  the  Vindhyas.  Here  indeed  he  who 
desires  to  study  the  most  ancient  histories,  mythologies  and  faiths,  has  a  wide 
and  intensely  interesting  field  before  him,  which  would  require  a  volume  to  give  any 
clear  conception  of.  To  the  north,  on  the  Jamuna  or  mythik  Kal-linga,  lie  all  the 
scenes  of  the  youthful  Krishna's  life,  including  those  of  his  amorous  follies,  which 
fanciful  solo-phalik  worshipers  have  woven  around  him  as  their  Apollo.  Further 
north  are  the  fields  where  in  mature  life  he  warred  with  gods  and  Titans  and  all 
those  Herakleidse  of  ancient  India  as  depicted  and  immortalized  in  the  great  epik 
of  the  Mahabharata.  Everywhere  also  the  old  Nature  faiths  are  vigorous,  though  on 
the  Jamna  usually  hidden  under  a  thin  disguise  of  Hinduism ;  but  it  has  no  such 
covering  southwards  amidst  the  wilds  of  Central  India  and  Bundelkand.  There  we 
find  Druid-like  shrines  of  all  kinds ;  ancient  peoples  worshiping  stones  and  divers 
other  objects  symbolical  of  nature's  fertile  agencies,  and  keeping  high  festivals  similar 
to  the  Phallaphoria  of  Egypt  and  of  Greece. 

After  some  four  years  spent  in  developing  Public  Works  throughout  these  pro 
vinces,  the  writer  was  transferred  on  similar  duty  to  Eajputana,  where  the  seat  of 
the  Government  is  on  -  the  sacred  and  beautiful  mountain  of  Abu,  the  ancient  Ara- 
Budha.  Here  Brahman  and  Budhist  had  often  striven  for  mastery,  and  from  thence 
had  many  of  their  Reformers  gone  forth  to  redeem  India ;  but  now  Abu  is  only  the 
timeous  resort  of  pious  Hindus  and  Jains  and,  at  certain  seasons,  of  pilgrims  who 
come  to  worship  at  its  exquisitely  carved  and  famous  Jaina  temples  or  at  very 

xx  Preface. 

sacred  shrines  and  wild  rocky  spots,  where  Aryan  and  non- Aryan,  Hindu  and 
aborigine,  alike  agree  that  Maha-Deva  still  manifests  himself  to  the  devout  believer. 
In  spite  of  Jain  and  Vishnuite,  Siva  is  "  The  Lord  "  of  this  "  Holy  mountain,"  and 
here  it  was,  say  some,  that  he  appeared  in  his  earliest  androgynous  form  as  the 
Ardhanar-Isvara  or  half-man  and  half-woman.1 

In  Eajputana,  that  is  from  near  Agra  and  Delhi  to  the  borders  of  the  Bombay 
Presidency,  from  the  dreary  sandy  dunes  of  the  "West  to  over  all  the  rugged  denies 
and  plains  in  and  about  the  Aravalis  in  the  East,  the  writer  found  new  fields  of  ever 
increasing  interest.  Throughout  the  desert  oases  were  shrines  like  the  Amonium  in 
the  Libyan  desert,  and  everywhere  a  plethora  of  vastly  ancient  and  holy  places 
untouched  by  modern  civilization,  where  the  most  primitive  Nature  worship  absorbed 
the  whole  life  and  thoughts  of  numerous  and  widely  different  races.  Here,  indeed, 
the  intelligent  inquirer  could  often  see  the  rude  base  on  which  many  of  the 
elaborate  rites,  symbolisms  and  even  doctrines  of  faiths  rest ;  for  here  were  the 
numerous  early  growths  all  in  active  and  serious  operation.  Beside  the  naked  rites 
and  strong  faith  of  the  uncultured  non-Aryan,  stood  the  refined  and  gentle  worship  of 
all  sects  of  Jainism,  as  well  as  old  and  neo-Briihmanism,  down  to  that  recent  and 
voluptuous  form  of  Hinduism — the  degenerate  child  of  Krislma'ism — which  yet 
arrogantly  professes  'to  follow  the  teaching  of  the  pious  and  pure  minded  Vcallabha- 
Charya.  Here  one  could  constantly  observe  the  outward,  and  occasionally  much  of  the 
inward  life  of  some  impure  dens — the  shrines  of  certain  leading  Gosains  or  "  Maha 
Rajas  "  as  these  great  sensualists  are  popularly  called,  and  realize  by  comparison  the 
innocent  simplicity  of  the  ancient  faiths  of  the  rudest  worshipers  of  Fertility. 

From  Western  India  the  writer  was  transferred  to  Lucknow  where,  as  Chief 
Engineer  of  Oudh — that  ancient  classic  land  of  Ayodhya— he  had  great  facilities  for  a 
further  detailed  study  of  the  earliest  Aryan  faiths;  for  in  this  part  of  India  lie  most 
of  the  scenes  so  beautifully  depicted  in  the  stirring  religious  epiks  of  the  Ramayana 
and  Mahabharata.  Ayodhya  has  been  called  "the  cradle  alike  of  Hindus,  Budhists  and 
Jains/'  though  it  has  never  forsaken  its  old  love — Nature  worship ;  nay,  this  seems  to 
have  even  spread  among  the  dense  masses  who  throng  this  "  garden  of  India  "  to  the 
extent  of  nearly  500  per  square  mile.  Yet  Ayodhya  was  Rama's  capital  when  Greeks 
were  fighting  in  the  Troika,  or  say  3000  years  ago,  and  has  ever  since  been  esteemed 
the  "Gate  of  Heaven  and  centre  of  the  Earth."  By  its  waters — "the  Holy  Sarju  " 
sprung  from  '•'  the  tears  of  love  shed  by  The  Supreme  "  upon  its  beloved  children— 
1  t'f.  Indexes  and  PI.  xiv.  Vol.  II.  p.  374. 

Preface.  xxi 

did  Rama,  great  Vishnu's  seventh  incarnated  form,  pass  his  youth  and  later  days,  for, 
on  reaching  manhood,  he  had  to  forsake  the  city  "  built  on  the  chariot  wheel "  of  his 
God,  according  to  the  harsh  command  of  his  father — the  reigning  solar  monarch. 
When  he  died,  though  entreated  to  return,  Rama  refused,  in  order  that  he  might 
fulfil  that  father's  vow ;  but  after  a  great  war  in  which  the  solar  arms  and  faith  were 
carried  to  the  most  southern  extremities  of  India,  he  revisited  Ayodhya,  and  there 
ruled,  beloved  by  all  men,  till  in  a  ripe  age  he  descended  into  the  waters  of  the  Sarju, 
and  was  received  up  into  heaven  amid  the  acclamations  of  celestial  hosts  and 
the  tears  of  his  people.  By  that  spot  where  the  waters  were  cleft  apart,  is  a  thrice 
holy  shrine  and  sweet  shady  grove,  where  the  writer  has  sat  and  listened  to  the 
oft-told  tales  of  the  Ramayana,  and  the  many  virtues  of  one  confessedly  esteemed  by 
all  sects  as  one  of  the  purest,  most  just  and  gentle  of  Prophets.  Some  600  years 
probably  after  that  event,  a  higher  class  of  mind  and  a  greater  incarnation  of  "  The 
Supreme" — Budha  the  ninth — began  to  preach  his  gospel  of  loving  kindness  and 
honest  work,  in  the  adjoining  capital  of  Sravasti,  and  there  were  founded  monas 
teries  which  sent  forth  light  and  learning,  and  cast  out  many  corruptions  which  had 
taken  place  in  Rama's  faith. 

These  volumes  will  have  greatly  to  do  with  all  the  aforesaid  matters.  Mythologies 
especially  require  much  sifting,  for  they  abound  in  history  as  well  as  allegory,  though  not 
usually  very  obscure  to  one  familiar  with  the  country,  its  people  and  literature. 
Rama  with  his  ploughshare,  losing  and  winning  back  the  immaculate  Seta,  "the 
field  furrow  "  or  fields  of  India,  is  not  very  dark,  but  we  must  read  further,  for  Indian 
poets  were  fond  of  two  meanings  to  one  tale,  and  here  there  is  also  a  religious  history 
and  an  esoteric  and  exoteric  god.  The  Eastern  student  ought  not,  however,  to  experi 
ence  those  difficulties  which  seem  to  so  perplex  the  too  practical  European  when  he 
enters  upon  the  study  of  Eastern  religions,  and  the  modes,  poetical  and  mythological, 
by  which  the  Indian  teaches  faith  and  history.  Knowing  his  adopted  land  well,  the 
Eastern  does  not  require  recondite  volumes  to  explain  "  Dionysiak  Myths  "  or  "  Solar 
theories,"  as  the  old  faiths  are  now  called  in  the  West.  He  sees  these  pervading  the 
tales  and  epiks  of  East  and  West  alike,  just  as  Yahvism  or  Yahu-ism  pervades  the 
Scriptures  of  Jews  or  Yahus — that  ever  familiar  and  expressive  faith-term  by  which 
alone  Asia  knows  the  "  Yahudean  "  race.  He  sees  that  Hektors,  Priams  and  their  fields 
of  fame  are  at  once  mythical  and  religious,  that  though  not  true  history  they  have  yet  an 
historical  base,  and  further,  that  such  sacred  epiks  are  virtually  to  the  mass  of  the  people 
i.  d 

xxii  Preface. 

what  Vedas  and  Brahmanas  are  to  the  ecclesiastics.  Epiks  soon  assume  their  true 
dimensions  when  we  study  them  in  presence  of  the  people  and  the  living  faiths 
which  have  grown  out  of  them.  He,  of  course,  who  has  been  cheated  into 
believing  too  much,  is  prone  to  rush  into  the  opposite  extreme,  and  this  is 
unfortunately  true  of  some  European  scholars  whose  school-day-dreamland  of  Troy 
and  its  heroes  has  been  too  rudely  dissipated  by  maturer  knowledge.  They  are 
then  apt  to  surpass  their  former  state  of  complete  credulity  by  averring  that  there  is  not 
in  all  these  old  writings  even  a  residuum  of  truth,  whilst  the  converse  might  almost  be 
stated  ;  for  there  are  always  elements  of  genuine  history  in  all  the  narratives  of 
those  startling  epochs  of  a  race  which  have  thus  called  forth  the  true  poet  or  even 
fanatical  teacher. 

It  has  thus  been  rightly  urged  that  a  national  myth  has  always  a  natural  cause  and 
is  not  a  mere  invention ;  that  many  myths  are  history  not  yet  developed  and,  when 
ponderous,  have  some  great  facts  at  their  base.  It  was  at  least  by  such  means  that 
ancient  men  taught  their  fellows,  and  we  must  therefore  no  more  despair  of  finding 
and  elucidating  some  true  points  of  history  in  Indian  epiks  and  other  sacred  writings 
than  in  Western  ones,  nor  any  more  dream  of  casting  them  aside  than  we  would 
the  lists  of  Manetho  or  the  cosmogonies  of  Hebrews  and  Kaldeans  with  all  their  gods 
and  heroes  of  fabulous  ages  and  deeds. 

Let  us  be  grateful  for  the  quasi  histories  of  Jaktan  or  Cahtan,  Abram,  Jacob, 
Moses,  Samson  and  Solomon,  as  well  as  of  Pallas,  Herakles,  Arjuna  and  Krishna, 
though  we  may  not  at  once  discover  in  these  legendary  accounts  any  very  reliable 
history.  Nay,  let  us  go  further,  and  admit  as  portion  of  the  necessary  study  of  man, 
all  his  various  ethereal  beings  or  Sky -gods,  for  these  too  were  thought  to  dwell  in  a 
manner  among  men,  though,  as  a  rule,  they  are  kept  very  distinctly  apart  from 
terrestrial  humanity.  There  is  no  escaping  such  more  or  less  spiritual  verities  as  Anu, 
Hea  and  Bel,  Osiris,  Ea  and  Horus ;  Brahma,  Vishnu  and  Siva ;  the  Ale-im,  Yahue 
and  Adonis,  Zeus  and  all  his  hosts ;  nor  yet  the  feminine  and  neuter  forms  of  these 
rulers  of  the  heavens  and  the  earth. 

Let  it  be  our  aim  then  to  get  below  or  behind  these  well  defined  but  not  really 
primary  potentialities,  and  to  grasp  the  more  radical  forms  and  philological  roots 
which,  whether  of  spiritual  or  material  significance,  are  continually  emerging  from  buried 
palaces,  slumbering,  libraries,  tombs  and  tumuli.  We  hear  them  in  echoes,  more  "or 
less  strong,  and  often  strangely  symbolized  as  Ba,  B'ra,  Ra  ;  Zi,  Ti,  Chi,  Dzi,  and  Je ;  A, 
Ya,  An,  Ab,  Ad,  Os,  Us,  Az,  As,  Ath,  Es,  Ish;  Ar,  Er,  Ir,  II,  El,  Al,  and  Alias  of  mascu- 

Preface.  xxiii 

line,  feminine,  and  neuter  repute.  Some  are  fully  recognised  gods,  and  all  are  or  were 
"  spirits "  or  spiritual,  with  such  meanings  as  "  Ghost,"  "  Life,  "  Being,"  "  Breath," 
&c.,  and  often  of  a  very  humid  and  unsavory  kind,  especially  when  materialized,  which 
they  frequently  become,  as  in  Asu-n,  the  "  Breather,"  "  Life  Giver  or  Patriarch,"  of 
fiery,  solar  or  phalik  form. 

Before  the  "  1  am"  They  were,  and  it  is,  indeed,  a  long  passage  in  the  history 
of  man  to  advance  from  As  to  As-mi,  (Skt.  "  I  am  ")  from  this  "  Breather  or  Giver 
of  Life,"  in  such  simple  concepts  as  the  El  or  Ale-im  Gods  of  Gen.  i.,  to  "I  am 
that  I  am."  Here  was  an  abstract  conception  of  the  ego  and  of  "  being,"  in  lieu  of 
a  simple  El-god  or  the  As,  Ash,  Ath,  Asu,  Ashr,  &c.,  or  those  simple  fiery  creative 
ideas,  which  every  race  of  the  old  world,  but  especially  in  As-i&,  held  to  signify 
"  The  Quickener  of  Nature's  fertile  energies." l  Asu,  the  "  Divine  Breath,"  Asur  and 
Asha,  existed  long  prior  to  Asurias ;  and  Asha,  said  the  Baktrian  Ashites  or  Fire  wor 
shipers,  is  that  by  which  the  world  grows  and  can  alone  live — a  veritable  Es  or  Is, 
as  of  Es-ars  and  Is-varas — a  Logos  which  oft  assumes  decidedly  carnal  attributes. 

Many  scholars  thus  begin  to  see  that  the  roots,  however  now  pronounced  or 
written,  on  which  philology  has  built  such  goodly  structures,  must  be  more  stringently 
analized.  They  have  been  up  to  this  time  for  the  most  part  generally  accepted,  not 
sufficiently  and  radically  investigated.  This  has  now  to  be  done,  and  especially  from  reli 
gious  and  emblematic  points  of  view,  where  they  run  as  so  many  names  do  on  religious 
lines,  and  touch  on  radical  symbols  and  attributes  of  man's  earliest  gods.  Strict  etymo 
logical  foundations  may,  even  in  many  most  important  cases,  be  not  available,  for  roots 
referring  to  divinities  necessarily  run  back  to  periods  before  languages  had  classified, 
that  is,  had  philologically  developed — before  the  parent  tongues  which  we  may  call 
Turanian  had  thrown  off  the  Shemitik  and  Aryan,  a  comparatively  modern  matter. 

Much  new  light — not  quite  unforeseen  in  the  East — has  been  dawning,  promis 
ing  to  connect  these  original  concepts  with  the  favorite  emblems  of  primeval  man  and 
the  rude  scratchings  of  many  lands,  including  what  has  been  termed  the  gross 
literary  forms  used  in  the  ancient  classics  of  China,2  and  some  Egyptian  and 
Hamathite  hieroglyphs.  None  who  have  made  old  faiths,  archaik  Alphabets  or 
Syllabaries,  a  study,  will  be  surprized  at  this.  As  with  us  a  letter  or  word  is  only  the 
sign  of  an  idea,  so  rude  man  represented  his  greatest  or  divine  ideas  in  letters  like  to 
his  favorite  and  best  known  emblems. 

1  Cf.  Vol.  IT.  under  Euach,  Vul  or  Iva  and  Maruts,  as  at  pp.  58,  66,  89,  575,  and  elsewhere. 

2  Cf.  Vol.  II.  p.  533,  and  Lon.  Athen.,  2d  and  9th  Sept.,  on  Yih-Klng. 

xxiv  Preface. 

It  is  undoubtedly  difficult  to  analize  or  trace  tlie  cause  of  the  root  in  Aiyaur 
Shemitik,  or  other  tongues,  but  not  more  so  than  to  get  at  the  base  of  faiths  and 
legends.  We  must  begin  by  ransacking  all  such  historical  or  quasi-historical  reminis 
cences  as  can  be  gleaned  regarding  those  vastly  old  races,  which  for  lack  of  a  better  name 
may  be  termed  Turano-Aithiopes,  Cushites,  Meru-opes,  &c.  These,  upon  leaving 
the  High- Asian  cradle  become  known  to  us  from  many  sources  as  Eru three,  Akads,  Ads, 
Khems,  Hamaths,  Chams  or  Hamites,  Kheta  or  Kutus,  Kuths  or  Cushites,  &c. ;  and 
for  one  hundred  years  back,  divers  archeologists,  historians  and  philologists,  have  told 
us  to  look  mid- Asian- ways  for  such  races,  if  we  would  know  the  sources  of  language, 
art  and  civilization,  as  well  as  of  worship  and  its  symbolisms  in  those  early  Religions 
spoken  of  by  some  of  us  too  arrogantly  as  "  Folk-lore,"  "  Theories,"  or  "  Systems."  To 
the  development  of  these  questions  much  of  this  work  is  necessarily  devoted,  and  at 
page  548  Vol.  II.,  will  be  found,  roughly  but  typographically  tabulated,  the  races, 
tribes  or  communities  which  have  to  be  more  especially  considered. 

It  is  not  in  historic  times  nor  near  to  the  days  of  Vedas  or  any  Bibles  that 
spinning,  weaving,  building  and  mining,  nay,  nor  writing,  sprang  up,  and  especially 
engraving  of  consonantal  'words,1  for  old  as  this  last  art  is,  it  is  clearly  prior  to 
the  times  when  religion,  especially  symbolic  faiths,  arose,  and  when  men  chanted 
hymns  and  prayers  to  well  denned  deities — hymns  which  had  been  handed  down  from 
parent  to  child,  or  priest  to  neophyte  for  doubtless  thousands  of  years  before  being 
crystalized  on  stone  or  papyri. 

We  are  too  prone  like  ancient  Aryans —Greeks  and  Sankritists — to  adopt  their 
egotism  with  their  literature,  ever  thinking  that  what  we  know  most  of,  reveals  or 
at  least  dwarfs  all  things  else,  whereas  we  are  still  only  at  the  threshold  of  real  know 
ledge  in  regard  to  very  ancient  languages,  and  Europe  has  to  unlearn  much  in  regard 
to  faiths.  We  have  too  often  divorced  that  which  the  Gods  have  joined  together, 
and  like  the  old  Aryan,  resented  the  fact  that  the  fair  Gftnga"  whom  he  married  in 
Vedik  days  had  long  been  the  wife  of  him  he  opprobriously  termed  a  Daitya,  thus 
ignoring  the  great  Cusha-Dwipa  civilization2  which  he  had  stepped  into  as  the 
Shemites  had  done  in  the  case  of  the  Gush  or  Kuthite  Akad,  and  the  Greek  in  that 
of  lonians  and  Dorians. 

1  Vowels  "or  breathing  sounds   the   Eastern   did  not  trouble  himself  with  in  early  days,  but  he 
looked  upon  a  broad  a  and  u,  &c.,  as  consonants,  and  noticed  these. 

2  The  Arts,  especially  building,  long  preceded  Aryans  alike  in  India  and  the  West.     See  Vol.  TI. 
p.  467,  <kc.,  and  an  able  article  in  the  Edinburgh  Review  of  October  1882. 

Preface.  xxv 

In  all  these  matters  we  want  more  elbow  room,  and  greater  elasticity  in  our  rules 
and  lines  of  inquiry,  and  full  sympathy  with  those  philologists  who  speak  of  language 
having  "  forty  distinct  mothers,"  and  given  to  "  plurality  rather  than  unity."  Although 
we  are  not  here  concerned  with  philology  per  se,  yet  the  histories  of  religions  and 
mythologies  during  the  written  ages,  must  necessarily  be  sought  for  in  the  leading 
words  in  which  deities,  rites  and  doctrines,  found  expression.  The  further  back  we 
can  trace  a  word,  rite  and  emblem,  the  more  the  primitive  idea  will  appear,  and  if  we 
fail  to  trace  it  far  enough,  we  may  perchance  come  upon  an  age  which  had  for 
gotten  the  primary  significations,  but  which  had  retained  the  emblems  and  rites 
more  or  less  altered,  under  epithets  more  or  less  misleading.  The  Priest,  too,  ever 
crosses  the  path  of  the  enquirer  by  veiling  his  "  mysteries  "  in  strange  names  and 
forms  to  screen  them  from  public  gaze ;  while  fonetik  growth  and  decay  have  all  to  be 
battled  with. 

There  are,  however,  certain  tolerably  recognized  facts  which  the  Philologist 
who  fights  the  battle  of  the  Eoots  must  bear  in  mind ;  as  for  instance  that 
Sanskrit  and  its  Indo-congeners  were,  so  far  as  present  evidence  goes,  unwritten  lan 
guages  till  about  the  fourth  century  B.C.,  so  that  philological  research  (not  so  much 
ours  as  to  the  Eoots  of  faiths  or  God-ideas,)  has  at  once  to  encounter  all  the  difficulties 
of  working  amongst  an  utterly  illiterate  people,  whose  pronunciation  of  words  and  roots 
would  be  as  varied  as  their  provinces,  races,  tribes  and  even  families.  Further,  such 
feeble  light  as  the  Aryan  might  here  possibly  give  us,  is  all  but  extinguished  by  the  roots. 
descending  to  us  orally  for  some  fourteen  hundred  or  more  years,  and  then,  say  our  most 
able  scholars,  becoming  embodied  in  a  foreign  character  belonging  to  a  totally  different 
class  of  languages — one  of  early  Phenician  or  Kutho-Kaldian  parentage.  This  would 
indeed  appear  to  lie  at  the  base  of  all  the  characters  used  in  every  Indo- Aryan  and  non- 
Aryan  Indian  tongue.  If  this  be  so,  and  we  know  that  Greeks  and  Latins  as  well  as 
Shemites  got  their  characters  from  Egyptians  and  Phenicians — those  old  Bennus  or 
Beni-Anaks — it  is  much  as  if  Italian  had  first  been  written  in  Hebrew,  and  then 
gradually  appeared  to  us  in  Greek — the  correct  ancient  pronunciation  of  which,  by 
the  way,  we  are  still  doubtful  of.  Even  -the  strange  radical  character  of  the  Indo- 
Aryan  languages  might  however  have  been  some  sort  of  base  on  which  to  investigate 
our  "  Eoots  ;  "  but  it  too  has  gone !  The  parent  is  seen  only  in  a  few  scattered  letters 
of  existing  Indian  alphabets,  say  some  leading  Indian  scholars,  following  on  the  lines  of 
Professor  Dowson  and  others.1  Nevertheless,  we  may  be  sure  that  the  parental  blood 

1  See  an  Art.  Ind.  Antiq.,  August  1882,  by  the  late  lamented  Dr  Burnell. 

xx  vi  Preface. 

has  had  the  usual  effect,  and  that  a  pre-Shemitik  or  Turano-Kuthite  element  has  here 
been  imported,  just  as  was  the  case  in  Kaldia,  when  the  conquering  Shemites  of  the 
16th  and  17th  centuries  displaced  Turano-Akads,  Sumirs,  &c.,  whom  Diodorus  Siculus 
and  others  rightly  inform  us  were  the  ancient  civilizers  of  Kaldians. 

Thus  then,  the  literature,  faith  and  civilization  of  Turans  formed  the  foundation 
on  which  not  only  Southern  Kaldians  but  Armenian  "  Khaldis,"  Asyrians  and  even 
Baktrian  Aryans — sisters  of  Sanskritists — reared  their  diverse  structures,  which  makes 
our  present  matter  of  Aryan  roots  all  the  more  obscure.  We  can  indeed  decipher  the 
Kaldian  characters  as  written  probably  3000  years  B.C.,  but,  like  the  Egypto-Turanian 
hieroglyphics  which  go  back  about  twice  as  far,  we  are  doubtful  how  to  "pronounce 
them,  even  when  the  meaning  is  clear.  So  that  if  we  have  Aryan  roots  without 
writing,  we  have  Shemitik  and  Turanian  ones  without  any  certain  sound ! 

It  becomes  us  therefore  to  be  very  guarded  in  classifying  any  roots  as  purely  of 
this  or  that  tongue,  and  doubly  so  when  we  are  doubtful  as  to  what  class  an  ancient 
race  belonged.  The  Egyptian  of  Grecian  days  may  possibly  have  been  Shemitik  like 
the  later  Sabeans  of  Yemen  and  Babylonia,  but  who  can,  with  any  certainty,  classify  the 
tongue  of  the  builders  of  the 'Pyramids,  and  therefore  of  those  earliest  radical  signs  and 
sounds  in  which  the  first  worshiper  embodied  his  crude  religious  "ideas  or  divine 
names  ? *  This  would  be  to  draw  too  tightly  those  clearly  laid  down  lines  or  laws  of 
philology  which  we  all  acknowledge  as  undoubtedly  putting  sharply  apart  the  whole 
structure  of  Aryan  and  Shemitik  language  in  their  well  defined  formative  and  written 
ages,  or  in  the  times  immediately  preceding  these. 

In  this  work  where  the  search  is  after  ancient  ideas — the  Roots  of  Faiths — we  are 
not  so  hampered.  Philology  is  only  one  of  many  aids  towards  the  unravelling  of  a 
much  tangled  mass.  The  arguments  and  conclusions  which  these  researches  point 
to  have  usually  a  sufficient  base,  when  the  same  attributes  are  seen  in  the  most 
primitive  deities  and  their  radical  terms  or  signs,  and  though  appearing  amidst 
widely  separate  peoples,  as  in  the  Aryan  Dionysos,  the  Hebrew  Yahud  Nisi,  and 
Asyrian  Dian  Nisi ;  in  the  Akadian  Zi  or  "  Spirit,"  his  Sky  God  Zi-Anu,  and  the  Ti 
and  Thi-an  of  the  far  east,  and  Zeus  of  the  far  west.  These  similar  potentialities  are 
facts  sufficient  for  our  present  purposes,  whatever  may  be  the  ability  of  the  philologist, 
building  on  modern  writing  ages,  to  reconcile  the  lettered  changes  ;  not  these  alone  nor 

1  Of.  Vol.  IT.  p.  396,  and  note,  that  Professor  Tiele  declines  in  his  late  History  of  Egyptian  lieli- 
yions  to  call  Egyptians  Shemites,  following  in  this  respect  very  many  others. 

Preface.  xxvii 

yet  sound,  but  attributes,  is  what  the  searcher  after  faiths  has  largely,  but  by  no 
means  altogether,  to  do  with.  Spellings  and  present  articulations  are  too  modern  for 
those  remote  and  all  but  dead  "First  Causes."1  Etymology  is  not  likely  to  help  us 
in  recognizing  Herakles  in  Bala-Kama  or  Samson ;  Apollo  or  Ab-Elo  in  Krishna, 
or  a  Baal  in  Elohe,  Alue  or  Yahud,  although  these  last  interchanged  during  early 
Hebrew  thought  and  even  in  our  Bible  translations.  We  therefore  proceed  on  other 
and  divers  lines. 

It  will  be  shown  that  Turanian  races  ruled  for  untold  ages  in  and  around  the 
acknowledged  cradle  of  mankind,  as  well  as  over  most  of  our  planet,  starting  civiliza 
tions,  mythologies,  faiths  and  arts,  before  the  national  classification  of  languages,  so  that 
from  the  central  home  would  radiate  the  radical  base  of  most  things  which  we  find 
at  the  dawn  of  histories.  This  base,  geographical  and  other,  is  not  a  point  easily 
approached,  and  we  must  not  therefore  attempt  to  throw  our  philological  bonds  over 
it,  and  deny  that  the  prominent  and  ever  present  ancient  nouns  or  terms  by  which 
those  dwellers  in  high  Asian  Edens  or  Merus  named  their  Gods,  rites,  fdtes  or  divine 
ideas,  could  by  any  possibility  slip  into  our  Aryan  or  Shemitik  speech. 

Gods  and  divine  ideas  would  evolve  pari  passu  with  the  growth  of  the  human 
mind,  and  this  would  be  very  mature  and  well  defined  not  only  before  language 
differentiated,  but  when  roots  were  real  words — the  symbols  of  things  he  saw  and  felt. 
This  would  be  a  period  very  distant  from  that  in  which  abstract  ideas  were  expressed 
and  inflectional  and  agglutinating  languages  arose.  The  Gods  and  religious  ideas  had 
to  travel,  and  the  deities  did  so  if  not  in  propria  persona,  at  least  in  proprio  simulacra 
and  over  vast  continents,  carrying  with  them  their  rites,  fetes  and  attributes,  and  the 
embodiment  of  these  last,  in  the  architecture  of  arks  and  temples.2  Only  very 
gradually  did  these  change  to  suit  the  climate  and  civilization  of  the  worshipers, 
and  still  more  slowly  would  names  take  inflectional  and  other  forms  owing  to 
fonetik  growth  or  decay. 

No  one  who  has  for  years  freely  spoken  the  tongues  of  the  different  classes, 
with  Aryan,  Turan,  Shemite  and  Dravid  (as  the  writer  has  done,  sometimes  for 
weeks  together  never  hearing  English  spoken),  but  knows  how  closely  interlaced  all 
deities  and  divine  ideas  are  with  their  names  and  attributes,  and  how  this  is  specially 
the  case  amongst  illiterate  speakers  when  these  are  thrown  indifferently  together  in 
friendly  discussion.  We  dispute  none  of  the  fundamental  laws  of  language  as  hitherto 

1  Largely  treated  of  in  Chap,  ix.,  Vol.  ii.,  as  at  pages  463-470,  <kc. 

2  This  is  illustrated  at  pages  357-8,  Vol.  i.,  and  elsewhere. 

xxviii  Preface. 

ascertained,  but  find  on  entering  such  fresh  fields  of  enquiry  that  new  laws  are  disclosed 
which  are  as  yet  obscure  to  us,  but  which  nevertheless  all  point  very  clearly  to  a 
remote  parent  tongue  before  our  present  classification  was  possible.  It  is  on  this 
account  that  we  constantly  see  writers  fretting  under  some  present  philological  restric 
tions  or  passing  them  silently  by  as  the  author  of  "The  Great  Dionysiak  Myth" 
seems  frequently  to  do,  especially  when  he  gives  us  an  Asyro-Shemitik  base  in  Dian 
Nisi  of  the  tablets,  for  the  Aryan  Dionysos. 

The  more  prominent  and  characteristic  names  of  the -gods  then  have  travelled 
like  the  gods  themselves,  where  verbs,  all  ordinary  nouns  and  other  such  general 
furniture  of  languages  could  not  move.  In  this  and  other  respects  the  author  has 
endeavoured  to  be  clear,  but  the  main  arguments  of  his  work — extending  over  a  long 
period — might  be  considerably  strengthened  by  facts  which  have  recently  come  to 
light  since  some  early  parts  of  it  were  in  print.  On  this  account  the  reader  has  been 
troubled  with  a  lengthy  Preface,  and  inasmuch  as  the  volumes  treat  to  a  considerable 
extent  of  pre-historic  matter,  it  is  hoped  that  he  will  give  due  weight  to  the  cumula 
tive  force  of  the  circumstantial  evidence  advanced,  in  support  of  the  conclusions  which 
are  drawn.  It  will  not  do 'to  skim  over,  or  merely  dip  into  this  work  or  its  indexes 
in  order  to  ascertain  its  views  on  any  particular  subjects  or  words  ;  whoever  does  so, 
is  likely  to  form  opinions  which  a  distant  context  or  remote  explanation  may  pro 
bably  prove  erroneous.  The  author  has  been  unable  to  provide  against  such  superficial 
reading,  because  once  having  taken  the  trouble  to  establish  certain  opinions  he  has  been 
compelled  merely  to  assume  them  in  other  parts  of  the  work. 

It  is  not  given  to  man  to  know  his  own  genesis.  He  cannot  sit  down  before 
authentic  histories  to  gather  up  the  requisite  facts,  nor  is  he  likely  to  find  true 
history  in  the  regions  of  Religions  and  Theologies.  We  must  therefore  cast  about 
widely,  grasping  at  all  sciences,  including  Philology  and  its  congeners.  A  good 
practical  knowledge  however  of  similar  living  faiths,  in  all  their  vagaries,  esoterik  and 
exoterik,  is  an  excellent  test  of  the  value. of  these ;  without  this  our  philology  can  be 
nothing  more  than  the  outcome  of  studious  theories  devoid  of,  or  insufficiently  based 
upon  facts. 

The  philological  principles  of  this  work  will  probably  be  considered  by  some  to 
be  heresies  as  great,  though  not  greater  perhaps  than  the  general  views  enunciated  ; 
but  minorities  must  wait,  though  perhaps  in  this  case  not  so  very  long,  before  they 
become  majorities,  and  by  that  time  probably  another  minority  will  have  arisen,  and 
so  truth  go  forward  conquering  and  to  conquer. 

Preface.  xxix 

The  author  has  never  had  any  other  object  in  view  than  the  advancement  of 
truth,  and  has  studiously  gathered  facts  bearing  on  his  subjects  from  all  the  books,  rites 
or  faiths  he  has  ever  come  across.  Of  course  we  all  strive  to  stand  by  the  traditions  of 
our  fathers,  any  other  course  being  disturbing  in  many  ways,  and  oftentimes  stormy. 
The  searcher  after  truth  cannot  however  determine  his  own  lines ;  he  may  not  trifle 
with  her,  but  must  follow  where  she  leads,  regardless  of  consequences.  The  writer 
has  walked  on  through  the  usual  phases  of  faiths,  but  is  equally  ready  to  retrace 
his  steps  whenever  his  positions  are  shown  to  be  untenable,  and  it  has  ever  been 
his  practice  to  seek  out  opponents  and  invite  discussion.  Hitherto  he  has  seen  no  cause 
to  recede  from  conclusions  formed  nearly  twenty  years  ago  as  to  the  roots  of  Faiths, 
and  all  the  friends  who  have  carefully  considered  the  whole  general  subject  during 
the  long  time  they  have  watched  it  passing  from  embryo  to  maturity,  have  agreed 
with  him,  except  perhaps  in  such  details  as  priority  of  the  faith  lines  and  arrange 
ments,  which  now  that  all  appear  clearly  in  print,  it  is  easy  to  see  would  have 
simplified  many  points,  especially  to  the  unsophisticated  and  purely  European  reader. 
The  author  can  only  plead  the  vastness  of  the  subject  and  the  inability  of  one  person 
to  do  it  justice  in  an  ordinary  life  time.  The  volumes  here  published  are  indeed  only 
moiety  of  those  in  manuscript,  and  the  prefixed  list  of  books  consulted,  the  more 
important  of  which  have  been  carefully  read  and  often  extensively  annotated,  will 
show  under  what  influences  the  present  work  has  been  matured.1  These  two  volumes 
do  not  even  reach  the  "  Written  Faiths  of  Man,"  and  all  tribal  and  national  Religions 
(from  those  which  are  only  to  be  found  on  tombs,  tablets  and  papyri,  to  the  latest 
Bible  of  the  race),  had  to  be  carefully  investigated  and  the  results  generalized,  before 
these  two  volumes  and  chart  could  be  properly  constructed,  and  mature  conclusions 
formed  about  the  general  bases  on  which  all  Faiths  rest. 

The  next  volume — nearly  ready  in  regard  to  its  matter — is  a  compendious  Poly 
glot  Glossary  or  Dictionary  of  Religious  terms  and  ideas,  with  the  names  of  the  gods, 
divine  heros,  rites  and  fetes  of  all  Faiths.  It  embraces  alphabetically  almost  every 
subject  which  the  student  of  Religions  and  Mythologies  usually  seeks  to  know  the 
foundation  of ;  and  will  support  and  elucidate  much  which  may,  from  a  brief  allusion 
in  the  body  of  the  work,  appear  dark  to  the  general  reader.  The  author  found,  as  all 
students  must  do,  that  it  is  necessary  for  accuracy  of  thought  to  write  a  distinct  article 

1  The  "  Chapters  to  follow  "  will  be  seen  on  a  prefixed  page,  also  a  list  of  some  800  volumes  as 
those  principally  laid  under  contribution,  not  counting  Works  of  mere  Reference  and  all  good  current 
periodical  literature,  which  has  always  been  carefully  noted. 

I.  e 

xxx  Preface. 

upon  each  subject  before  treating  of  it  in  the  body  of  the  work,  and  especially  so 
before  generalizing  thereon.  And  this  has  been  done,  the  Glossary  being  thus  carried 
on  pari  passu  with  the  studies  of  each  faith.  It  has  been,  however,  thought  advis 
able  to  put  forth  these  two  volumes  and  chart  at  once,  so  that  abler  writers,  and 
those  who  have  devoted  themselves  to  special  faiths  or  special  aspects  of  these, 
may  have  here  a  key  which  seems  sadly  wanted  by  European  writers  who  have 
not  been  able  to  study  Eastern  faiths  in  Eastern  words  and  temples.  There  are 
indeed  sufficient  difficulties  in  the  way  of  so  large  a  subject  even  when  we  have  the 
key,  and  no  one  is  more  conscious  of  this  than  the  author,  who,  irrespective  of  the 
training,  time  and  diligence  required,  has  had  to  encounter  many  obstacles  which 
stopped  or  straitened  his  labors  for  long  periods. 

The  reader  will  perhaps  notice  a  little  repetition,  but  this  is  generally  due  to  an 
endeavor  to  press  arguments  home  under  divers  phases  and  from  different  sources,  and 
because,  as  Mr  Herbert  Spencer  reminds  us,  "it  is  only  by  varied  iteration  that  alien 
conceptions  can  be  forced  upon  reluctant  minds  ; "  and,  alas !  not  even  then,  thinks 
Professor  Max  Mliller.  He  says,  the  older  he  grows  "the  more  he  feels  convinced  that 
nothing  vexes  people  so  much  and  hardens  them  in  their  unbelief  and  in  their  dogged 
resistance  to  reforms,  as  undeniable  facts  and  unanswerable  arguments."  "  Repeat," 
lie  continues,  "  the  same  thing  over  and  over  again,  undismayed  by  indifference, 
ridicule  and  contempt,  and  all  the  other  weapons  which  the  lazy  world  knows  so  well 
how  to  employ  against  those  who  venture  to  disturb  its  peace."  *  And  having  done 
all !  what  then  ?  Can  neither  facts  nor  arguments  convince  ?  "  No,"  says  the  Pro 
fessor,  "  Reforms  are  carried  by  time !  and  what  generally  prevails  in  the  end  are  not 
logical  deductions  but  some  haphazard  and  frequently  irrational  movements." 

Let  us^hope,  however,  that  these  remarks  only  apply  to  "the  lazy  world,"  none  of  whom, 
it  is  to  be  feared,  will  take  up  these  volumes,  but  in  this  case  as  Erasmus  wrote,  "  bark  at 
us  all  the  more  furiously."  The  world  is  seeking  some  stable  equilibrium  amidst  a  seeth 
ing  sea  of  mental  unrest,  but  this  is  unobtainable  till  we  have  a  sound  vessel  and  clear 
sailing  chart.  It  is  in  vain  we  attempt  to  sail  this  ocean  in  the  old  coasters  of  a  by 
gone  age,  or  try  to  shut  out  from  eye  and  car  the  ever  surging  billows  which  now 
everywhere  with  noisy  clamor  seek  to  engulf  the  old  craft.  The  teachers  we  have 
hitherto  trusted  did  their  best,  and  perhaps  honestly,  but  they  knew  not  the  litera 
tures,  faiths  and  sciences  with  which  we  are  now  familiar,  and  imagined  in  their 
ignorance  that  all  save  their  own  little  world  was  full  of  evil  men  and  things. 

1  Selected  Essays,  I.  253,  Ed.  1881. 

Preface.  xxxi 

They  knew  no  "  Sacred  Books  of  the  East "  or  West,  yet  boldly  adventured  upon  the 
histories  of  all  peoples  and  all  Faiths  !  and  hence  Religious  history  is  grossly  inaccu 
rate,  and  for  the  most  part  avowedly  biased  in  favor  of  the  writer's  own  little  land 
and  faith,  though  the  latter  was  probably  a  mere  geographical  accident.  This  was 
of  course  much  truer  a  dozen  years  ago  when  the  author  first  felt  the  necessity  of 
writing  upon  the  roots  of  the  oldest  living  faiths.  Professor  Max  Miiller  in  1868 
doubted  whether  the  time  had  then  come  for  a  scientific  consideration  of  Religions, 
and  indeed,  until  lately  the  requisite  knowledge  has  not  existed  for  writing- 
Religious  history,  since  it  is  necessary  to  know  many  Faiths  accurately  and  prac 
tically  before  we  can  even  know  our  own  aright,  that  is,  the  sources  and  develop 
ments  of  its  doctrines,  practices  and  symbolisms.  These  have  known  no  beginning 
however  deeply  the  religious  archeologist  has  dug,  and  will  know  no  finality.  They 
are  the  eternal  offspring  of  heaven  and  earth,  though  mostly  of  the  earth,  earthy.1 

The  Religious  historian  is  even  more  heavily  weighted  than  the  philologist,  for  he 
can  write  a  tolerable  analysis  of  our  English  tongue  if  he  knows  four  or  five  Aryan 
languages.  The  writer  upon  faiths  however,  or  even  one  Aryan  religion,  should  not 
only  have  an  accurate  and  detailed  knowledge  of  all  the  faiths  of  Aryans,  Turans, 
Dravidians,  and  Shemites,  but  must  unlearn  much  of  that  one-sided  teaching  of 
his  youth,  though  it  clings  to  the  heart  with  many  fond  memories  of  the  past.  He 
must  search  everywhere  for  the  good  and  true,  no  less  than  for  evil  things,  in  the 
written  and  unwritten,  in  the  theories  as  well  as  the  practices  of  every  faith,  and  mete 
out  deserved  praise  or  blame  with  impartial  hand.  Much  that  many  sects  hold 
sacred  but  would  gladly  hide  from  the  keen  cold  eye  of  Reason  and  from  all 
critical  unbelievers,  must  be  dragged  into  the  light  of  day  and  fearlessly  ex 
posed,  and  'every  doctrine  and  truth  be  argued  out  to  its  legitimate  conclusions 
— a  task  often  difficult,  painful  or  disturbing. 

If  this  however  be  an  author's  position,  it  is  not  less  the  proper  attitude  of  every 
honest  truth-seeking  reader ;  he  too  must  put  aside  for  the  time  national  and  religious 
bias,  and  school  himself  to  view  all  calmly  and  dispassionately,  bearing  as  he  best 
can  the  rude  thrusts  of  such  an  educating  process. 

It  is  said  that  after  forty,  all  persons  resist  new  convictions.  If  so  the  writer's  diffi 
culties  are  here  considerable  ;  but  there  are  fortunately  many  exceptions  to  this  rule  as 
we  see  in  the  case  of  good  Bishop  Beveridge,2  who  argued  with  himself,  that  "  there 

1  Such  matters  will  be  found  treated  of  in  Vol.  I.,  pp.  322,  409,  &c.,  and  Vol.  II.  p.  507,  «tc. 

2  Private  Thoughts  on  Religion.     P.  I.,  Art,  2. 

xxxii  .Preface. 

never  was  any  religion  so  diabolical,  but  was  preferred  before  all  other  religions  by  them 
that  profess  it,"  and  that  seeing  "how  natural  it  is  for  all  to  have  an  over-bearing  opinion 
and  esteem  for  that  particular  religion  they  are  born  and  brought  up  in,"  he  resolves 
"  to  be  more  jealous  and  suspicious"  of  his  own  "in  order  that  he  may  make  diligent 
and  impartial  enquiry  into  all."  He  "will  look  upon  himself,"  he  continues,  "as  one 
not  at  all  interested  in  any  particular  religion  " — a  noble  faith  and  trust  in  the  power  of 
truth,  and  the  only  attitude  the  readers  and  writer  of  this  work  can  profitably 
assume.  Let  us  free  ourselves  from  that  common  and  real  .infidelity  which  fears  and 
distrusts  truth,  nay,  which  even  calls  its  honest  pursuit  "a  dangerous  and  evil  thing." 
Religion  is  not  like  Politics,  a  system'  of  compromize.  We  should  rather  dread 
belonging  to  any  church,  because  this  necessarily  confines  our  views  and  makes 
us  content  with  the  modicum  of  truth  it  may  have  grasped.  It  is  certain  at  least  to 
find  us  partizans  when  any  doctrine  or  rite  held  sacred  by  our  sect  is  attacked. 
To  have  breadth  of  view  in  religious  matters,  one  must  take  a  neutral  standpoint, 
and  be  a  patient  waiter  upon  truth,  welcoming  rather  than  repelling  new  ideas 
and  all  enquirers  and  reformers.  The  study  of  other  faiths  must  ever  tend  to 
purify  our  own,  and  lead  us  to  treat  with  deference  and  respect  all  the  pious  and 
earnest  thoughts  which  have  helped  men  to  realize  in  some  degree  the  great  Ideal  of 
power,  goodness  and  truth. 

It  is  not  enough  to  know  well  and  write  incisively  upon  religions.  We  must 
sympathize  with  the  highest  and  holiest  feelings  they  inculcate,  and  no  less  with  the 
uncultured  thought  of  him  who  bows  before  a  mystic  stone  or  bedizenedj  altar,  than 
with  those  who  in  lowliness  of  mind  torture  their  bodies  and  souls  to  find  favor  in 
the  sight  of  their  God ;  with  men  to  whom  the  world  is  as  nothing;  who  thrust  aside 
with  loathing  its  pomps  and  vanities,  beauties  and  joys,  and  even  proclaim  all  ex 
cellence  of  mind  and  heart  to  be  but  filthy  rags  in  comparison' with  that  holy  ecstasy 
they  experience  in  their  believed  communion  with  the  Supreme.  Let  us  not  forget 
that  now  as  in  ancient  times,  there  are  millions  who  still  feel  that  though  flesh  and 
heart  faint  and  fail,  He  is  the  strength  of  their  heart  and  continual  joy  ;  that  there  are 
tens  of  thousands  of  revered  and  solitary  ones,  who  in  filth  and  nakedness, -sit  within 
lone  mountain  caves  or  temple  cells,  striving  in  death-like  silence  to  still  every  earthly 
emotion,  that  they  may  perchance  hear  but  one  word  or  sound  from  Him  whom  they 
call  the  Fathe'r  of  Spirits.  Most  of  us  can  fully  sympathize  with  that  cultured  piety 
which,  though  it  rejects  all  that  Europe  holds  sacred,  can  yet  express  itself  in  hymns 
like  that  sung  by  Firdusi  eight  hundred  and  fifty  years  ago:  "The  height  and  the 

Preface.  xxxiif 

depth  of  the  whole  world  have  their  centre  in  Thee,  0  my  God  I  I  do  not  know  Thee 
who  thou  art,  but  I  know  that  thou  art  what  thou  alone  canst  be."  These  words 
like  many  other  devout  ones  of  poet  and  pietest  will  not  bear  scientific  analysis,  but 
in  our  childhood  we  seek  not  for  hard  facts  like  the  man  of  science ;  mystic  sayings? 
and  burning  words  sufficed  to  make  the  infant  race  fall  down  and  worship. 

In  addition,  however,  to  a  free  spirit,  it  is  hoped  the  reader  will  have  sufficient  dili 
gence  to  read  these  volumes  through,  and  at  least  suspend  his  judgment  until  he  has 
done  so.  The  task  is  heavy,  but  the  subject  is  entrancing,  and  to  inspire  the  reader 
with  the  spirit  it  deserves,  Professor  Max  Miiller's  stirring  words  in  relation  to  the 
Vedas1  (which  is  but  a  small  branch  of  our  subject)  may  be  quoted  with  advantage. 

"  These  matters  are  important  not  only  to  the  student  of  oriental  languages,  but  to  every  student 
of  history,  religion  or  philosophy ;  to  every  man  who  has  once  felt  the  charm  of  tracing  that  mighty 
stream  of  human  thought  on  which  we  ourselves  are  floating  onwards,  back  to  its  distant  mountain 
sources;  to  every  one  who  has  a  heart  for  whatever  has  once  filled  the  hearts  of  millions  of  human 
beings  with  their  noblest  hopes,  and  fears  and  aspirations;  to  every  student  of  mankind  in  the  fullest 
sense  of  that  full  and  weighty  word.  Whoever  claims  that  noble  title  must  not  forget  whether  he 
examines  the  highest  achievements  of  mankind  in  our  own  age,  or  the  miserable  failures  of  former  ages, 
what  man  is,  and  in  whose  image  and  after  whose  likeness  man  was  made.  Whether  listening  to  the 
shrieks  of  the  Shaman  sorcerers  of  Tatary,  or  to  the  odes  of  Pindar,  or  to  the  sacred  songs  of  Paul 
Gerhard;  whether  looking  at  the  pagodas  of  China,  or  the  Parthenon  of  Athens,  or  the  cathedral  of 
Cologne;  whether  reading  the  sacred  books  of  the  Buddhists,  of  the  Jews,  or  of  those  who  worship  God 
in  spirit  and  in  truth,  we  ought  to  be  able  to  say  like  the  Emperor  Maximilian,  '  homo  sum,  huniani 
nihil  a  me  alienum  puto,'  or,  translating  his  words  somewhat  freely,  '  I  am  a  man,  nothing  pertaining  to 
man  I  deem  foreign  to  myself.'  Yes,  we  must  learn  to  read  in  the  history  of  the  whole  human  race 
something  of  our  own  history;  and  as  in  looking  back  on  the  story  of  our  own  life,  we  all  dwell  with 
a  peculiar  delight  on  the  earliest  chapters  of  our  childhood,  and  ti*y  to  find  there  the  key  to  many  of 
the  riddles  of  our  later  life,  it  is  but  natural  that  the  historian,  too,  should  ponder  with  most  intense 
interest  OATer  the  few  relics  that  have  been  preserved  to  him  of  the  childhood  of  the  human  race." 

The  more  we  study  each  faith,  its  adherents,  and  the  circumstances  of  their  lives, 
the  more  we  see  the  good  the  faith  has  wrought,  and  how  hard  it  would  have  been 
to  have  done  without  it ;  for  however  foolish  and  contradictory  in  its  theories,  and  even 
cruel  or  immoral  in  its  practices,  the  rudest  faith  has  yet  satisfied  that  void  and  long 
ing  in  the  emotional  part  of  uncultured  men,  and  in  doing  so,  comforted,  strengthened, 
and  elevated  the  race,  and  not  until  another  void  takes  place  can  a  new  faith,  however 
so  much  better,  supplant  the  old  one,  and  then  only  very  gradually.  If  we  have  to 
sorrow  over  the  undoubtedly  dire  effects  which  many  Religions  have  produced — and 
every  superstition  brings  untold  evils  in  its  train— we  have  also  much  for  which  we 

1  Chips  I.,  3,  ed.  1868. 

xxxiv  Preface. 

can  be  thankful.  If  Faiths  have  in  their  bigotry  for  ever  destroyed  the  literary  toil  of 
millions,  and  too  often  given  us  only  ephemeral  theologies  in  exchange,  yet  even  Vedas 
proclaim  to  us  that  architecture  sprang  at  their  command,  and  science  came  forth  to 
do  their  bidding.  Geodosy  and  geometry  arose  from  the  pious  necessities  of  temples 
and  altar  decorations ;  and  rites  and  sacrifices — disdaining  the  twistings  and  turn 
ings  of  "  medicine  men  "  and  astrologers — called  forth  astronomers,  and  mapped  the 
heavens.  If  Keligion  strangled  a  too  aggressive  Hypatia,  and  hindered  or  corrupted 
all  literature  and  science  for  a  time,  burning  and  scattering  its  treasures,  she  was 
still  the  great  nursing  mother  of  much  that  was  holy,  pure  and  good  ;  if  she  hid 
away  in  turbulent  times  the  white  tooth  of  a  Budha,  a  black  stone  emblem  of  a 
god  or  crude  records  of  her  deities,  a  bit  of  (<  the  true  Cross  "  or  other  relics  of  her 
saints  or  nobler  sons,  she  also  preserved  Bibles,  Vedas  and  Tripitakas,  epiks  and 
histories,  and  all  that  she  justly  esteemed  precious  to  her  own  life  in  mythologies  and 
theologies.  Like  Kronos  and  Agni  she  doubtless  sought  to  devour  the  children  she 
had  cherished,  but  only  when  in  their  might  they  threatened  to  drive  her  from  the 
throne  to  which  they  had  exalted  her.  Let  us  however  gratefully  remember  her  as 
the  energetic  nurse  of  a  beneficent  offspring. 

It  is  not  for  us  then  to  seek  to  blot  out  the  past,  nor  yet  to  rashly  destroy 
any  of  the  faiths  of  earth.  These  are  mostly  the  emotional  expressions  of  the  heart, 
and  not  very  amenable  to  reason  nor  indeed  to  any  direct  attack.  They  can  never 
be  rudely  or  abruptly  disturbed  with  real  and  durable  advantage.  The  change  must 
be  gentle  and  educational,  as  by  the  opening  up  of  new  channels  of  thought  suitable 
to  the  age  and  civilization  of  each  people,  group  or  person,  for  knowledge  is  that 
which  is  built  up  slowly  and  severely  on  facts,  not  on  dreams  or  a  priori'  assumptions 
of  what  was  or  should  be  here  or  hereafter.  True  knowledge  can  only  be  attained  by 
the  painstaking  processes  of  education,  and  until  this  is  well  advanced  among  men,  and 
on  a  scientific  basis,  the  poet,  emotionalist,  ritualist  or  Salvationist,  must  still  control 
the  multitude. 

In  this  work  the  facts  or  events  of  faiths  have  been  inductively  massed  together, 
digested  and  classified  so  as  to  arrive  at  what  the  Platonist  called  his  Uuiversals,  and 
with  a  certain  result  best  seen  in  the  Chart  by  the  flow  of  the  streams  of  ideas  or  faith 
lines,  which,  though  diverging,  are  rarely  lost  in  the  historic  advance  of  civilizations 
rioted  in  the  side  columns.  But  there  may  also  be  observed  from  this  synchronizing 
of  the  histories  of  faiths,  a  remarkable  tidal  wave  of  intensity,  which  seems  to  acutely 
affect  the  race  physically  and  mentally,  with  considerable  regularity  every  six 

Preface.  xxxv 

hundred  or  six  hundred  and  fifty  years,  reminding  us  of  the  Sothik  and  other  cycles 
but  especially  of  the  mystical  Phoenix  or  Solar  Eras  of  Egypt  and  the  East.  The 
ebb  and  flow  of  this  tide  is  shown  on  the  Chart  by  light  broad  bands  embracing  a 
width  of  one  hundred  years.  From  this  it  will  be  seen  that  we  are  now  in  the  midst  of 
one  which  has  witnessed  the  denationalizing  of  Budhism  in  the  far  East  after  a  reign 
of  some  eighteen  hundred  years,  and  which  threatens  Christianity  in  the  same  way 
after  a  duration  of  less  than  a  thousand  years  in  Central  and  Northern  Europe. 

It  is  hoped  that  the  classification  and  arrangement  here  made  of  old  beliefs, 
ideas  and  symbolisms,  will  enable  the  religious  student  to  enter  with  more  assur 
ance  upon  new  fields  of  research,  without  being  any  longer  pulled  up  or  having 
lamely  to  halt  at  the  threshold  of  temples,  unable  to  assign  their  right  place  to  the 
gods  and  myths  which  continually  cross  his  path. 

The  Chart  has,  it  is  believed,  been  made  suitable  for  general  use  in  all  schools 
where  classics  are  taught.  It  is  neither  orthodox  nor  heterodox,  but  as  far  as 
possible  simply  historical,  though  showing  most  of  the  usually  accepted  legends  and 
legendary  characters  referred  to  in  our  ordinary  histories. 

Unfortunately  it  has  proved  impossible  to  similarly  write  these  volumes.  They 
are  for  the  student  and  searcher  after  the  Roots  of  Faiths,  and  may  perhaps  be  thought 
in  certain  parts  to  come,  as  it  were,  under  the  category  of  medical  works,  treating  of 
the  radical  diseases  of  early  and  many  existing  religions.  They  deal  necessarily  with 
those  ideas  and  figures  which  the  rude  man  first  too  grossly  symbolized  and  worshiped  ; 
for  he  prayed  like  us  all  for  those  objects  he  had  most  at  heart,  and  these  are  still  not 
far  from  the  real  worship  of  the  world.  He  besought  "  the  Great  Father,"  "  Creator  " 
and  "Fertilizer"  to  bestow  upon  him  and  his,  all  worldly  prosperity,  which  with  the 
ancient,  meant  simply  fertility  in  his  house  and  fields,  flocks  and  herds. 

All  the  sacred  writings  of  mankind,  and  more  especially  the  Christian  Bible, 
abound  with  matter  quite  unfit  for  the  general  reader,  and  such  is  often  need 
lessly  prurient  and  immodest,  having  no  direct  relation  to  worship  or  religion,  with 
which  alone  the  present  volumes  are  concerned.  Here  are  only  to  be  found  bona 
fide  worships,  not  indecencies  in  lives  or  histories,  but  the  fervid  religion  of  earnest 
and  pious  men  and  women.  Nevertheless  unavoidable  allusions  have  frequently  to 
be  made  to  sensuous  but  popular  God-ideas  which  every  student  of  religions  must 
well  consider.  As  a  very  learned  author  lately  wrote,1  "  We  have  been  obliged  to  gc 

1  The  Zoology  of  Mythology.  By  Angelo  cle  Gubernatis,  Professor  of  Sanskrit,  etc.,  in  the  University 
of  Florence. 

xxxv  i  Preface. 

back  to  an  epoch  in  which  idealism  was  still  in  the  cradle,  while  physical  life  was  in 
all  its  plenitude  of  vigor,  when  images  were  taken  in  preference  for  the  things  of 
a  more  sensible  nature,  and  which  made  a  deeper  and  more  abiding  impression." 

It  is  still  necessary  to  tell  the  world  some  of  these  truths,  and  to  remind  it  that 
Religion  at  its  base  is  the  product  of  imagination  working  on  early  man's  wants  and 
fears,  and  that  it  is  in  no  sense  supernatural  nor  the  result  of  any  preconceived 
and  deliberate  thought  or  desire  to  work  out  a  system  of  morals.  It  arose  in  each 
case  from  what  appeared  to  be  the  pressing  needs  of  the  day  or  season  on  the  man 
or  his  tribe.  The  codification  and  expansion  of  Faiths  would  then  be  merely  the 
slow  outcome  of  the  cogitations  and  teachings  of  reflective  minds,  working  usually 
with  a  refining  tendency  on  the  aforesaid  primitive  Nature- worship,  and  in  elucidation 
of  its  ideas,  symbolisms  and  legends.  Early  rude  worshipers  could  not  grasp 
abstractions  nor  follow  sermons  even  if  they  had  been  preached,  and  certainly  not 
recondite  discourses  on  what  the  West  designates  "  Solar  and  other  theories."  These- 
were  the  outcome  of  a  far  later,  purifying  and  spiritualizing  period  of  man's  life,  and 
were  not  such  as  the  multitude  could  readily  understand.  This  accounts  for  the 
common  remark  that  "  it  is  astonishing  how  little  the  actual  conduct  of  a  people  is 
affected  by  their  so-called  national  faith;  that  ancient  Greece  and  Rome  will  bear 
comparison  with  the  present,  and  that  Banares  has  as  large  a  percentage  of  good  men 
and  women  as  London." 

A  word  now  as  to  Orthography.  When  the  first  proofs  of  parts  of  this  work 
were  struck  off  in  India  several  years  ago,  the  spelling  of  foreign  words  was  in  a 
transition  stage,  and  the  popular  English  system  was  adopted.  Varztna  was  Varoona, 
because  the  u  and  a  are  used  indifferently  in  English,  and  here  deviation  seemed 
unnecessary  as  the  reader  could  thus  correctly  pronounce  such  words  as  Vishnu  and 
Rudra.  Diacritical  marks  and  diphthongs  were  avoided,  but  as  the  work  progressed 
and  began  to  deal  with  a  great  variety  of  tongues,  it  became  necessary  to  adopt  some 
such  system  as  that  now  authoritatively  laid  down  by  the  Government  of  India;  and 
these  changes  were  radical  in  regard  to  all  words  not  too  firmly  fixed  in  the  popular 
mind,  voice  and  eye,  and  where  the  pronunciation  was  sufficiently  correct.  • 

Of  course  it  is  impossible  to  accommodate  thirty-eight  distinct  English  sounds 
to  our  twenty-six  letters ;  how  much  more  so,  some  fifty  sounds,  if  one  would  rightly  pro 
nounce  all  the  words  dealt  with  in  such  a  polyglotal  work  as  this.  At  the  same  time, 
spelling  reformers  were  everywhere  making  their  voices  heard,  and  Oxford  may  be  said 
to  have  theoretically  sided  with  them  in  1876,  when  Professor  Max  Midler  wrote  his 

Preface.  xxxvii 

celebrated  article  in  the  April  Fortnightly,  declaring  against  the  supposed  sacredness 
or  etymological  use  of  our  present  bap-hazard  system.  The  Philological  Society  of 
London  and  many  abroad  have  definitely  committed  themselves  to  lines  of  improve 
ment,  and  more  action  would  have  followed  but  for  the  too  radical  changes  which 
the  more  earnest  spelling  reformers  advocated.  Moderate  men  desired  that  we  should 
advance  only  a  little  quicker  and  more  regularly  than  in  the  past,  for  it  appears  that  the 
progress  has  been  such  that  the  1st  Chapter  of  Genesis,  as  written  one  hundred  years 
ago,  has  one  hundred  and  twenty  mistakes  according  to  the  present  orthography. 
It  seemed  sufficient  that  sound  and  simplicity  should  lead  to  a  general  shortening  of 
words,  as  by  avoidance  of  double  letters  and  all  or  most  unsounded  ones ;  also  that 
when  moderately  correct  sound  could  be  assured,  the  spelling  should  revert  to  the 
most  ancient  language  in  which  the  word  or  root  appeared.  Thus,  that  in  Europe  we 
should  pass  over  the  Latin  c,  s,  &c.,  where  they  had  substituted  these  for  the  Greek  Jc, 
z,  &c.,  and  refuse  a  soft  ch  for  a  k  or  %,  and  a  ck  where  Jc  was  sufficient.  At  the  same 
time  it  was  felt  imperative  above  all  things  that  no  changes  should  be  made  in  a 
work  of  this  sufficiently  difficult  kind  which  would  draw  oft"  the  reader's  attention 
from  the  subject  in  hand,  or  even  distract  his  eye  or  ear  ;  whilst  as  one  ever  a  warm 
advocate  of  spelling  reform,  the  author  felt  bound  to  aid,  however  slightly,  in  what  he 
hopes  will  yet  be  one  of  the  greatest  revolutions  of  the  next  generation — a  gradual  but 
general  reformation  of  all  the  orthographies  of  Europe.  He  has  no  desire,  however,  to 
bury  his  own  books  and  all  the  literature  of  the  past  which  a  too  radical  change  in 
the  forms  of  letters  would  infallibly  do,  were  the  rising  generation  to  be  exclusively 
or  generally  instructed  in  a  system  of  fonetiks,  or  were  our  words  even  altered  to  the 
orthography  of  a  Chaucer. 

We  can  best  aid  substantial  reform  by  quickening  natural  laws,  as  in  encourag 
ing  fonetik  growth  and  decay  where  these  simplify  orthography,  and  by  writing  all 
infrequent  words  according  to  the  accepted  principles  of  the  moderate  reformers.  Of 
course  our  Brahman  friend  is  horrified  when  he  hears  or  reads  of  Maina  a  month, 
for  his  Mahtna,  and  would  even  prefer  another  h  or  n,  but  India  now  practically 
refuses  to  recognize  the  three  syllables  and  calls  their  use  pedantry. 

In  this  work  a  very  slight  endeavour  has  latterly  been  made  to  move  in  the  direction 
of  the  London  Philological  Code  of  "General  Principles,"  but  with  too  little  effect 
owing  largely  to  the  persistency  of  friendly  readers  and  our  printers,  who  have  not 
only  often  ruthlessly  swept  out  the  improved  spellings,  but  seemed  to  rebel  against  the 
different  modes  in  which  we  on  principle  often  spell  the  same  names  of  gods  and 
i-  / 

xxxviii  Preface. 

beros;  the  object  being  to  accustom  the  enquirer  into  old  faiths  to  recognize  the  same 
person  under  diverse  orthographies.  On  this  principle  also,  so  that  the  unsophisticated 
be  not  confused,  a  Vaishnava  is  here  usually  called  a  Vislmu-ite,  and  Saivaism,  Sivaism 
and  the  followers  of  Solar  Shams,  Sh-m  or  Shem,  Shemites,  and  not  Semites. 

A  volume  might  be  written  on  the  use  and  abuse  of  aspirates,  which  it  is  agreed 
are  "  one  thing  in  Sanskrit,  another  in  Greek,  a  third  in  Latin,  and  a  fourth  in  Teu 
tonic."  The  h  is  a  necessity  or  fashionable  addition  in  some  districts,  but  is  scorned 
in  others.  We  tread  gently  upon  Herbs,  Hostlers,  and  Honorables,  and  in  searching 
after  roots  do  well  to  look  indifferently  on  t  and  th,  p  and  ph,  k  and  kh,  g  and  gh, 
d  and  dh,j  and  dj,  &c.,  &c.  These  sounds 'and  many  others,  require  special  and  cautious 
handling,  for  what  one  locality  favors,  another  deoounces,  and  the  literate  and  illiterate 
are  here  usually  at  war.  If  we  would  find  out  roots,  words  and  mythological 
matters,  we  must  probe  most  deeply  on  the  side  of  age  and  custom,  and  call  present 
meanings  and  etymology  severely  in  question.  The  learned,  be  they  Rabis  or  gram 
marians,  intentionally  or  otherwise  harden  and  alter  old  forms  to  suit  euphony  or  their 
own  laws  and  ideas,  and  lose  sight  of  or  take  little  account  of  the  old  fashioned  rustic 
notions,  fears  and  symbolisms  which  the  words  anciently  embodied.  They  scorn  the 
indifference  of  the  illiterate  as  to  quantity  and  long  and  short  vowels,  and  lay  the 
greatest  possible  stress  upon  these,  even  when  working  in  dead  languages,  the  original 
sound  of  which  they  confess  to  have  more  or  less  lost.  Throughout  Asia,  as  in  England 
and  Scotland,  we  find  people  only  separated  from  each  other  by  a  stream  or  mountain 
range,  who  would  call  the  English  where  and  dare,  tvhdr  and  ddr,  just  as  the  Turk 
makes  the  Persian  and  Arabik  Adit  into  Adeet,  d  into  ou,  and  freely  doubles  con 
sonants.  So  Dravids  do  not  respect  the  Sanskrit  a,  and  freely  alter  the  severe  rules 
of  its  northern  grammarians  to  their  own  ideas  of  euphony  or  propriety. 

There  is  nothing  gained  by  continuing,  like  Irish  Kelts, -to  write  adh  and  pro 
nounce  it  oo,  or  as  Scotch  Kelts  do  av  or  agh,  and  why  should  we  follow  them  in  writ 
ing  ao  when  they  say  they  mean  ai  or  ee  f  We  are  tired  of  such  "  a  blessing  "  as 
beannughadh,  although  told  to  roll  all  the  last  syllables  into  oo,  and  have  no  time  to 
manufacture  syllabaries  or  rolls  of  letters  for  every  drawl  which  shepherds  and  country 
folk  all  over  the  world  address  to  one  another.  Let  us  rather  educate  them  than  deform 
spelling,  and  prevent  them  rolling  their  words  about  by  giving  them  and  all  old  races  a 
correct  and  sufficient  character  and  orthography  for  properly  pronounced  words.  Among 
the  immense  educational  benefits  which  missionaries  have  conferred  upon  the  world, 
perhaps  the  most  conspicuous  and  lasting  have  been  their  efforts  in  this  direction. 

Preface.  xxxix 

They  have  often  bestowed  on  rude  old  tribes  not  only  a  character  but  a  literature  which 
has  improved  and  educated  them,  and  all  the  more  because  they  have  only  given 
them  sufficient  symbols  for  proper  pronunciations,  teaching  them,  as  English  school 
masters  do  our  own  youths,  not  to  call  "  coming,"  "  Kodmen,"  "  own,"  "  a-w-n,"  or 
sing  out  their  words  as  the  uneducated  do  on  the  hill  sides. 

For  some  years  back,  scholars  have  very  properly  spelt  Greek  names  as  Greeks 
spelt  them,  but  we  have  not  yet  gone  far  eDough,  as  in  rejecting  the  Latin  y — our 
t,  c,  ai  or  ivai,  where  the  Greek  put  his  u  or  upsilon,  which  no  doubt  at  times 
came  near  to  the  y  of  Latin  days.  The  u  is,  however,  too  much  connected  with 
important  mythological  matters,  and  is  too  much  like  a  consonant  in  ancient  tongues 
to  be  so  set  aside.  Thus  we  almost  lose  sight  of  the  ancient  Phenician  Fire-god 
of  Western  Asia — Pur,  Pru  or  Phru,  in  his  ever  sacred  Puratheia  or  Pry-taneum, 
that  Agastdn  or  holy  hearth  of  every  Eastern  race.  Even  a  Presenter  or  Pres- 
Imteros  is  clearer  than  a  Presbyter,  and  Skuths  and  Kushites  than  Scyths,  Cuthites 
or  Cythites. 

With  Easterns,  the  real  vowels  were  originally  mere  breathings,  which  they  did 
not  trouble  themselves  much  about.  When  these  therefore  appear  in  diacritical, 
Masoretik  or  other  pointings,  as  in  Hebrew,  Arabik,  Persian,  &c.,  it  has  been  thought 
best  to  avoid  them,  for,  as  Sir  William  Drummond  wrote,  "they  are  impertinent 
impositions,"  by  which  scribes  and  pedants  of  comparatively  modern  times  have  tried 
to  force  upon  us  their  own  local  or  favourite  pronunciations.  Nothing  has  done 
more  to  prevent  the  public  seeing  the  old  ideas,  particularly  when  instead  of  these 
mere  markings,  Western  Aryans  slipped  in  bona  fide  letters  when  transcribing  the 
words  into  Aryan  languages. 

Of  course  vowel  markings  promoted  uniformity  of  pronunciation,  and  are  specially 
favored  by  Westerns  when  learning  Eastern  tongues,  and  vice  versa,  but  it  has  been 
questioned  whether  languages  like  religions  would  not  have  got  on  better  without 
tying  down  the  young  to  Creeds  and  Articles — grammars  and  lexicons.  Here  at 
least  both  must  be  somewhat  in  abeyance  whilst  more  ancient  matters  are  being 

Parkhurst  and  learned  Jews  have  wisely  excluded  the  Hebrew  pointings  and 
given  us  general  rules  for  guidance,  which,  however,  no  Eastern  scholars  require, 
knowing  that  where  vowels  or  symbols  exist  in  a  language,  as  for  a,  e,  i,  o,  u,  &c.,  he 
has  no  right  to  interpose  such  sounds,  but  only  a  breathing  a  or  e.  Especially  must 
this  be  the  rule  where  the  object  is  to  find  the  earliest  pronunciations  at  or  before  the 

xl  Preface. 

great  writing  era  of  the  sixth  and  seventh  centuries  B.C.  Any  other  rule  leads  to  all 
the  confusion  and  diverse  spellings  we  notice  in  so  many  words,  as  in  Elohim  for 
A  1  e  im,  Jehovah  for  Y  h  u  e,  Mecca  for  M  ti  k  #,  Muhommed,  &c.,  for  Mh  m  d,  until 
Arabik  has  become  one  of  the  most  distracting  of  languages.  The  evil  is  far  reaching, 
for  it  veils,  or  protects,  as  indeed  was  often  intended,  various  old  deities  from 
invidious  comparisons. 

Elohim  seems  to  cut  off  all  possible  connection  with  Allah,  Ilios,  &c.,  and  by 
doubling  the  d  in  Budha,  for  the  sage  of  Buda  Gayd,  we  get  still  further  from  the 
old  Nature  God  of  India,  the  Bud  or  Bod.1  The  Aryan  had  already  elevated  him  by 
an  li  when  his  attributes  rose  to  be  ethereal  in  the  Mercury  of  the  heavens,  and 
another  d  has  been  deemed  necessary  in  the  West,  when  he  became  "  Wisdom," 
moral  and  spiritual.  Yet  we  must  here  remember  that  the  base  lies  in  Toth  the 
Pillar-God,  who  also  became  "Wisdom  and  Learning." 

It  is,  of  course,  necessary  in  instituting  comparisons  between  words  in  different 
languages,  and  especially  in  different  classes  of  tongues,  to  seek  for  the  very  oldest 
forms  and  sounds,  and  know  how  to  reach  them,  that  is,  to  remember  the  laws — so 
familiar  to  every  speaker  of  different  Eastern  tongues — which  govern  all  ordinary 
interchange.  For  instance,  the  Chinaman  has  difficulties  with  a  B  and  dh,  and  calls 
Budh  or  Bodli,  Foil  'or  Fo,  and  Di  or  De  (us),  Tl  or  Thl;  the  Indian  prefaces  a  vowel 
to  our  English  word  steiv,  calling  it  estti,  the  Barman  makes  the  s  into  t  or  th,  and  dis 
likes  r's,  saying  Bymtt,  lyawtidi  and  Yakain,  where  the  Bengali  says  Barma,  Irawddy 
and  Arakan,  and  the  half-caste  (dropping  the  initial  in  the  latter,)  is  usually  content 
with  Eakain. 

All  these  matters  have  been  carefully  considered,  and  it  is  hoped,  borne  in  mind 
throughout  these  volumes  though  like  more  important  subjects  seldom  referred  to, 
because  the  reader's  attention  could  not  profitably  be  distracted  from  points  requiring 
his  undivided  consideration.  In  so  large  a  work,  extending  over  several  years,  and 
written  as  well  as  printed  amid  many  interruptions,  there  must  of  course  be  many 
imperfections.  The  author  is  conscious  not  only  of  unequal  writing  (a  matter  of 
little  moment  where  he  has  made  his  meaning  clear),  but  of  not  having  supported  his 
arguments  as  strongly  as  might  have  been.  In  arrangement  also  he  would  wish  to 
have  broken  up  the  long  chapters  into  sections  and  subsections,  but  the  marginal  head 
ings,  tables,  &c.,  will,  it  is  hoped,  in  this  respect,  render  some  assistance  to  the  reader. 

1  See  Bud  in  our  Indexes,  and  Vol.  II.  p.  409.     This  and  like  subjects  will  be  fully  treated  of  in 
the  Glossary. 

Preface.  xii 

111  conclusion  the  author  offers  his  grateful  thanks  to  the  many  European  and 
Indian  gentlemen  who  have  so  frequently  given  him  important  aid,  and  always 
entered  most  fully  into  the  spirit  of  the  work.  Without  his  Indian  friends  he 
never  could  have  proceeded,  at  least  with  such  confidence,  through  several  of  his 
chapters,  especially  those  treating  of  the  non- Aryan  and  early  Aryan  races,  much  of 
which  yet  remains  to  be  published.  He  looks  back  with  pleasure  to  many  morning 
and  evening  hours  spent  with  all  classes  from  Maha  Rajas  to  princes,  nobles  and 
commoners,  learned  Pandits  in  every  department  of  literature  (and  in  India  this  means 
religion  also),  to  obscure  Brahmans  and  illiterate  pietists,  who  nevertheless  knew 
half  their  sacred  books  by  heart.  With  all,  the  Chart  even  in  its  early  crude  forms, 
was  a  never-failing  source  of  interest  and  discussion,  which  sent  them  back,  they  said 
(though  this  was  sotto  voce)  to  their  scholars  and  books  with  extended  views  of 
the  whole  scope  of  religions,  and  a  determination  to  study  other  faiths  so  that  they 
might  know  their  own  aright.  The  author  trusts  that  this  also  will  be  the  spirit 
in  which  the  West  will  receive  these  volumes. 

He  has  not  been  authorized  to  mention  any  of  his  friends  by  name,  although 
under  deep  obligations  to  several,  not  only  in  correction  of  proofs  and  preparation  of 
indexes,  but  also  for  help  in  many  obscure  translations,  and  for  a  host  of  illustrations. 
He  is  especially  indebted  to  English  friends,  many  of  whom,  and  among  them  some  of 
the  kindest  and  most  interested,  have  passed  away  to  that  silent  shore  where  at  least 
for  them  have  been  for  ever  solved  the  great  problems  of  Life. 

EDINBURGH,  December  1882. 






IN  introducing  to  the  public  the  accompanying  chart  of  the  Keligions  of  the  world,  I 
do  so  simply  with  a  desire  to  help  those  who  have  not  yet  studied  these  subjects,  or 
who  may  not  have  had  such  good  opportunities  as  have  fallen  to  my  lot  of  seeing  the 
Faiths  and  Rituals  I  purpose  depicting,  in  full  practical  development  and  progress. 

Neither  the  chart  nor  what  I  write  is  for  the  instruction  of  the  learned  in  ancient 
Faiths  and  languages  ;  from  them  I  look  for  correction  and  further  light  than  I  have 
yet  attained  to  ;  but  imperfect  as  all  knowledge  here  is,  it  would  vastly  tend  to  pro 
gress  and  enlightenment,  if  we  all  wrote  and  published  what  facts  we  know ;  or  as 
Max  Miiller  puts  it,  throw  abroad  the  chips  from  our  various  workshops. 

If  the  matters  of  Man's  early  and  present  Faiths  are  difficult,  they  are  of  all- 
enthralling  interest ;  and  for  my  own  part,  all  the  leisure  moments  of  a  busy  life  have 
been  more  or  less  devoted  for  the  last  thirty  years  to  studying  these  and  cognate  sub 
jects  ;  or,  perhaps,  I  should  rather  say,  to  watching  and  noting  down  the  valuable 
freight,  which  ever  sweeps,  in  a  strong,  full,  and  deep  current,  past  all  who  study 
the  literature  of  their  time.  Sometimes  we  see  this  stream  of  religious  and  literary 
thought  calm,  but  oftener  far,  troubled,  if  not  tempestuous ;  sometimes  the  floating 
craft  is  the  compact  and  fully  garnished  vessel  of  the  man  of  calm  reason  and  high 
intellectual  culture,  but  oftener  do  we  note  upon  the  stream,  the  crank  and  leaky 
barque  of  the  bigot,  the  zealot,  or  the  religious  enthusiast.  '  The  earnest  student  must 
fish  in  many  waters,  and  in  all  he  may  catch  something.  I  am  still  a  searcher  for 
pebbles  on  the  shores  of  the  streams  of  Faiths,  and  moments  snatched,  few  and  often 
far  between,  from  an  anxious  professional  life,  are  not  favourable  to  a  subject  like  mine  ; 
the  threads  are  delicate  as  they  are  numerous,  and  as  it  were  mere  lines  of  thought, 
which  here  and  there  only  attain  to  a  rich  maturity ;  but  which,  in  every  age  and  clime, 
will  be  found  twining  out  and  in  with  each  other  in  endless  maze.  As  a  rule  the 
whole  tangled  web  of  a  Faith  springs  from  a  grand  spiritual  idea  of  a  devout  Leader, 
which,  worked  upon  by  various  minds,  commonly  bursts  out  later  into  a  practical 

I.  A 

2  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

violence  which  would  have  shamed  and  horrified  Him  whose  name  his  followers  have 
perhaps  adopted ;  whilst  in  their  precepts,  dogmas,  and  rituals,  they  differ  as  much  from 
the  spiritual  worship  which  that  Leader  taught  and  practised,  as  frozen  seas  from 
torrid  zones,  as  the  delicate  tracery  of  a  Phidias  from  the  formless  stones  bedaubed 
with  red  which  all  the  ancient  tribes  around  me  worship  ;  and  which  is  yet  but 
a  feature  of  that  same  Faith  which  the  artistic  Greek  threw  into  the  stones  of  Athens, 
and  which  is  also  precisely  that  Faith  which,  as  Raskin  puts  it,  reared  "  the  stones  of 
Venice," — which  shines  out  no  less  in  the  obelisks  of  Egypt  than  in  the  columns,  poles, 
and  hangings,  which  beautify  the  Piazza-di-san-Marco,  and  which  we  can  everywhere 
still  trace  throughout  the  world.  It  is  then  for  the  student  of  these  things,  who  is 
aided  by  the  vast  light  which  literature  and  philosophy  are  everywhere  casting  on  his 
path,  to  as  keenly  collect,  as  to  severely  sift,  the  ends  and  beginnings  of  the  flossy  mass, 
divided  and  sub-divided  as  he  will  find  these  lines  of  thought  to  be,  whether  by  the 

o  J 

subtle  brains  of  ancient  philosophers,  devotees,  and  fanatics,  or  by  the  old  poets  and 
painters  of  nature  and  of  art,  who  always  follow  these,  and  who  work  up  the  stiff,  cold, 
coarse  outlines  into  glowing  tints  and  lovely  images. 

As  an  instance  of  how  closely  we  must  watch  for  the  traces  of  man's  Faiths  in 
his  doings  and  sayings,  T  may  note,  that  Mr  Fergusson,  the  great  writer  on  architec 
ture,  and  the  author  and  compiler  of  that  beautiful  volume  on  "  Tree  and  Serpent 
Worship,"  says  that,  keen  observer  though  he  ever  was  of  ancient  architecture,  he  had 
seen  many  of  the  beautiful  temples  and  sculpturings  he  depicts,  for  a  dozen  of  years 
past  (I  quote  from  memory),  and  never  observed  the  serpent  or  a  trace  of  serpent- 
worship,  although  now  that  his  attention  has  been  called  to  it  he  finds  it  everywhere, 
twining  in  and  out,  and  over-shadowing  with  up-reared  hood,  the  oldest  ideas  of  man 
on  stone  and  rock. 

The  more  we  study  Faiths  the  more  shall  we  perceive  the  very  close  union  of 
their  essences  and  origins.  Thus  a  great  tree  first  springs  up  and  stands  apart, 
beautiful  and  noble  by  itself.  The  beasts  of  Earth  and  birds  of  Heaven  come  to  it  for 
nourishment  and  shelter,  but  they  bring  with  them  the  corruptions  of  many  nations, 
and  the  lovely  branches  of  the  tree  get  coated  and  encrusted  with  many  parasites,  some 
good  and  lovely  as  itself,  but  many  also  poisonous  and  corrupting.  The  substance  of 
the  great  Tree  is  eaten  into,  and  its  mighty  branches  are  disfigured  and  weighed  down, 
— all  this  it  can  bear  ;  but  at  last  a  delicate,  tiny,  gentle  creeper  calls  to  it  from  the 
ground  for  support,  and  taking  it  up  fondly,  the  tree  nestles  it  in  its  mighty  arms  and 
feeds  it  with  its  own  life,  soon,  alas,  to  find  that  it  is  to  be  repaid  by  the  grasp  of  death 
in  the  mighty  and  evertightening  embrace  of  the  many-folded  destroyer.  So  sinks  the 
great  Parent  Faith  into  the  Earth  from  which  it  sprang,  and  in  its  place  rises  the 
tangled  and  mazy  mass  which  we  find  all  old  Faiths  to  be. 

Originally,  then,  all  faiths  are  but  the  ideas  of  a  great  man,  or  men  great  in  faith 
if  not  in  intellect,  and  not  at  all  necessarily  so  in  culture;  men  to  whom  ideas  are 

Introductory  Chapter.  3 

realities,  and  who  are  willing  to  die  for  those  ideas.  It  is  their  enthusiasm  of  Faith 
which  converts  the  multitude  and  leads  to  triumphs  and  power ;  and  then  up  come  the 
creepers  from  grovelling  in  dirt  and  every  worldliness,  men  of  ambition,  and  of  older 
Faiths,  who  see  the  influence  and  power  which  the  strong  enthusiast  has  raised,  and  for 
the  sake  of  these  they  gradually  twine  themselves  about  the  goodly  tree,  killing  off  all 
branches  (sectaries,  &c.)  which,  as  power  is  gained,  no  longer  serve  their  mundane  aims 
and  purposes  ;  and  thus  makmg  the  whole  a  mere  engine  of  their  own  or  of  their  State 
with  codes  and  articles,  the  Faith  becomes  in  their  hands  the  tangled  mass  I  have 
sought  to  picture. 

I  had  better  here  state,  once  for  all,  that  in  a  subject  such  as  mine,  where  I  have 
to  substantiate  certain  positions  taken  up,  I  cannot  pretend  not  to  plagiarise ;  that  is 
to  say,  I  must  borrow  views,  facts,  and  materials  in  support  of  my  own,  and  of  my 
chronology,  from  the  storehouses  of  the  learned  of  all  classes,  which  I  have  been  able  to 
meet  with  ;  nay,  worse,  I  shall  often  not  be  able  to  name,  and  so  to  kindly  acknowledge 
the  writers  from  whom  I  quote ;  for  I  find  in  going  over  my  note-books,  containing 
many  years  of  detached  studies,  that  I  can  only  guess  at  many  of  my  sources  of  infor 
mation.  I  beg,  therefore,  the  kind  consideration  of  those  from  whom  I  borrow,  or  whose 
writings  I  err  in  quoting  or  understanding ;  I  am  here  only  anxious  to  enlighten  the 
ordinary  reading  public,  perhaps  I  should  say  of  the  male  sex,  for  to  our  sisters,  the 
origin  of  Faiths  and  of  the  various  rites  they  continually  see  around  them,  must  long 
remain  mysterious,  except  perhaps  to  that  advanced,  strong-minded  and  ever-increasing 
phalanx,  who  dare  to  enter  upon  all  those  themes  which  form  the  broad  domain  of  social 
science.  This  work,  then,  is  for  men,  and  indeed  only  for  that  class  of  my  brothers  who 
venture  on  strong  food,  and  have  permitted  themselves  to  look  beyond  the  swaddling 
bands  of  youth.  My  readers  must  be  persons  capable  of  standing  some  amount  of  mental 
and  psychological  incising,  which  is  absolutely  necessary  if  we  are  to  go  to  the  roots  of 
the  hopes  and  fears  and  faiths  of  man.  For  he  was  an  animal  from  the  beginning,  and 
but  here  and  there,  in  these  later  times,  has  risen  to  be  a  spiritual  animal.  No  maudlin 
sentiment  of  false  delicacy  must  in  this  case  keep  us  from  calling  a  spade  a  spade.  The 
knife  of  the  dissecting  surgeon  must  cut  down,  deeply  and  firmly,  and  expose  the 
bone  and  its  ailment,  and  thus  only  can  we  hope  to  eradicate  the  fell  disease. 
Those  who  cannot  read  medical  works  of  science,  and  who  would  open  this  with  prurient 
eye,  should  not  read  it,  for  the  subject  and  occasion  is  grave  in  the  extreme,  and  none 
must  blame  the  physician  for  being  bold  and  clear  in  speech.  If  he  be  correct  in  his 
facts,  he  is  bound  to  tell  us  these,  and  the  conclusions  they  point  to,  and  we  must  not 
find  fault  with  him  for  opening  up  the  festering  wound,  which  was  none  of  his  making. 
This  Chart  then,  is  to  try  and  place  before  ordinary  reading  men  the  facts  of  Faiths 
which  learning  and  scientific  criticism  have  established  on  good  and  firm  ground,  and 
to  bring  such  up  to  the  present  time.  I  wish  to  address  people  who  would  not  dream 
of  opening  a  work  on  the  Vedas  and  Tripitaka  ;  who  never  heard  nor  wish  to  hear  of  a 

4  Rivers  of  Life,  or  FaitJis  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Bernouf  or  a  Saiiit  Hilaire,  nay,  who  think  the  exquisite  and  intensely  interesting 
lectures  of  Max  Miiller  extremely  heavy,  and  for  many  reasons  to  be  avoided.  Before 
such  persons  I  wish  also  to  try  and  put  plainly  and  in  a  brief  and  compact  manner, 
so  much  and  no  more  of  the  writings,  history,  and  nature  of  all  Religions,  as  we  at 
present  have  data  for,  and  are  agreed  concerning.  In  doing  this,  I  do  not  mean  to  say 
that  there  are  not  differences  of  opinions,  but  merely  that  science  and  research  have 
established  or  are  establishing  what  I  shall  here  treat  of  and  have  depicted  in  this 
Chart.  Even  if  I  be  not  right  in  all  I  urge,  I  shall  have  forwarded  a  very  important 
matter,  by  pointing  out  and  illustrating  many  analogies  in  rites,  customs,  languages, 
and  ideas,  which  others  who  have  here  so  oft  stumbled  at  the  very  threshold,  may 
be  better  able  to  follow  up  than  I  am  ;  for  the  tangled  skein  has  never  yet,  that  I 
have  observed,  given  fully  forth  its  ends  to  those  who  in  Europe  have  sought  to  unravel 
it,  and  who,  if  but  once  they  picked  up  the  ends,  could  abundantly  have  led  the  way. 
Knowledge,  says  some  one,  is  in  the  abstract  but  the  reminiscence  or  recovery  of  ideas, 
and  I  hope  to  point  out  in  this  volume  many  a  forgotten  form  and  idea. 

Writing  as  I  do  from  the  cradles  of  our  race,  where  religious  fanaticism  and 
intolerance  still  flourish  in  all  their  strongest  archaic  rudeness,  I  may  unwittingly  be 
doing  what  others  have  long  ago  done  better  than  I ;  it  is  necessary  therefore  that  I 
here  state,  that  I  have  never  come  across  an  attempt  like  this,  to  show  in  a  plain, 
historical,  and  I  hope  popular  way,  the  origin  and  streams  of  man's  Faiths,  as  they 
poured  down  from  the  great  fountain-head,  as  the  ancient  Aryan  would  tell  us,  from 
"  The  Great  Father/' — the  Brahm,  the  AUM,  the  Ormazd  of  the  east,  or  as  the  Jewish 
Genesis  puts  it,  from  the  Elohim,  or  RuacA  Elohim,  upon  the  fertile  but  till  then 
uncultivated  soul  of  his  creatures. 

I  am  the  more  induced  to  try,  though  at  great  risk  of  error,  to  render  fixed  at 
least  within  some  definite,  though  it  may  be  wide  limits,  those  rising,  ebbing,  flowing, 
strong,  but  sometimes  ephemeral  thoughts  of  ancient  men  regarding  their  Creator, 
because  we  meet  on  every  side,  even  amongst  well  educated  and  tolerably  well  read 
persons,  the  most  astonishing  ignorance  as  to  the  very  existence  of  the  great  religious 
Leaders  of  our  race,  nay,  even  total  ignorance  of  the  very  names  of  the  great,  and  with 
some  allowance,  of  the  grandest  Faiths  of  man. 

Max  Miiller  opens  one  of  his  excellent  Lectures  (Chips,  I.  182)  with  Paul's  text, 
"  Prove  all  things  ;  hold  fast  that  which  is  -good,"  and  asks  what  number  of  theologians 
or  laymen  have  ever  taken  it  to  heart.  "  How  many  candidates  for  holy  orders,"  he 
says,  "  could  give  a  straightforward  answer  if  asked  to  enumerate  the  principal  religions 
of  the  world,  or  to  state  the  names  of  their  founders  and  the  titles  of  the  works  which 
are  still  considered  by  millions  of  human  beings  as  the  sacred  authorities  for  their  reli 
gious  belief  ? "  To  study  such  works  would  be  considered  mere  waste  of  time  I  Let 
us  hope  that  matters'  are  mending  since  this  was  written,  in  1867  or  thereabouts. 
There  is  no  doubt  that  these  subjects  remain  far  too  much  stored  in  the  granaries  of 


Introductory  Chapter.  5 

the  learned,  and  many  who  could  not  only  speak  but  write  regarding  them,  will  not, 
too  often,  probably,  from  the  intolerant  element  in  our  own  little  stream  of  Faith, 
which  looks  upon  enquiries  into  the  devout  thoughts  of  others  as  a  pulling  down  of 
its  own  cherished  groves  and  altars,  and  the  bringing  towards  an  equality  all  the 
nations  of  the  earth.  Should  it  be  so  ? 

Can  the  pious  heart  not  find, 

In  each  new  Faith  of  human  kind, 

Some  grace  that  wins,  some  ties  that  bind  1 

For  God  sees  Faith  in  all. 

Lecky  is  justly  strong  on  this  deadness  which  men  feel  in  the  cause  of  truth  : 
He  allows  that  "Hypocrites,  who  from  interested  motives  profess  opinions  which  they 
do  not  really  believe,  are  probably  rarer  than  is  usually  supposed,"  but  adds,  "it  would  be 
difficult  to  over-estimate  the  number  of  those  whose  genuine  convictions  are  due  to  the 
unresisted  bias  of  their  interests.  By  the  term  interests,  I  mean  not  only  individual 
well-being,  but  also  all  those  mental  luxuries,  all  those  grooves  or  channels  of  thought, 
which  it  is  easy  and  pleasing  to  follow,  and  painful  and  difficult  to  abandon.  Such 
are  the  love  of  ease,  the  love  of  certainty,  the  love  of  system,  the  bias  of  the  passions, 
the  associations  of  the  imagination,  as  well  as  the  coarser  influences  of  social  position, 
domestic  happiness,  professional  interest,  party-feeling  or  ambition.  In  most  men  the 
love  of  truth  is  so  languid,  and  their  reluctance  to  encounter  mental  prejudices  is  so 
great,  that  they  yield  their  judgments  without  an  effort  to  the  current,  withdraw  their 
minds  from  all  opinions  or  arguments  opposed  to  their  own,  and  thus  speedily  convince 
themselves  of  the  truth  of  what  they  wish  to  believe."  He,  then,  who  would  write  as 
I  am  about  to  do,  must  expect  to  incur  obloquy  and  every  manner  of  reproach,  and  to 
hear  applied  to  himself  every  usual  orthodox  opprobrious  name  ;  for  it  is  not  in  Europe, 
and  certainly  not  amongst  Saxon  races,  that  man  may  yet  speak  the  truth  and  not 
suffer  for  it.  Thanks  to  education,  which  priests  have  too  commonly  tried  to  thwart, 
the  fate  of  a  Sokrates  is  not  now  the  European  award  of  him  who  follows  truth,  yet 
Europe  has  still  got  a  Golgotha  for  those  who  expose  her  fallacies,  more  especially  those 
of  her  "faiths  ;  and  the  lover  of  truth  must,  even  in  the  midst  of  the  civilization  of  this 
century,  take  up  his  cross  to  follow  her. 

Come  what  may,  however,  let  our  motto  be  to  "  cease  to  profess  what  we  have 
ceased  to  believe.  Let  there  be  perfect  veracity  above  all  things,  more  especially  in 
matters  of  religion.  It  is  not  a  question  of  courtesies'  which  deceive  no  one.  To 
profess  what  is  not  believed,  is  immoral.  Immorality  and  untruth  can  never  lead  to 
morality  and  virtue  ;  all  language  which  conveys  untruth  either  in  substance  or  in 
appearance,  should  be  amended  so  that  words  can  be  understood  in  their  recognised 
meanings  without  equivocal  explanations,  or  affirmatives.  Let  historic  facts  have  their 
true  explanations."1  Yes!  if  men  would  but  act  thus!  then,  would  all  the  religious 

1  Westminster  Review,  January  1873. 

6  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

world  be  at  peace,  just  as  the  real  world  of  science  is,  however  much  its  philosophers 
sift  and  pull  to  pieces  each  other's  theories  until  thoroughly  verified  by  facts. — No 
virulence  or  contention,  however,  startles  the  votaries  of  that  shrine,  save  \vhen  with 
jaundiced  eye  there  steps  into  the  arena  some  one  who  longs  to  hold  to  his  clear  old 
pious  myths,  as  of  God's  sudden  creation  of  the  world  "  out  of  nothing  in  six  days," 
and  his  destruction  of  all  in  forty  1  This  is  to  weave  a  link  of  straw  in  a  chain  of  iron, 
and  to  grumble  because  the  iron  links  and  their  mechanists,  cannot  see  its  value. — 
To  know  the  truth,  we  must,  owing  to  the  past  faultiness  of  our  education  and  circum 
stances,  begin,  as  Descartes  said  he  found  himself  compelled  to  do,  by  unknowing  and 
questioning  everything.  Yet  are  there  havens  for  anchorage.  "Truth,"  says  G.  M. 
Lewes,  in  his  History  of  Philosophy  (I.  xxxi.),  "  is  the  correspondence  between  the 
order  of  ideas  and  the  order  of  phenomena,  so  that  the  one  is  a  reflection  of  the  other 
— the  movement  of  Thought  following  the  movement  of  Things."  Thus,  from  the 
order  of  our  ideas  regarding  a  falling  body,  and  the  order  of  its  phenomena  which  we 
constantly  observe,  we  obtain  a  Law  of  Truth. 

The  man  of  business  and  even  the  man  of  ordinary  lore  will  still  exclaim  that  my 
subject  is  abstruse,  and  of  no  practical  interest,  just  as  not  many  years  ago  he  said  the 
same  of  the  poor  chemist  manipulating  in  his  laboratory  with  a  magnet  and  some 
acids,  from  which,  however,  has  sprung  the  girdle  which  now  all  but  encircles  the 
earth.  Why  yet  should  riot  one  faith  in  the  one  great  Father  of  all  men  and 
nations  "  fill  the  earth  "  ?* 

To  bring  about  this  we  have  only  got  to  look  and  speak  of  Him  alone,  and  to  put 
aside  our  own  little  national  gods,  Fetishes  and  idiosyncracies,  and  not  condemn  or 
contemn  each  other  in  those  things  of  which  we  are  still  so  ignorant. — On  the  one 
broad  basis  of  the  eternal  Brahm  and  of  his  two  eternal  moral  laws,  "  to  love  Him,  and 
to  love  our  neighbour,"  known  long  ere  inscribed  in  Christian  writ,  all  men  and  all 
nations  are  theoretically  agreed,  and  it  but  remains  that  we  educate  and  persuade  each 
other  to  love  Him  and  all  His  creatures.  "  A  Belief"  especially  such  as  theologians 
mean  by  this  word,  is  not  ours  to  control.2  It  follows  laws  as  fixed  as  those  which 
govern  the  world  of  matter,  and  as  it  is  not  in  our  power  to  will  a  belief,  far  less  to 
will  a  true  belief,  so  no  just  God  can  punish  us  for  that  regarding  which  we  are 
irresponsible.  We  can  be,  however,  nay  are,  held  justly  responsible  for  the  diligence  and 
care  we  exercise  or  fail  to  exercise  in  arriving  at  the  truth,  reasons,  and  causes  of  our 
beliefs  ;  we  are  responsible  for  accepting  them  simply  because  of  the  locality  or  circum 
stances  of  our  birth,  or  because  "  we  feel  they  are  true,"  or  because  we  like  the  leaders 
or  followers  of  the  Belief.  He  only  then  sins,  and  that  heinously,  who  refuses  to  use 

1   Colenso   truly    says:  —  Let    us   "receive    de-      present   clay,  "each  good  and   perfect  gift  coming 
voutly "  not  only  the  revelations  of  the  past,  but      down  from  the  Father  of  Light." 
also    welcome     joyfully    the     revelations     of   the  2  See  "  Reign  of  Law  in  Mind  as  in  Matter"  by 

Charles  Bray. — Scott's  Series,  1874. 

Introductory  Chapter.  7 

all  the  powers  of  intellect  and  reason  he  is  gifted  with,  or  can  acquire,  to  investigate, 
not  once,  but  always,  and  every  thing  against  as  for  "  the  Faith  which  is  within  him." 
The  late  lamented  Professor  Augustus  De  Morgan  wrote,  "Belief  is  a  s tate,  not  an  act, 
of  the  mind  ;"  '"I  shall  believe'  has  no  existence,"  he  says,  "except  in  a  grammar." 

All  Beliefs  then  must  change  with  every  additional  light  or  fact  which  literature  and 
learning  bring  before  them.  Circumstances  may  be  their  parents,  but  education,  learning, 
and  travel  are  their  fond  preceptors.  Beliefs  may  be  silent,  but  move  on  they  must,  as 
night  gives  place  to  dawn,  which  again  will  gladly  yield  to  solar  light  and  heat.  We 
must  remember  that  progress  is  always  blasphemy  in  the  eyes  of  those  who  don't  like 
to  progress,  and  the  churches  have  long  inscribed  on  their  banners  the  motto  which  was 
applied  to  the  laws  of  the  Medes  and  Persians — "they  change  not,  neither  do  they  learn." 

We  all  know,  however,  of  another  motto,  "the  blasphemy  of  one  age  is  the 
orthodoxy  of  the  next,"  and  that  Christ,  though  called  a  blasphemer,  was  by  no  means 
the  first  so  called.  He  has  been  followed  by  thousands,  down  to  Luther  and  Voysey 
— but  I  am  digressing. 

I  cannot  for  a  moment  admit  what  the  unread  world  may  say  of  my  subject- 
that  it  is  somewhat  fanciful,  its  dates,  localities,  and  decipherings  loose  and  indefinite. 
To  the  wide,  well  read  and  writing  world,  I  confidently  appeal,  for  it  is  from  them  I 
borrow,  and  on  them  I  build.  I  shall  also,  however,  have  a  class  of  readers  who  call 
themselves  religious,  and  they  will  probably  say  the  theme  is  atheistic,  for  many  think, 
like  Israel  of  old,  that  disbelief  in  their  God  is  a  disbelief  in  any  God !  Some  readers 
also  do  not  like  to  know  that  other  faiths  are  the  Parents  of  their  own.  History  and 
facts,  however,  cannot  be  gainsayed.  The  "Eternal  Father,"  called  by  whatever  name, 
has  moved  us  steadily  and  progressively,  ever  manifesting  Himself  according  to  man's 
abilities  to  understand  Him,  and  lie  is  in  all  Faiths.  Miiller  says,  "  as  we  study,  we 
begin  to  see  what  ought  never  to  have  been  doubted,  that  there  is  no  religion  without 
God,"  or  as  even  the  necessarily  one-sided  Saint  Augustine  expresses  it,  "  there  is  no 
false  religion  (as  if  all  faiths  had  not  some  false  elements),  which  does  not  contain  some 
elements  of  truth." 

We  now  however  know,  that  our  Heavenly  Father  has  ever  manifested  Himself 
to  his  children  in  every  clime  and  age  in  that  precise  way  which  He  intended,  and 
knew  to  be  then  best  for  them,  because  such  as  their  infant  minds  or  intellectual 
culture  enabled  them  to  comprehend.  He  knew,  and  so  now  do  we,  that  no  poor 
untutored  follower  of  an  Abraham  or  a  Zoroaster,  sprung  from  amidst  the  lands  of  Sun 
and  Fire,  of  Grove  and  Serpent  worship,  and  calling  his  Gods  (for  the  plural  is  gene 
rally  used  in  those  days  of  man's  infancy)  Elo,  Elohim,  Brahm,  Vishnoo,  Ormazd,  or 
Indra,  could  have  understood  the  one  pure  and  spiritual  Father,  whom  we  now  adore, 
and  whom  we  can  demonstrate  to  be  an  immutable,  and  unchanging  Power,  whence 
sprang  not  only  this  globe,  but  others,  far  beyond  the  blue  "  Firmament "  of  Genesis, 
which  divided  the  little  Jewish  heaven  from  their  little  earth,  and  which,  child-like, 

8  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

they  fancied,  as  do  the  Polynesians  of  the  present  day,  was  a  leaky  covering,  "  divid 
ing  the  waters  from  the  waters."  What  could  the  glazed  eye  of  infancy  see  of  a 
"  Herschel's  starry  depths,"  and  so  comprehend,  if  even  indeed  desire  to  know,  of  a 
God  ruling  those  mighty  systems,  which  travel  their  millions  of  miles  an  hour,  far  out 
into  space  illimitable ;  and  ever  move  by  mysterious  force,  as  with  mathematical  precision. 
God  understands  his  children  best,  and  ever  gives  milk  to  babes  and  meat  to  strong  men, 
and  so  it  is  now  and  ever  will  be.  "  As  thy  civilisation  or  culture  is,  so  shall  thy  gods 
be,"  seems  written  on  man's  horoscope. 

"  All  things,"  says  a  powerful  writer,  "  are  the  product  of  their  conditions,  and  all 
conditions  have  a  right  to  exist,  therefore  the  products  have  a  right  to  exist  also ;  and 
the  Maker  of  the  conditions  cannot  in  justice  refuse  to  be  satisfied  with  the  products 
of  conditions  which  he  has  permitted." x  The  poor  soil  and  the  arid  sky  are  as  much 
a  part  of  the  universal  order,  as  the  rich  garden,  soft  rain,  and  warm  sunshine.  It  is 
just  that  the  one  should  yield  a  crop  which  the  other  would  despise.  It  would  be 
unjust  that  both  should  yield  alike. 2 

Look  for  a  moment  at  the  heavens  of  different  faiths.  The  good  Theodore 
Parker  somewhere  states,  that  if  the  Buffalo  imagined  a  heaven,  it  would  be  a  rich 
wet  meadow,  covered  with  luxuriant  grasses,  in  which  roamed  a  large  fat  buffalo- 
God  ;  and  Max  Miiller  tells  us  that  the  Greenlander  believes  that  when  a  man  dies 
his  soul  travels  to  Torngarsuk,  the  land  where  reigns  perpetual  summer,  all  sunshine 
and  no  night ;  where  there  are  good  waters  and  birds,  fish,  seals,  and  reindeer  with 
out  end,  that  are  to' be  caught  without  trouble,  or  are  even  found  conveniently  cook 
ing  alive  in  a  huge  kettle  !  The  Greenlander's  soul's  journey  is  however  difficult — 
it  slides,  says  Miiller,  five  days  down  a  precipice  stained  with  the  blood  of  those  who 
went  before.  It  is  specially  grievous  for  the  poor  soul  when  the  journey  must  be 
made  in  winter  or  tempest,  for  it  may  then  suffer  what  they  call  "  the  other  death," 
when  it  perishes  utterly  and  nothing  is  left ;  so  that  reaching  this  heaven  is,  after  all, 
only  a  chance,  and  like  the  predestination  doctrine  of  the  Christian  faith,  is  a  matter 
foreordained  by  great  Jove  or  Odin,  and  so  beyond  the  creature's  power  to  control ! 

The  New  Hollander's  heaven  is  an  abode  of  two  good  divinities,  a  delightful 
place  with  plenty  of  game  and  food  ;  no  excess  of  heat  or  cold,  rain  or  drought,  no 
malignant  spirits  nor  sickness,  no  death,  but  plenty  of  "  rioting,  singing,  and  dancing 
for  evermore  ! "  Like  Christians,  the  Australian  believes  in  "  an  evil  spirit  dwelling 
in  the  nethermost  region,"  though  he  declines  to  tell  us  what  sort  of  place  this  is,  or 
where  :  His  Satan,  however,  has,  like  that  at  his  Antipodes,  horns  and  a  tail  f 

All  religions  begin  with  offerings  and  sacrifices  to  some  great  spirit — this  in 
Europe  became  Mercury,  or  Bode,  or  Wode,  and  to  him  the  Teuton  and  Gaul,  or 
Celt,  offered  human  victims,  had  open  or  uncovered  temples,  consecrated  groves,  wor 
shipped  oaks  and  the  ash,  and  performed  auspicial  rites. 

"  Cantab.,"  Scott's  Series.  2  "  The  Pilgrim  and  the  Shrine." 

Introductory  Chapter. 

"  Thus,"  says  an  unknown  but  clever  writer,  "  does  religion  vary  in  its  de 
velopment,  as  the  following  table,  which  represents  pretty  correctly  the  progress  in 
religion  from  the  lowest  to  the  highest  degree  of  a  religious  civilisation,  abundantly 



Tripai*tite  or  semi- 

Unipartite   barbar 

Civilized  but  not 
scientific,  with 
idol  worship. 

Civilized  but  not 
scientific,  without 
idol  worship. 

Civilized  and  scien 


If  any,  it  is  Fetish. 

Worship  of  a  spirit 
with  idols. 


Idol  worship. 

Fire  worship. 

Miraculous  Mono 
theism  and  Tri 
nitarian  Chris 

No  idols. 


The  Deification  of  matter,  wor 
ship  of  stones,  sticks,  rams' 
heads,  &c. 

Ditto,  with  human  sacrifices. 

Worship  of  birds,  snakes,  and 
beasts,  and  of  images,  half 
man  and  half  beast,  &c. 

Representation  of  the  Deity  in 
the  form  of  man,  that  is  An 
thropomorphic  religion. 

Anthropopathic  religion  ;  that 
is,  imputing  to  God  human 

Belief  in  an  invisible,  infinite, 
self-existing  Deity,  perfect  in 
goodness,  wisdom,  and  power, 
without  any  passion  save  love, 
and  without  any  image  or 


West  coast  of  Africa,  &c. 

West  coast  of  Africa,  Mexico, 

Ancient  religion  of  Mesopo 
tamia,  of  Egypt  and  Asia, 
except  Confucians. 

The  ancient  pagan  religions  of 
Greece  and  Rome.  The 
Mariolatry  of  Papal  Chris 

Parsees,  Jews,  Mahomedans 
and  Christians. 

The  scientific  Theologian  of  the 
nineteenth  century. 

This  writer  then  goes  on  to  show  that,  though  religions  may  have  different  creeds 
and  ceremonies,  they  have  all  certain  common  fundamental  principles,2  such  as  : — 

"  Scrutator,"  Trubnef,  1867. 
2  Since  this  was  written  I  observe  that  a  Ro 
man  Catholic,  the  Canon  of  St.  Genevieve,  of  Paris, 
has  published  a  book,  "  Le  Catholicisme  avant 
Jesus  Christ,"  in  which  the  author,  "  M.  1'Abbe  P. 
J.  Jallabert,  means  to  prove  that  the  belief  and 
traditions  common  to  Pagans,  Jews,  and  Christians, 
draw  their  origin  from  what  he  calls  primitive 
revelation.  According  to  him  the  same  symbols 
are  found  by  all  nations  ;  their  worship  is  identical 

in  all  its  essential  parts  ;  the  traditions  conveyed 
in  the  Sybilline  verses,  Hermes  Trismegistus,  and 
Zoroaster,  include  the  general  expectation  of  a 
Redeemer,  and  show  the  fundamental  unity  of  dog 
matic  and  moral  belief  in  Asia  and  Europe."  If 
the  writer  means  by  this  word  "  Redeemer,"  a 
Prophet — Imam — or  King,  or  Messiah,  such  as 
the  Jews  looked  for,  and  which  we  trace  in  Boodha, 
Confucius,  Laotsee,  Christ,  and  Mahomed,  then  he 
is  undoubtedly  right,  and  the  fact  of  the  Catholic 

io  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

SACRIFICES. — In  the  most  barbarous  ages  everywhere  human,  vide  Egypt,  and 
Abraham.  The  sons  of  Saul  given  by  David  "  to  the  Lord "  to  appease  a 
famine !  See  also  the  story  of  Jephtha's  daughter,  &c. 

MASSACRES. — The  Mahomedan  Sheeas,  by  the  Mahomedari  Soonites.   The  Christian 

Protestants,  by  the  Christian  Romanists,  and  similarly  in  every  land  and  age. 

PILGRIMAGES. — Alike   by  Brahmans,    Boodhists,   Jews,  Christians,    and   Malio- 


MIRACLES  AXD  IDOLS. — In  every  religion,  save  that  of  the  great  Chinese  philo 
sopher  Confucius.  With  worship  in  their  presence,  as  the  bull-calf  of 
Egypt  and  of  the  East,  the  gorgeous  tree,  the  symbol  of  creative  power,  the 
living  energy  in  Sun  and  Fire,  Isis,  Horus,  the  Virgin  and  Child,  and 
symbolic  cross. 

BIBLES  AND  SACRED  BOOKS. — Lastly,  all  religions  have  Bibles,  before  whose 
words,  nay,  even  in  many  cases  before  whose  names,  not  only  the  voice  but 
the  head  and  the  knee  of  man  are  bent,  and  even  this  would  be  a  small 
thing,  were  it  not  that  intellect  and  reason,  God's  highest  gifts  to  man, 
which  alone  raise  him  above  the  rest  of  his  animal  creation ;  are  bent, 
crippled,  nay  broken,  and  ordered  to  be  subservient  to  the  foolish  dicta, 
words,  and  ideas,  often  found  in  these  books  called  Bibles,  and  this  for  no 
other  reason  than  because  there  written ;  thus  do  nations  turn  such  books 
into  fetishes.  It  is  forgotten  or  ignored,  that  though  placed  there  by  good 
and  holy,'  though  in  our  day  what  would  be  called  ignorant  men ;  who  when 
their  spirit  was  fired  with  holy  thoughts,  wrote — "  Thus  saith  the  Lord  ;"  yet 
we  know,  for  our  reason  and  conscience,  if  not  historians,  tell  us,  that  the 
words  and  dogmas  we  are  told  to  bow  before,  have  been  too  often  written  by 
conquerors  and  tyrants  and  bad  men,  who  thus  desired  to  justify  then- 
unjust  acts. 

Who  can  tell  what  misery,  blood  and  money  a  single  text1  in  one  of  these  so-called 
revealed  bibles  has  cost  mankind,  simply  because  men  thought  each  text  a  direct 
command  from  God  ?  It  is  vain  to  argue  or  reason  with  the v  poor  Biblicist,  for  those 
who  most  implicitly  follow,  are  always  those  who  have  taken  no  pains  to  enquire  into 
or  to  verify  the  book  and  its  pretensions.  "To  doubt  is  to  be  damned,"  is  the  Biblio 
later's  cry,  and  it  is  urged  that  the  more-  foolish  and  unreasonable  the  doctrine,  the 
more  certainly  has  it  come  from  God,  "  expressly  to  try  our  faith  !  " 

Past  results  and  expediency,  as  well  as  reason,  common  sense  and  morality,  have 
no  place  in  the  head  or  heart  of  a  thorough  Bibliolater.  An  editor  of  an  Indian  daily 

Church  producing  such  a  book  (I  judge  it   only      all    other   religions   as   well  as  our  own   will  yet 
by    its    title   and    the   publisher's    circular    note),      exercise  even  on  Catholic  priests, 
testifies  to  the  power  which  a  true  knowledge  of  *  Mahomedans  will  not  paint,  nor    will    many 

engrave  or  photograph,  on  account  of  a  single  text. 

Introductory  Chapter.  \  i 

paper  lately  ventured  to  write  judiciously  about  missionaries  being  permitted  to  annoy 
Hindoos  and  Mahomedans,  by  preaching  at  their  doors  against  their  Faiths ;  and  a 
missionary  in  the  true  spirit  of  a  Bibliolater  retorts — "  You  and  I  are  never  likely  to 
come  to  any  agreement  as  to  the  utility  of  street  preaching.  We  practise  in  obedience 
to  a  command  which  is  quite  regardless  of  all  rules  of  human  expediency,  and  if  it 
could  be  demonstrated  that  we  never  by  this  means  made  one  convert,  our  perverse 
body  would  still  cling  to  their  authority,  and  act  on  it( ! )  ;  men  believing  in  a  Bible 
do  not  ordinarily  look  to  results  to  confirm  their  belief,  but  live  and  die  '  faithful 
unto  the  end ! '  we  do  not  value  the  example  of  our  lives  (the  editor  had  said 
they  were  good)  except  as  means  to  an  end."  This  then  is  the  "  unreasonable 
service  "  of  the  Christian  bigot,  and  what  are  its  results  ?  After  a  residence  of  nearly 
a  third  of  a  century  in  India,  and  Banna,  and  a  close  and  intimate  acquaintance 
with  Christian  missionaries  of  all  sects,  I  can  only  state  that  I  have  never  yet  seen  a 
converted  man,  i.e.  one  who  has  been  reasoned  over  to  Christianity  from  his  own 
faith.  I  have  seen  many  who  for  a  time  and  an  object,  or  owing  to  certain  circum 
stances  have  adopted  Christianity,  but  no  independent  reasonable  man :  As  a  rule  the 
Christian  "  converts  "  are  those  reared  from  childhood  in  the  Faith,  or  old  and  weakly 
men  and  women,  who  have  lost  their  relatives  from  one  cause  or  another,  and  desire 
to  make  friends  of  "  the  Mammon  of  unrighteousness  ;"  or,  the  converts  are  wild, 
ignorant,  superstitious  Sontals  or  other  barbarous  tribes,  ready  to  adopt  anything 
which  respectable-looking  people  urge  upon  them. 

I  read  in  the  "  Bombay  Statesman  "  Newspaper  of  June  1872,  in  the  letter  of  a 
pious  correspondent,  most  probably  a  missionary,  who  is  not  satisfied  with  the  progress 
of  that  large  society  "  for  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel  in  foreign  parts,"  that  the 
society  has  existed  "  for  nearly  twelve  years  in  western  India,  and  it  has  not  been  able 
to  my  knowledge  to  prepare  a  single  efficient  agent  from  the  heathen  community  .... 
its  purse  is  always  full,  its  staff  of  European  workers  is  not  of  a  mean  order,  and  yet 
there  is  not  a  single  convert  from  heathenism  whom  they  can  call  their  own."  Now 
if  for  its  paid  and  permanent  officers,  where  it  proffers  a  permanent  provision  with 
house  and  salary,  this  large  missionary  body  have  been  unable  in  Bombay,  Poona,  &c., 
with  their  English  speaking  communities,  to  draw  a  single  convert  in  twelve  years,  where 
and  when  are  we  to  expect  converts  ?  The  fact  is  that  'Christianity,  like  all  faiths 
resting  on  miracles  and  bare  assertion  that  "  its  truths  are  direct  and  miraculous 
revelations  from  God,"  has  nothing  to  recommend  itself  to  man's  reasoning  faculties  ! 
For  safety's  sake  it  must  avoid  reasoners  and  all  who  are  sceptical,  and  all  wise  Christians 
do  so.  I  speak  as  one  who  for  years  preached  publicly  and  privately  to  natives,  until  I 
came  to  see  the  weakness  and  unsoundness  of  my  then  foundations.  .  Educated  natives, 
no  longer  fearing  Government  influence,  are  now  openly  opposing  missionaries  when 
preaching  publicly,  and  in  Bombay,  October  1873,  this  matter  attracted  much  atten 
tion.  Opposition  preachers  were  set  up,  and  notices  cast  widely  abroad  against  the 

12  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

missionaries  and  Christianity.  One  placard  was  headed,  "  Leave  these  fanatics  .  .  . 
they  cannot  answer  a  simple  question  seriously  put  to  them  in  connection  with  what 
they  say ;  they  senselessly  abuse  you  and  your  faiths  without  having  studied  them  at 
all ;  they  are  hirelings,  wrorking  against  truth  and  common  sense  and  against  the 
dictates  of  conscience  for  a  paltry  piece  of  earthly  bread.  .  .  .  You  know  well,  and 
it  is  a  patent  fact,  that  their  harangues  cannot  stand  discussion.  Do  not  waste 
time  with  impostors ;  serve  the  God  of  the  Universe  heartily  :  He  alone  will  save 
all  who  so  serve  Him.".  This  phase  will  yet  much  intensify.  Christianity 
will  have  to  try  and  stand  and  defend  herself,  which  she  is  ill  able  to  do 
dialectically  and  historically.  At  present  she  says  take  me  on  trust,  or,  as  its 
advocates  and  those  of  Mahomedanism  and  Boodhism  say,  "by  Faith," — yea  the 
blindest  and  most  unreasoning  faith.  None  can  prove  their  three  prophets  to  be  Gods 
or  even  to  be  miraculously  sent  from  God,  nor  their  Bibles  inspired  revelations  nor 
even  historically  correct :  No  ;  this  and  all  such  statements  must  be  accepted  blindly, 
and  then  of  course  any  other  gulp  is  easy,  and  the  unreasoning  convert  can  speak  glibly 
and  freely  of  "  the  peace  and  joy  of  believing,"  and  of  the  misery  of  those  "  hard 
hearted  unbelievers"  whom  his  new  God  in  his  mercy,  has  foreordained  from  all  eternity 
"  to  everlasting  misery  with  the  devil  and  his  angels  in  the  fire  which  will  never  be 
quenched."  He  can  set  forth  all  the  beautiful  traits  in  Boodha's  as  in  Christ's  and 
Mahomed's  life  and  character,  and  point  to  the  many  good  biblical  morals  which  no 
one  denies,  but  which  are  perfectly  useless  so  far  as  the  establishment  of  the  faiths  go. 
Let  me  here  quote  from  Professor  Huxley  what  he  has  experienced  in  his  scientific- 
researches  as  to  the  way  in  which  Priests  justify  their  unjust  acts  : — "  Everywhere 
have  they  broken  the  spirit  of  wisdom  and  tried  to  stop  human  progress  by  quotations 
from  their  Bibles  or  books  of  their  saints — In  this  nineteenth  century,  as  at  the  dawn  of 
modern  physical  science,  the  cosmogony  of  the  semi -barbarous  Hebrew  is  the  incubus 
of  the  philosopher,  and  the  opprobrium  of  the  orthodox.  AVho  shall  number  the 
patient  and  earnest  seekers  after  truth,  from  the  days  of  Galileo  until  now,  whose  lives 
have  been  embittered  and  their  good  name  blasted,  by  the  mistaken  zeal  of  bibliolaters  ? 
Who  shall  count  the  host  of  weaker  men  whose  sense  of  truth  has  been  destroyed  in  the 
effort  to  harmonize  impossibilities  ;  whose  life  has  been  wasted  in  the  attempt  to  force 
the  generous  new  wine  of  science  into  the  old  bottles  of  Judaism,  compelled  by  the 
outcry  of  the  same  strong  party  ?  It  is  true  that  if  philosophers  have  suffered,  their 
cause  has  been  amply  avenged.— Extinguished  theologies  lie  about  the  cradle  of  every 
science,  as  the  strangled  snakes,  beside  that  of  Hercules  ;  and  history  records  that 
whenever  science  and  orthodoxy  have  been  fairly  opposed,  the  latter  has  been  forced 
to  retire  from  the  lists,  bleeding  and  crushed  if  not  annihilated,  scotched  if  not  slain. 
But  orthodoxy  learns  not,  neither  can  it  forget,  and  though  at  present  bewildered  and 
afraid  to  move,  it  is  as  willing  as  ever  to  insist,  that  the  first  Chapter  of  Genesis  con 
tains  the  beginning  and  the  end  of  sound  science,  and  to  visit  with  such  petty  thunder- 

Introductory  Chapter.  13 

bolts,  as  its  half-paralysed  hands  can  hurl,  those  who  refuse  to  degrade  nature  to  the 
level  of  primitive  Judaism."  "  Religion,"  he  also  elsewhere  writes,  "  arising  like  all  other 
knowledge  out  of  the  action  and  interaction  of  man's  mind,  has  taken  the  intellectual 
coverings  of  Fetishism,  Polytheism,  of  Theism  or  Atheism,  of  Superstition  or  Rational 
ism  ;  and  if  the  religion  of  the  present  differs  from  that  of  the  past,  it  is  because  the 
theology  of  the  present  has  become  more  scientific  than  that  of  the  past,  not  because 
it  has  renounced  idols  of  Wood  and  idols  of  Stone,  but  begins  to  see  the  necessity  of 
breaking  in  pieces  the  idols  built  up  of  books  and  traditions  and  fine  spun  ecclesiastical 
cobwebs,  and  of  cherishing  the  noblest  and  most  human  of  man's  emotions,  by  worship 
'  for  the  most  part  of  the  silent  sort'  at  the  altar  of  the  unknown  and  unknoivable. 
....  If  a  man  asks  me,  what  the  politics  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  moon  are,  and  I 
reply  that  I  know  not,  that  neither  I  nor  any  one  else  have  any  means  of  knowing, 
and  that  under  these  circumstances  I  decline  to  trouble  myself  about  the  subject  at  all, 
I  do  not  think  he  has  any  right  to  call  me  a  sceptic."  Again,  "what  are  among 
the  moral  convictions  most  fondly  held  by  barbarous  and  semi-barbarous  people  ?  They 
are  the  convictions  that  authority  is  the  soundest  basis  of  belief ;  that  merit  attaches  to 
a  readiness  to  believe,  that  the  doubting  disposition  is  a  bad  one,  and  scepticism  a  sin, 

and  there  are  many  excellent  persons  who  still  hold  by  these  principles  ;" "  Yet 

we  have  no  reason  to  believe  that  it  is  the  improvement  of  our  faith,  nor  that  of  our 
morals  which  keeps  the  plague  from  our  city ;  but  it  is  the  improvement  of  our  natural 
knowledge.  We  have  learned  that  pestilences  will  only  take  up  their  abode  among 
those  who  have  prepared  unswept  and  ungarnished  residences  for  them.  Their  cities 
must  have  narrow,  un watered  streets  full  of  accumulated  garbage,  their  houses  must  be 
ill-drained,  ill-ventilated  ;  their  subjects  must  be  ill-lighted,  ill-washed,  ill-fed,  ill- 
clothed  ;  the  London  of  1665  was  such  a  city  ;  the  cities  of  the  east,  where  plague  has 
an  enduring  dwelling,  are  such  cities  ;  we  in  later  times  have  learned  somewhat  of 
nature,  and  partly  obey  her.  Because  of  this  partial  improvement  of  our  natural 
knowledge,  and  of  that  fractional  obedience,  we  have  no  plague  ;  but  because  that  know 
ledge  is  very  imperfect,  and  that  obedience  yet  incomplete,  typhus  is  our  companion 
and  cholera  our  visitor."  Former  generations,  and  indeed  many  among  us  still  say,  it 
is  the  hand  of  God,  let  us  humble  ourselves  before  these  his  awful  judgments,  let  us 
have  days  for  prayer  and  fasting ;  all  this  is  ignorance  and  superstition  which  we  are 
getting  ashamed  of.  But  to  return  to  Bibliolatry  or  the  worship  of  sacred  books  and 

In  my  Chart  I  have  denoted  this  vast  phase  of  faith  by  a  blue  band.  It  will  be 
seen  in  every  stream  commencing  with  the  reverence  for  the  Vedas.  The  books  are 
shut  to  the  people  till  the  days  of  printing,  when  I  show  one  open  Bible.  I  will  here 
give  the  dates  of  those  sacred  books  in  the  order  of  the  Chart,  that  is,  chronologically, 
according  to  the  best  writers  of  the  present  day. 

14  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 


BRAHMANS — the  Yedas,               B.C.  1500  to  2400  JEWS    and    CHRISTIANS  —  Old 

ZOROASTRIANS — Zenda Vesta,orVesta-Zend,    1600  Testament,                                    TIME  OF  CHRIST. 

JEWS,   parts   of  Talmud   and   some  JEWS — Mishna  (Rab.  Jordan's),                  A.c.  190 

Psalms,                                                 800  to  1100  CHRISTIANS — New  Test. — Origen's  collection,  250 

Do.     first  1 4  Books,  Old  Testament,                 630  Do.                        Jerome's  Vulgate,                400 

LAOTSEES  or  TAOTISTS — Taotseekeng,                  560  JEWS — Gemara — "  Babylonian,"                           427 

BOODHISTS — Tripitaka,                                            543  Do. — Talmud  proper, — "Jerusalem,"                470 

CONFUCIANS — Lykeng,                                           470  MAHOMED ANS — The  Koran,                                  630 

JAINS — The  Sootras,                                              450  SEEKS — The  Granth,                                           1500 

JEWS  and  CHRISTIANS — Part  of  Old  CHRISTIANS — Printed  Bible,                               1516 

Testament,  the  LXX.,  280-180 

Of  these  books  I  shall  have  much  to  say  hereafter,  but  here  I  must  allude  to  them 
briefly  to  bring  out  clearly  what  follows.  They  all  contain  much  that  is  true  and  good 
and  lovely.  They  picture,  as  in  a  mirror,  the  whole  growth  of  our  race,  more  espe 
cially  when  we  look  closer  into  the  families  of  man ;  some  are  poetic  and  cultivated, 
others  though  noble  in  parts,  are  yet  elsewhere  often  coarse  and  grovelling, — all  are 
growths  with  many  features  in  common. 

The  "All  Father"  God  stands  prominent  throughout,  as  far  back  as  history  yet 
permits  us  to  trace  Him. — He  becomes  somewhat  hid  by  other  gods,  and  especially  in 
all  nations  by  a  Trinity  of  which  we  have  the  essence  in  Vedic  days,  or  about  2200 
years  B.C.,  and  later  by  prophets  or  great  men,  of  whom  Zoroaster  leads  the  way,  in 
1600  B.C.,  and  the  long  list,  which  many  in  Hindoostan,  Arabia,  England  and  America 
hope  will  yet  be  longer,  rests  for  the  present  with  Mahomed,  the  Seek  Gooroo,  and 
similar  leaders. 

Through  all  Faiths  these  mighty  men,  the  leaders  of  thought  in  their  age  and 
country,  run  the  same  course ;  first  hated  and  despised,  then  reverenced  and  beloved, 
they  are  finally  worshipped  as  Divine,  if  not  by  the  learned  men  of  Earth,  at  least  by 
the  ignorant  masses. 

Every  Faith  is  full  of  incongruities,  inconsistencies,  and  anomalies,  and  to  say 
otherwise,  is'  to  say  it  is  unnatural.  The  Church  of  England  says  in  one  of  her 
"  articles  of  Faith,"  that  the  true  God  is  "  without  body,  parts  or  passions,"  but  in 
another,  for  infringing  which  she  has  just  turned  out  one  of  her  most  devout  clergy 
men,  that  "  we  are  to  worship  Christ  as  God,"  for  does  not  a  writer  in  the  New  Testa 
ment  say  that  He  is  "  one  with  the  Father  "  (though  he  does  not  mean  what  the  Article 
here  does),  created  all  things,  and  will  return  to  judge  all  the  nations  of  the  earth. 
Yet  he  had  parts  and  passions,  and  grew  in  body,  mind,  and  learning  ;  he  ascended,  says 
the  New  Testament,  into  heaven  with  his  body  of  flesh  and  bone,  clothed  in  man's  apparel, 
and  the  Christian  is  told  that  "this  same  Jesus  shall  so  come  in  like  manner." 

The  -writer  in  Dr  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary  shows  us  under  the  head  "  Septuagint," 
that  in  the  3d  century  B.C.  the  Jews  had  become  somewhat  ashamed  of  their  personal 

Introductory  Chapter.  15 

Jehovah,  and  that  accordingly,  in  the  translation  of  the  Hebrew  text  into  the  Greek 
(as  Christians  now  have  it),  "the  strong  expressions  of  the  Hebrew  are  softened  down, 
where  human  parts  are  ascribed  to  God."  It  would  have  been  as  well  if  Moses'  remarks 
in  Exodus,  chapter  xxxiii.,  and  elsewhere,  had  been  blotted  out  or  still  more  softened 
down.  The  Jewish  faith  is  a  commercial  one,  and  Christians  have  adopted  the  same 
views  of  rewards  and  punishments,  though  their  Heaven  and  Hell  are  quite  foreign  to 
ancient  as  also  to  modern  Israelites.  Both,  as  a  mass,  are  far  behind  the  great  Pytha 
goras,  who  more  than  500  years  B.C.,  said,  that  "  virtue  consisted  in  seeking  truth  and 
doing  good,"  the  very  same  thing  that  advanced  thinkers  of  this  day  say  is  the  essence 
of  all  religion.  Tersely  put,  true  religion  now  seems  to  be,  "  Do  good,  and  be  good, 
and  seek  diligently  after  Truth." 

The  "Old  Testament  Law"  ("Decalogue")  the  Jews  believe  was  written  by  the 
ringer  of  their  God  JHVH  or  Yhavh  (second  god,  their  first  being  Elohim)  on  stones, 
on  the  top  of  a  mountain.  Moses,  says  the  writer  of  Exodus,  vi.  3,Jtrst  knew  God  as 
Jhavh,  though  elsewhere  we  may  observe  that  Abram  also  uses  this  name.  The 
Hebrews  describe  Jhavh  as  a  god  who  commonly  travelled  about  and  talked  with  their 
great  leaders;  they  say  he  had  parts,  "Moses  seeing  him  face  to  face,"  and  arguing,  and 
occasionally  peevishly  finding  fault  with  him  ;  early  Greeks  called  JHVH,  IAH. 

This  god  appeared  to  Abraham  and  others,  who  however  sometimes  called  him 
Elohim,  El-Elohe-Israel,  Adoni,  and  Adonai-Jhavh,  (Adonai  being  the  third  person 
in  the  Phenician  Trinity. — Love,  or  Creation,  the  offspring  of  Belus  and  Uranus) 
as  in  Genesis  xv.  2  ;  at  other  times  El  Shadai,  and  El-Elohe,  as  when  he  sits  in 
the  tent  door  and  eats,  and  makes  the  great  covenant  (Genesis  xvii.  2)  on  which  Jews, 
as  also  Christians,  so  much  build.  He  is  clearly  a  man-God.  He  argues  with  men, 
and  is  often  turned  from  his  purposes  by  their  arguments  and  entreaties,  and  can  even 
be  vanquished  by  "  chariots  of  iron,"  for  though  he  went  with  Judah  and  commanded 
the  expulsion  of  the  inhabitants  of  the  valley,  yet  the  chariots  of  iron  prevented  his 
will  and  purpose  from  being  carried  out. 

The  God  of  the  Zendavesta,  Ormazd,  delivered  that  Bible  to  Zoroaster  also  "  on 
the  top  of  a  mountain  ;"  so  in  the  later  Jewish  tale,  we  may  perhaps  see  the  origin  of 
what  the  Jews  committed  to  writing  (be  it  remembered),  only  in  the  seventh  century 
B.C.,  if  so  early,  more  probably  in  the  later  days  of  Ezra  and' Nehemiah.  There  is  no 
just  comparison  between  the  grand  Ormazd  and  the  Jewish  Elohim  and  Jhavh; 
Ormazd  is  ever  the  Great,  the  Eternal,  the  Almighty 'one,  as  is  the  Hindoo  Brahm,(fto£ 
Brahma)  and  later,  according  to  many  writings  concerning  him,  is  not  far  from  our 
spiritual  conception  of  God. 

The  Zoroastrians  or  Parsis  see  little  in  common  between  their  .Ormazd,  and  the 
burning,  jealous,  and  angry  anthropomorphic  Jewish  God.  They  point  to  his  cause 
lessly  "loving  Jacob  and  hating  Esau;"  to  his  being  a  "God  of  battles"  and  "of 
wars,"  of  whom  the  Jews  write  a  sacred  book  called  "The  battles  of  the  Lord." 

J6  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Fait  Its  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

They  say  justly  that  he  authorized  the  most  horrible  massacres  and  immoralities, 
which  indeed  also  characterize  most  of  the  tales  and  lives  and  characters  of  so 
many  of  the  various  early  rulers  and  writers,  whom  the  Hebrews  called  "  men  of 

The  Koran  has  also  its  tale  as  to  its  origin.  A  "  pencil  of  light"  wrote  its  sacred 
words,  and  the  angel  Gabriel,  whom  Hepworth  Dixon  shows  us  is  almost  a  fourth 
person  in  the  Grecian  church  calendar  of  their  Deities  (Father,  Son,  and  Holy  Ghost, 
Gabriel,  Virgin,  and  last,  but  not  least,  the  powerful  Satan-God),  revealed  God's  (Ala's) 
writing  to  Mahomed  ;  Al  is  of  course  El  or  A  R  or  RA,  the  Sun. 

The  Bible  as  a  whole,  says  Protestant  Christendom,  'was  written  by  the  Holy 
Ghost,  one  of  the  three  persons  of  the  Christian  Trinity  ;  he  only  used  the  pens  of 
various  men,  and  made  known  to  them  past  and  present  events,  which  it  was  impos 
sible  for  them  otherwise  to  know.  History  forms,  however,  a  large  portion  of  the 
Jewish  and  Christian  Scriptures,  and  the  relations  of  events  in  these  do  not  tally  with 
other  histories,  or  with  each  other  ;  and  the  researches  of  modern  criticism,  never 
before  scientifically  applied  to  what  have  been  ever  held  up  as  "  sacred  writings," 
have  shown  discrepancies,  omissions,  and  insertions,  which  have  led  learned  and  pious 
writers  on  the  subject  to  decide  against  the  facts,  and  to  declare  the  writings  unhis- 
torical,  as  the  authors  are  uncertain,  and  in  many  cases  quite  unknown. 

The  volume  called  the  Christian  Bible  was  for  ages  a  series  of  disconnected 
manuscripts,  transcribed,  added  to  and  curtailed,  again  and  again,"  from  630  B.C.  to 
the  days  of  printing  1 5 1 6  A.D.,  or  say  for  2200  years,  and  this  was  no  doubt  done  by 
interested  and  often  not  perfectly  reliable  transcribers.  Criticism  has  now  shown 
that  the  first  portion  of  the  Old  Testament  only  came  to  light,  and  that  in  a  very 
curious  and  suspicious  manner,  in  the  days  of  Jeremiah,  see  Robertson,  a  strong 
writer  on  this  subject — "  the  Finding  of  the  Book,"  in  one  of  Mr  Scott's  very  excel 
lent  series.  The  establishment  of  the  documents  as  "  the  law  of  the  Lord"  was  done 
through  a  noted  high  priest,  Hilkiah,  against  whom  the  prophets  wrote  somewhat. 
Hilkiah  was,  however,  evidently  determined  to  establish  priestly  rule  and  church 
revenues ;  for  Solomon's  temple,  then  and  for  seventy  years  before,  dedicated  to  Phallic, 
Sun,  and  Fire  worship,  required  all  the  hierarchical  paraphernalia,  as  tithes,  offerings, 
vestments,  and  sacrifices,  which  that  "  book  of  the  law  "  would  give  to  Hilkiah,  if  he 
could  but  get  it  established  as  the  "law  of  the  Lord."  This,  the  writing  called 
"  Chronicles "  accordingly  states,  and  on  the  authority  of  some  woman  called 
"  Huldah  the  prophetess,"  never  heard  of  before  or  since,  Hilkiah's  book  became  sacred 
and  his  church  rich.  Many  of  the  Old  Testament  books  contain  the  writings  of 
generally  good  men,  who  denounce  the  vices  of  their  times,  and  of  their  own  people 
in  particular,  and  foretell,  in  flowery  language,  what  they  thought  of  the  rise  and  fall 
of  the  men  and  nations  with  which  they  were  acquainted. 

The  Old  Testament,  .as  Christians  have  it,  is,  according  to  Jewish  writers,  imperfect, 

Introductory  Chapter.  17 

but  after  some  weeding  out  it  was  bound  up  as  it  is,  along  with  various  floating 
manuscripts,  telling  of  Christ,  his  life,  and  sayings,  in  the  fourth  century  A. a,  and 
called  "The  Christian  Bible." 

The  Brahmanical  Bible,  the  Vedas  or  "  Books  of  Truth,"  are  said  to  be  written 
by  God  in  the  person  of  Brahma,  the  form  in  which  Brahm  executes  his  purposes  of 
creation  and  providence.  Unlike  the  Christian  Bible,  the  Vedas  do  not  command 
proselytism,  nor  allude  to  all  being  damned  who  do  not  know  and  acknowledge  it,  its 
gods,  dogmas,  and  ceremonies.  There  is  but  one  great  and  Almighty  God,  Brahm, 
or  AUM,  or  OM,  in  the  Hindoo  faith,  whose  name  is  rarely,  and  then  only  very 
reverently  whispered,  as  among  the  Jews.  He  is  male  and  female,  and  the  female 
energy,  Maiya,  Queen  of  Heaven,  is  more  heard  of  than  the  Almighty.  This  is  pro 
bably  true  of  all  faiths  to  the  present  day.  I  read  in  the  Home  News  of  January 
1873,  that  Dr  Fraser,  Bishop  of  Manchester,  rebuked  one  of  his  clergy,  but  very 
mildly,  for  carrying  a  banner,  on  which  was  emblazoned  the  name  of  "  the  Queen  of 
Heaven  ;"  he  remarked,  that  "  though  he  was  glad  to  see  a  revival  of  reverence, 
devotion,  and  piety,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  there  was  a  limit  beyond  which 
they  must  not  go  in  imitating  the  practice  of  the  thirteenth  century." 

In  Hindooism,  BRAHM  manifests  himself  early  in  a  Trinity. 
As  a  Creator,  in  BRAHMA. 
As  Religion  and  Truth,  in  VISHNOO. 

As  Matter  or  Passion,    in  Roodra,  afterwards  called  SIVA,  who  was   no 
doubt  Rood  or  Ra,  the  Sun  or  Fertilizer. 

There  are  consorts  or  wives  of  these  energies  of  God,  having  distinct  names, 
though  never  creating  in  connection  with  the  male  energy.  They  are  often  called  the 
Arks  or  abodes  of  the  male  deities. 

After  these  in  heavenly  order  follow  Devas,— archangels  and  angels — too  often 
worshipped  by  the  ignorant ;  even  Christian  churches  invoke  Gabriel.  They  are  a 
long  list,  emanating  from  Dyaus,  India,  Sun,  Fire,  &c.  These  deities  take  a  deep 
interest,  and  are  ever  interfering  in  the  affairs  of  men;  not  from  them,  however,  does 
man  spring,  nor,  though  with  female  energies,  does  aught  spring.  The  New  Testa 
ment  writer,  borrowing  no  doubt  from  the  Eastern  tale,  correctly  says  of  them,  "they 
neither  marry  nor  are  given  in  marriage,  but  are  as  the  angels  of  God  in  heaven." 

The  Zendavesta  and  Tripitika,  I  may  here  briefly  say,  inculcate  a  good  life  and 
a  reasonable  belief  in  One  Holy,  Eternal,  and  Almighty  Spirit,  though  parts  of  the 
latter,  relating  to  metaphysics,  speak  of  Nihilism,  which  is,  however,  at  utter  vari 
ance  with  the  life  and  doctrines  of  both  its  priests  and  people,  as  I,  can  attest,  after 
seven  years'  residence  and  close  observation  in  a  land  of  the  purest  Boodhism  in  the 
world  ;  I  look  upon  such  as  a  serious  blot  on  any  faith,  though  it  does  not,  I  think, 
lead  to  immoral  or  careless  living,  as  some  Christians  fancy.  The  Old  Testament  Jews 

i.  c 

i8  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

had  no  heaven  nor  hell  such  as  later  ages  describe,  and  but  such  faint  glimmering  of 
a  future  life  as  their  Eastern  neighbours  seem  to  have  given  them. 

I  must  enlarge  here  a  little  on  Boodhism.  In  a  book  lately  published  by  Mr  H. 
Alabaster,  Interpreter  to  Her  Majesty's  Consulate  General  in  Siam,  Boodhism  illus 
trated  by  a  Modern  Boodhist,  he  says,  "  It  is  a  moot  point  whether  the  religion  does 
teach  Atheism  and  Annihilation,  for  it  is  doubtful  what  these  words  mean."  He  would 
not  venture  to  apply  such  terms  to  Boodhists,  as  Atheists,  &c.,  for  they  are  terms  of 
reproach,  and  involve  infinite  consideration  which  we  are  little  able  to  comprehend. 
So  far  as  his  experience  goes,  he  says,  "  Boodhists  do  not  deny  the  existence  of  a  God," 
but  many  reverentially  abstain  from  defining  that  which  it  is  impossible  to  compre 
hend.  "  Southern  Siamese  Boodhism,"  he  adds,  "  does  not  recognise  any  personal 
eternal  God,  acting  interestedly  in  the  world,  and  it  regards  as  the  highest  aim  of 
man,  a  peace  resulting  from  the  utter  absence  of  all  that  we  understand  to  be  con 
nected  with  existence."  "  Judged,  however,"  says  a  Westminster  Keviewer,  "  by 
the  maxim,  '  by  their  fruits  ye  shall  know  them,'  Boodhism  lias  a  good  standpoint. 
Boodhism  and  Christianity  have  many  similarities  and  contrasts,  as  miraculous  gesta 
tion  and  birth,  temptation  of  the  destined  Deliverer  by  the  fiend,  ascension  into  heaven, 
and  generally  speaking,  self-devotion  for  the  sake  of  the  redemption  of  the  human 
race,  are  features  of  resemblance  in  the  portraiture  of  the  two  Saviours.  Above  all, 
the  purport  of  the  precepts  of  the  two  religions  appear  to  be  essentially  the  same. 
Bible  religions,  as  expounded  even  by  their  intelligent  disciples,  fail  to  grasp  the  prin 
ciple  that  virtue  is  its  own  reward.  Boodha  is  not  the  'Saviour'  or  Deliverer  which 
Christians  hold  Christ  to  be  ;  his  saving  or  delivering  consists  in  his  showing  mankind 
the  path  they  are  to  follow,  each  one  for  his  own  deliverance.  .  .  .  but  by  no  means 
in  his  (Boodha)  becoming  a  substitute  or  sacrificial  propitiation  on  behalf  of  others. 
The  whole  sacrificial  theory  of  the  reconciliation  of  the  Divine  Being  to  sinful  man  by 
means  of  a  bloody  offering  on  his  behalf,  is  utterly  and  thoroughly  repugnant  to  the 
Boodhist.  There  is  no  common  ground  of  reason  whereby  such  a  doctrine  could  be 
made  acceptable  to  him ;  and,"  concludes  the  reviewer,  "it  is  an  inevitable  fact,  from 
Mr  Alabaster's  work,  that  it  is  perfectly  futile  ever  to  expect  conversions  from  Bood 
hism  to  Christianity  by  means  of  reason  and  conviction."  I  can  go  farther,  and  add  as 
my  experience  all  over  Barma,  that  the  result  in  regard  to  Boodhism  is  precisely  the 
same  as  I  have  stated  in  the  case  of  Hindooism.  I  have  closely  watched  the  working 
of  all  missions  to  Boodhists,  and  have  never  seen  a  single  lasting  conversion  to  Chris 
tianity  as  the  result  of  reason  and  conviction,  but  a  good  number  by  what  the  West 
minster  seems  here  to  term  "the  artificial  and  social  methods."  Old  men  or  women, 
and  boys  and  girls  are  persuaded  to  join  the  Christian  missions,  when  knowing 
nothing  of  their  own  faiths  and  incapable  of  reasoning  ;  and  middle-aged  persons  I  have 
occasionally  seen  join  from  interested  motives,  and  remain  so  long  as  these  lasted,  often 
for  life,  because  their  relatives  cannot  take  them  back  into  religious  or  social  fellow- 

Introductory  CJiapter.  19 

ship.  Now  these  facts  are  true  to  reason  ;  for  no  missionary  attempts  to  convince  by 
proofs  of  Bible  historical  authenticity,  or  he  is  no  true  follower  of  Christ  and  the 
apostles,  but  rather  by  declamation,  invectives,  and  excitement  of  the  feelings,  through 
our  passions  and  fears,  such  as  a  Knox  knew  well  how  to  manipulate.  There  is  no 
calmly  sitting  down  to  compare  history  with  history,  passage  with  passage,  "fact"  (so 
called)  with  "  fact,"  and  so  to  substantiate  the  Bible,  and  then  similarly  to  pull  down 
Vedas  and  A  vestas.  This  is  not  even  the  way  in  which  a  clergyman  addresses  ourselves,  else 
would  he  fast  swell  the  already  rapidly  increasing  band  of  "  seriously  religious  sceptics." 
No,  the  "gospels  were  not  intended  by  their  writers,"  says  a  learned  and  orthodox 
author  quoted  by  the  Westminster,  to  be  "  books  of  evidence,  to  convince  persons  who 
did  not  believe,  but  to  supply  records  of  events,  to  edify  and  establish  in  the  faith 
those  who  did."  Throwing  thus  the  gospels  aside  as  evidence,  what  has  the  poor 
Christian  preacher  got  to  rely  upon  but  excitement  of  the  feelings  ?  which  should,  and, 
as  I  have  said,  does,  act  only  on  the  old,  and  those  weakly  in  intellect,  or  peculiarly 
and  not  over-much  educated.  There  is  no  doubt  that  Sir  P.  Perring1  is  right,  and 
that  the  gospels  are  rather  records  of  an  existing  belief  which  swallowed  down  any 
thing  concerning  its  object,  than  records  of  facts  on  which  such  a  belief  was  grounded; 
for,  says  this  same  reviewer  elsewhere,  "  The  historical  truth  of  the  (Christian)  Creed 
is  not  as  yet  proved  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  modern  inquirer,"  arid  in  consequence, 
when  a  real  historical  foundation  is  not  obtained  for  any  facts,  on  which  any  dogmas 
or  opinions  are  based,  such  must  fall  to  pieces  either  bit  by  bit  in  slow  disintegration 
until  the  whole  structure  totters  to  its  fall  (this,  provided  the  pullers  down  be  mild  and 
reasonable  philosophers  and  scholars),  or,  it  will  come  down  with  crashes  before  the 
assaults  of  an  ignorant  rabble. 

Boodhism  differs  from  all  early  Keligions,  in  being  the  first  missionary  faith  on 
earth  ;  and  as  every  true  and  good  man  desires  to  impart  to  others  what  he  knows  is 
good  and  true,  and  so  to  do  his  fellow-men  good,  and  as  he  also  recognises  as  brothers 
the  whole  family  of  man,  which  Boodhism  does,  it  is  a  better  faith  than  any  of  its 
predecessors,  and  falls  little  short  of  its  best  successors.  Even  at  the  present  day,  when 
2500  years  old,  it  stands  in  numbers  at  the  head  of  all  the  faiths  of  earth.  Max 
Miiller  tells  us  that  the  numbers  belonging  at  present  to  each  faith  are,  taking  the 
world  as  one  hundred,  thus  : — 

Boodhists,  3 1  '2     per  cent. 

Christians,  307     But  this  is  a  wide  word,  eniDitvcing  many  who  deny 

the  Godhead  of  Christ,  and  Bible  Inspiration. 

Mahomedans,        157 

Brahmans,  13 '4 

Heathens,  87     This  means  Fetish  worshippers  without  a  book -faith, 

not  without  a  god. 

Jews,          .  0'3 

Zoroastrians,  O'Ol 

1   Churches  and  their  Creeds.      1871.      By  the  Rev.  Sir  P.  Perring,  Bart.      Cambridge. 

20  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

With  tins  short  comparative  sketch  of  what  I  call  the  Biblical  faiths  of  man,  T  must 
now  ask  my  readers  to  look  a  little  closely  into  the  details  of  my  Chart.  It  is  arranged, 
it  will  be  seen,  in  chronological  order,  every  inch  in  length  denoting  one  hundred 
years,  except  at  the  top,  where,  to  save  space  and  long  blanks,  I  give  only  the  years 
in  which  the  learned  can  yet  see  their  way  to  placing  any  fact  or  even  myth,  for  myths 
may  be  treated  as  undeveloped  history.  On  the  left  of  the  coloured  bands  of  Faiths,  I 
have  tried  to  keep  the  principal  characters  and  events  of  history,  more  especially  of 
religious  history,  and  on  the  right  of  the  streams  I  have  noted  the  Bibles  and  prin 
cipal  Poems,  Hymns,  theologies,  and  dogmas,  and  also  the  languages  in  which  these 

Among  the  streams  will  be  seen  in  prominent  red  letters  the  gods  and  goddesses, 
Avatars  or  Incarnations  of  gods,  the  long  list  of  Trinities  in  which  the  Almighty  One 
is  shrouded,  and  the  great  prophets  and  mighty  men  who  at  various  times  led  their 
fellow-men.  Theirs  were  the  mighty  thoughts  which  stirred  mankind  to  the  grandest 
depths  and  heights  of  learning,  of  happiness  and  of  misery,  to  turmoil,  war,  and  blood 
shed  for  untold  times.  I  have  called  the  Chart,  as  will  be  remarked,  a  student's  Chart, 
for  we  all  are,  or  should  be,  learners,  ever  hoping  to  know  more,  and  only  sure  of  one 
thing,  that  we  are  always  open  to  correction,  and  never  standing  still ;  nor  must  we 
ever  refuse  to  receive  light,  come  from  wheresoever  it  may — from  ancient  Ind  or  Iran, 
from  the  banks  of  the  Jordan  or  the  Nile. 

As  a  motto  at  the  head,  I  borrow  from  Max  Miiller — "  The  real  history  of  man 
is  the  history  of  religion,"  which  word  religion  I  consider  means,  and  therefore  here 
add,  "his  attempts  to  know,  to  serve,  and  to  love,  his  God." 

The  following  is  the  principle  upon  which  the  Chart  is  -coloured.  A  distinctive 
colour  is  given  to  each  of  man's  first  faiths,  thus : — 

To  the  Tree—  Green.  To  Fire — Purple. 

To  Phallic—  Yellow.  To  Sun— Red. 

To  Serpent — Black.  To  Ancestral — Sepia. 

These  colours  are  maintained  throughout,  and  bring  us  down  safely  from  chaos  or 
unknown  time  to  the  Kandas  Vedic  era,  when  we  first  begin  to  hear  of  reverence  to, 
and  devotion  for,  if  not  worship  of,  books,  first  of  the  Vedas,  then  shortly  after  of  the 
Zend-Avesta, — the  Bible  of  the  great  Zoroaster, — and  again,  but  after  a  long  interval, 
of  the  sacred  "  Law  of  the  Lord,"  which  the  Jews  say  they  received  from  their  Jhavh 
on  a  mountain  of  the  desert.  This  is  then  followed  by  quite  a  new  phase 'of  man's 
beliefs,  viz.  the  worship  of  the  writers  of  these  books,  who  are  called  Prophets  or 
"  Men  of  God,"  as  Zoroaster  the  "  son  of  Ormazd,"  Moses  the  "  servant  of  Jhavh," 
Jesus  the  "  Son  of  the  Father,"  &c.,  with  sacred  books  in  all  cases  written  by  prophets 
or  "holy"  and  "inspired"  men,  but  said  to  be  written  by  God.  I  have,  therefore,  to 
denote  this  seventh  worship,  which  is  done  by  a  band  of  blue.  Still,  however,  we 

Introductory  Chapter.  21 

require  another  colour,  for  with  the  rise  of  the  Rig  Veda  sprang  up,  though  crude  and 
dimly,  the  noblest  and  purest  worship  of  man — Theism,  or  the  worship  of  one  God, 
our  spiritual  Father,  without  parts,  .passions,  or  competitors.  It  is,  therefore,  necessary 
to  bring  in  here  an  eighth  colour,  which  I  do  by  a  band  of  red.  For  reasons  to  be 
hereafter  given,  I  do  not  show  here  Fetish  and  Animal  worship,  as  these  more  or  less 
prevail  throughout  all  the  streams  of  Faith,  and  are  not  distinct  streams,  with  temples 
and  sacred  books  of  their  own  ;  but  of  this  I  shall  have  more  to  say  hereafter,  especially 
when  speaking  of  Skandinavian  Faiths. 

I  must  now  say  something  as  to  the  rise  of  these  streams  of  Faith.  As  facts  are 
at  present  known  to  the  learned,  we  might  put  them  any  distance  back  into  the  blanks 
of  Chaos  or  Kronos,  for  the  figures  seen  in  my  Chart  as  years  before  2800  B.C.,  or  even 
much  later,  might,  in  regard  to  Faiths,  be  put  down  as  doubtful  blanks,  and  blanks  in 
general  history  also,  which  it  would  seem  we  can  never  fill  up,  at  all  events  until 
geology,  at  present  a  comparative  science,  resolves  itself  into  an  exact  one.  A 
remarkable  work,  entitled  Pre-Historic  Nations,  by  J.  D.  Baldwin,  A.M.,  London, 
1869,  amasses  an  enormous  amount  of  evidence  to  show  the  vast  antiquity  of  civilisa 
tion  generally,  and  to  demonstrate  the  existence  of  a  cultivated  race  in  Hindoostan 
long  before  the  conquest  of  that  peninsula  by  the  Aryan  races.  He  adduces,  says 
Inman  (and  in  this  I  fully  agree  with  the  learned  Doctor),  good  reasons  for  believing 
that  the  Linga  and  Yoni  worship  in  India,  the  veneration  of  the  people  for  Siva,  and 
the  use  of  Cavern  Excavations  for  religious  purposes,  preceded  both  Brahmanism  and 
Boodhism,  and  was  the  form  of  worship  found  among  the  Dasyoos  and  other  aborigines 
of  India.  This  is  now  well  established,  and  I  will  confirm  it  further  when  speaking  of 
these  races.  This  author  clearly  demonstrates  that  a  very  ancient  civilisation  existed 
at  a  period  which  the  majority  of  authors  describe  as  one  of  utter  barbarism,  in  fact 
that,  go  where  you  will,  you  find  the  remains  of  a  once  powerful  people. 

But,  beyond  this  Aryan  flight,  history  and  facts  are  almost  silent,  and  are  dim 
even  here  ;  yet  the  world  did  not  commence  then,  nor  are  scientific  men,  especially 
philologists,  resting  here ;  they  are  busy  now  tracing  back  the  Aryans  to  their  earlier 
homes  in  upper  Asia  and  Europe,  and  in  searching  out  the  early  tongues  and  faiths 
of  the  aborigines  of  all  lands.  For  the  present,  however,  we  must  rest  content  with  the 
dim  ages  and  dark  shadowy  forms  of  men  and  races  which  existed  before  those  days  ; 
and  in  my  Chart  I  then  only  show  all  the  six  streams  of  colour  strongly  tending  easterly 
to  form  the  great  Hindoo  body  of  faiths,  and  westerly  to  Asia  Minor  and  Egypt.  Let  us 
leave  science  and  philosophy  still  to  strive  alone  here,  and  avoid  trying  to  cramp  their 
cautious,  critical,  and  ever  wisely  sceptical  spirit,  concerning  ancient  as  well  as  modern 
priests,  their  tales,  and  theologies.  Where  God  has  not  yet  granted  us  light  let  us 
wait,  though  not  sit  idle ;  nor  yet  let  us  concoct  our  own  crude  stories  of  a  genesis 
"  of  the  heavens  and  earth,"  because  we  have  not  light  or  revelation  ;  for  there  are  many 
more  earths  than  ours,  and  He  is  the  one  unknown  and  all-creating  Almighty  power. 

22  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Darwin,  then,  for  our  present  purposes  may  range  at  will,  speculating  as  to  what 
we  were  some  3000  years  B.C.  ;  and  the  English  Dr  Hales,  writing  in  1700  c., 
may  assure  us  that  3500  B.C.  was  Kronos'  birth ;  his  co-religionist,  Archbishop 
Usher,  writing  a  hundred  years  earlier,  with  fool-hardiness  even  for  a  priest,  though 
all  Biblicists  here  follow  him,  asserts  that  "  the  world  was  created  on  Sunday,  October 
23d,  4004  B.C.,  and  Adam  and  Eve  on  Friday  the  28th  May," — some  say  that  the  time 
in  each  case  was  four  o'clock  in  the  afternoon !  and  he  adds,  like  the  unknown  old 
Hebrew  writer,  "  Adam  and  Eve  were  in  the  image  or  likeness  of  God,"  but  of  what 
God  ?  The  ancient  Hebrew,  which  the  Jews  were  unable  to  decipher  in  Nehe- 
miah's  days,  or  fifth  century  B.C.  (so  far  as  we  know  of  that  Hebrew,  for,  as  before 
said,  it  had  only  "cuneiform  signs,"  and  no  vowels),  says  in  the  Jewish  Genesis, 
Eloliim  (gods  plural,  and  male  and  female)  "created  the  heaven  and  the  earth"  at 
some  unknown  time,  called  here  "  the  beginning."  Now  philologists  all  tell  us  that 
El  was  the  sun-god,  and  my  studies  place  his  name  as  prominent  about  1500  B.C. 
El-  and  HIM,1  our  early  monosyllables,  form  a  natural  plural ;  and  as  we  read  on 
we  find  El  and  "  Him,"  the  plural  gods,  called  Eloliim,  which  is  the  androgynous  or 
bi-sexual  male  and  female  god,  so  commonly  adored  then  in  Egypt  as  in  India,  and  un 
doubtedly  then  worshipped  in  Syria  by  Israelites  as  well  as  Canaanites,  of  which  further. 
Keeping  at  present  to  Genesis,  we  can  gather  the  proof  of  the  double  god ;  for  the 
"Gods"  say  in  the  2d  verse  that  the  Logos  (translated  the  Spirit,  or  as  the  more 
full  and  learned  literature  of  India  says,  "his  creative  spirit"),  the  "spouse,"  "  the 
dove,"  &c.,  "  moved  x>n  the  face  of  the  waters,"  which  last  word  should  be  noted,  for 
Salacia  is  the  goddess  of  water  or  lustfulness ;  and  in  much  that  follows,  it  will  be 
seen  that  waters  and  seas  are  the  signs  of  Isis,  Astarte,  Mylita,  Maiya,  Juno,  Venus, 
Ceres,2  Eve,  Frea,  Friga,  and  many  another  name,  denoting  the  original  female  creating 
source.  It  is  the  fertilising  stream  which  God  as  Brahm  moves  upon  :  as  Mahadeva, 
in  his  creative  capacity,  he  shrouds  Maya  or  Sophia  the  spirit  of  wisdom. 

Genesis,  i.  26,  is  still  more  explicit ;  there  God  speaks  to  his  Spirit  (for  she 
or  it  must  be  there,  as  he  would  not  speak  to  himself),  "  Let  us  make  man  in  our 
image,  after  our  likeness,"  and  accordingly  "  male  and  female  created  he  them  ; " 
therefore  Elohim  was  either  androgynous,  or  this  Spirit  was  the  heavenly  goddess, 
who  by  "him"  created  all  things.  In  proof  of  the  bi-sexual  gods  of  ancient  peoples, 
and  of  the  constant  identity  of  one  god  with  another  in  Vedic  days  during  the  reign 
of  Brahmanism  in  the  east,  and  of  Greek  and  Latin  supremacy  in  Europe,  I  will 
here  quote  from  the  beautiful  and  very  ancient  poem,  "  De  Mundo," — 

"  Jove  first  exists,  whose  thunders  roll  above, 
Jove  last,  Jove  midmost,  all  proceeds  from  Jove  ; 
Female  is  Jove,  Immortal  Jove  is  male  ; 
Jove  the  broad  Earth,  the  heavens  irradiate  pale; 

1  Dr  Inman,  and  see  iny  glossary  Elohim  and  God.    The  title  used  in  Genesis  is  DTPS  nil, 

2  This  C  may  be  G,  but  riot  K,  the  root  being  Ge,  the  earth  :  She  was  Ge-Meter. 

Introductory  Chapter.  23 

Jove  is  the  boundless  Spirit,  Jove  the  Fire, 
That  warms  the  world  with  feeling  and  desire; 
The  Sea  is  Jove,  the  Sun,  the  lunar  ball, 
Jove  king  supreme,  the  sovereign  source  of  all. 
All  power  is  his,  to  Him  all  glory  give, 
For  his  vast  form  embraces  all  that  live." 

To  return  to  the  world's  age,  and  to  the  impossibility  of  our  getting  any  religious 
historical  glimmering,  beyond  the  days  when  the  mighty  Sanskrit-speaking  race  swept 
in  a  torrent  from  the  west  and  north  into  India,  I  may  note  here  what  some  autho 
rities  say  on  this  subject.  The  Chinese  say  that  their  race  is  several  hundreds  of 
thousands  of  years  old. 

Some  astrological  records  of  ancient  Kaldea  say,  .         .  474,300  years. 

Plato,  writing  350  years  B.C.,  says  (and  puts  this  down  as  the 

date  of  Zoroaster's  birth)  "  before  his  time,"  .          .  9,000     ,, 

The   Septuagint  (Greek  translation)   of  the   Old  Testament, 

executed  in  third  century  B.C.,  says,  before  that  translation,  5,872 

The  Jewish  Talmud  says  it  took  place  before  its  time,  .  5,344 

Josephus  writing  about  the  days  of  Christ  says,  .          .  4,658     ,, 

and  so  on  guessed  the  men  of  old  ;  but  what  says  modern  philosophy  ?  which,  without 
implicitly  believing  or  denying,  we  should,  as  reasonable  men,  respectfully  listen  to. 
Surely  the  science  and  research,  and  earnest  love  of  truth  which  characterizes  the 
philosophy  of  our  times,  should  be  received  with  much  more  deference  and  respect 
than  the  old  tales,  loose  and  often  garbled  quotations  from  old  writings,  which 
have  come  down  to  us,  often  we  know  not  from  whom,  or  whence,  or  from  what 
times— the  philosopher  only  asks  us  to  pause  and  reflect  on  his  sayings,  not  to  frame  a 
dogma  and  utter  an  anathema  against  those  who  cannot  agree  with  him. 

Professor  Agassiz  estimates  the  age  of  the  human  skeletons  in  the  coral  reef  of 
Florida  at  10,000  years,  and  adds  that  135,000  years  are  needful  for  the  formation  of 
the  post-tertiary  southern  half  of  that  peninsula.  Another  writer  says  that  the  Falls  of 
Niagara  have  been  cut  back  at  least  six  miles  since  the  Champlain  Epoch,  for  the  lake 
deposits  formed  by  the  old  extension  of  Lake  Ontario,  and  containing  similar  shells  to 
those  now  lying  near  the  entrance  of  the  lake,  are  found  both  at  Goat  Island  and  on  either 
side  of  the  gorge  near  the  whirlpool.  Six  miles  then  at  least  of  the  gorge  have  been 
excavated  since  the  formation  of  these  deposits.  Dana  says,  "  Taking  the  rate  at  one 
foot  a  year,  the  six  miles  will  have  required  over  34,000  years ;  if  at  one  inch  a  year, 
which  is  eight  feet  and  one-third  in  a  century,  380,000  years."  The  former  was  Sir 
Charles  Lyell's  estimate,  which,  if  considered  too  great,  is  probably  outdone  in  the 
other  extreme  of  one  inch  a  year ;  if,  however,  we  take  the  mean  of  these  two 
estimates,  namely,  six  inches  a  year,  the  time  would  then  be  62,000  years  since  the 
probable  close  of  the  Champlaiu  Epoch.  The  human  skeleton  beneath  the  fourth 
cypress  forest  of  New  Orleans  must,  it  is  said,  have  been  buried  there  50,000  years 

24  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

ago  ;  works  of  Egyptian  art  have  been  dug  from  soils  which  must  have  been  submerged 
30,000  years  ago ;  and  bricks  are  found  sixty  feet  deep  under  layers  which  it  would 
require  14,000  years  to  cover;  yet,  says  Mr  Lesley,  in  his  Origin  of  Man,  these  are 
"  mere  modern  matters  in  comparison  with  the  diluvium  of  Abbeville,  and  this  again 
can  bear  no  comparison  in  antiquity  with  the  least  of  the  true  tertiary  strata.  My 
own  belief  is  but  the  reflection  of  the  growing  sentiment  of  the  whole  geological  world, 
a  conviction  strengthening  every  day,  as  you  may  with  little  trouble  see  for  yourselves 
by  glancing  through  the  magazines  of  current  scientific  literature,  that  our  race  has  been 
upon  the  earth  for  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years."  Sir  Charles  Lyell  estimates  the 
accumulations  of  mud  and  sand  at  the  foot  of  the  celebrated  statue  of  Rameses  (the 
middle  of  whose  reign  Lepsius  moderately  calculates  was  about  1361  B.C.)  at  14,000 
years,  allowing  3^  inches  for  a  century. 

The  pottery  under  the  second  cypress  forest  of  New  Orleans,  Mississipi,  is  estimated 
at  28,000  years,  and  the  human  bones  under  the  fourth  are  calculated  by  Dr  Bennet 
Dowler1  to  have  been  there  for  57,600  years,  or  a  little  more  than  that  given  above  by 
another  writer.  There  are  ten  distinct  cypress  forests,  overgrown  by  aquatic  plants, 
and  now  covered  with  live  oaks,  and  for  the  replacement  of  these  Dr  Dowler  says  we 
must  allow  158,400  years.  My  Chart  gives  many  similar  calculations. 

Look  now  at  the  celebrated  Kent  cavern,  and,  to  try  and  aid  the  eye  and  memory,  I 
give  in  their  recurring  order  the  various  deposits  with  their  remains.  The  very  greatest 
labour  and  thought  of  all  the  savants  of  Europe,  representing  every  diversity  of  opinion 
and  theology,  have  been  here  brought  to  bear,  and  the  results  in  years  are  still  subver 
sive  of  all  orthodox  ideas,  for  if  we  exceed  4000  B.C.,  and  therefore  Biblical  genealogies, 
we  may  put  the  Jewish  story  aside  altogether. 


I.  BLACK-MOULD,  from  one   inch   to    one  foot  f  Roman  and  pre-Roman  remains,  pottery,  bronzes,  and 

thick.  \       bones,  but  no  extinct  animals. 

II.  STALAGMITE  FLOOR  (depth   12  feet),  withf  Flint  tools,  bones  of  extinct  mammals  split  for  marrow 

the  years  1615  and  1618  scratched  on  it.  (_       and  gnawed  by  hyenas — a  human  jawbone  at  base. 

A  black  band  here  occurs,  which,  though  three  feet  thick,  cannot  be  considered  a  geological  sti-ata;  it  is 
only  some  100  square  feet  j  in  it  has  been  found  some  of  above  articles,  with  a  needle,  pin,  and 

III.  CAVE  EARTH  (depth  4  feet).  ^  'As.  above,  and  bones  of  extinct  animals. 

IV.  2d  STALAGMITE  FLOOR  (depth  1 6  feet)  very  f  Cave  bear  bones,  but  none  of  the  later  animals,  as 

thin  layers  and  highly  crystalline.  \       hyena,  &c. 

V.  FLOOR  of  BRECHIA,  hard  rock — like  Con-  f  Cave  bear  bones,  but  of  no  later  animals,  3  feet  deep, 

crete,  very  brown.  -c       flint  flakes,  near  teeth  of  cave  bear  showing  human 

V.       workmanship. 

VI.  3.d  STALAGMITE  FLOOR-^-Granular.  -^  No  foreign  objects  yet  found  here. 

1  Types  of  Mankind. 

Introductory  Chapter.  25 

The  water  which  formed  these  stalagmite  floors  was,  of  course,  drippings  with  lime 
in  solution.  The  lamina  is  extremely  thin,  and  though  a  portion  of  the  stalagmite 
was  removed  from  under  the  dripping  twenty-two  years  ago,  yet  not  a  vestige  of 
fresh  laminae  can  be  traced,  but  over  the  figures  1618  and  1615,  well  under  the  drip, 
a  thin  flake  of  less  than  1-2 Oth  of  an  inch  is  apparent,  which  gives  us  the  period 
necessary  for  this  upper  coat,— 720,000  years.  By  another  calculation  this  goes  as  high 
as  900,000  years.  Taken  by  itself  we  might  incline  to  reject  such  calculations,  but 
when  so  much  else  points  to  the  extreme  age  of  the  earth,  geologists  are  justified  in 
here  showing  us  what  these  floors  really  mean.  What  stopped  the  drip  for  so  many 
thousands  of  years  and  again  renewed  it  ?  Had  not  a  new,  perhaps  polar  temperature, 
passed  over  this  portion  of  the  globe  at  that  period  ?  If  so,  then  at  the  present  rate 
of  progression,  Mr  T.  Lumisden  Strange,  whose  excellent  paper  on  the  "Earth's  age"1 
I  received  when  writing  the  above,  tells  us  that  two  and  a  fourth  millions  of  years 
would  be  required  between  the  formation  of  the  first  floor  and  beginning  of  the  forma 
tion  of  the  second  stalagmite  base.  Mr  Strange  also  gives  us  several  calculations  of  man's 
astronomical  efforts,  which  go  back  to  the  time  when  the  second  cypress  forest  of  New 
Orleans  was  probably  being  submerged.  We  have  two  very  ancient  zodiacs ;  one  at 
Esne  on  the  Nile,  above  Dendera  (where  are  two  somewhat  modern  ones),  and  one  in 
India.  Sir  Wm.  Druminond  goes  minutely  into  that  of  Esne,  and  calculates  from  its 
vernal  equinox  being  between  Gemini  and  Taurus,  and  therefore  giving  a  retrogression 
of  3  signs  or  1  deg.  20  min.  from  their  present  places,  that  the  age  of  this  zodiac  when 
he  wrote  in  1811  was  6450  years,  and  therefore  in  1873  its  age  would  be  6512  years. 

Dupuis  thinks  that  Virgo  is  the  zenith  of  the  Indian  zodiac,  and  that  its  age  is 
therefore  nearly  1000  years  more,  or  7430  years  ;  but  by  assuming  the  vernal  equinox 
between  Libra  and  Virgo,  the  Egyptian  zodiacs  would  date  back  to  14,955  years,  and 
the  Indian  one  with  Capricorn  in  zenith  to  13,083  years.  The  only  other  alternation 
would  involve  putting  the  Indian  zodiac  back  to  22,575,  and  the  Egyptian  one  to 
30,100  years,  so  far  as  the  signs  of  the  zodiac  are  concerned.  The  precession  of  the 
equinoxes  and  real  astronomical  zodiac  seems  to  have  come  to  Europe  through  Hip- 
parchus,  who  flourished  150  B.C.  The  Chinese  had  discovered  the  zodiac  and  various 
astronomical  cycles  in  the  time  of  their  great  emperor  Hwangti,  who  flourished  2640 
B.C.,  and  a  glance  down  my  Chart  will  show  that  hosts  of  busy  minds  were  bent  on 
these  subjects  all  the  way  down  to  Hipparchus'  days. 

In  regard  to  the  theory  of  all  men  springing  from  one  stock,  its  advocates  should 
note  that  Egypt  gives  us,  in  the  year  3060  B.C.,  or  thereabouts,  pictures  of  Asiatics  and 
negroes,  and  that  a  very  ample  time  indeed  must  be  allowed  for  the  conversion  of  the 
white  man  to  the  negro,  or  vice  versa.  I  must  here,  however,  very  briefly  call  atten 
tion  to  another  great  class  of  facts,  which  every  year  is  bringing  more  forcibly  before 
us.  The  great  Creator  of  the  Universe  does  nothing  but  for  some  wise  purposes,  and 

1  In  Thomas  Scott's  Series,  vol.  viii.,  and  Strange's  Development  of  Creation,  &c. 
I.  D 

26  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

works  always  on  fixed  plans.  What  means  it,  then,  if  ordinary  theologies  be  true,  that 
a  cycle  of  the  zodiac  requires  25,810  years? — that  is,  this  enormous  time  to  complete 
one  of  its  revolutions  ? — that  a  cycle  of  oscillation  of  the  angle  of  the  ecliptic  requires, 
says  La  Place  and  Herschel,  20,250  years  for  completion? — that  the  cycle  of  eccentricity 
of  the  little  orb  we  inhabit  round  its  central,  or  rather  non-central  sun,  requires  for  its 
completion  possibly  half  a  million  of  years,  or  accurately  515,610  years? — that  a  polar 
cycle  or  the  precession  of  the  ecliptic,  from  equator  to  pole,  which  alone  explains  our 
palms  and  mammoths  under  present  eternal  snows,  may  take  2,700,000  years  to  com 
plete  ;  that  though  light  travel  at  the  rate  of  184,000  miles  per  second,  there  are  stars 
whose  light  must  have  left  them^GOOO  years  before  it  reached  us  ;  that  the  time  required 
for  the  orbits  of  comets,  whose  supposed  erratic  approach  our  astronomers  will  tell  us 
to  within  a  fraction  of  a  second  of  time,  varies  from  about  14,000  years  to  nearly 
123,000  years? — and,  lastly,  what  means  this,  that  we,  revolving  in  our  own  orbit  at 
the  rate  of  68,000  miles  per  hour,  or  600  millions  of  miles  in  our  year,  are  also  swung 
along  towards  some  mysterious  point  in  illimitable  space  at  the  awful  speed  of 
150,000,000  of  miles  per  annum  ?  These  are  figures  which  we  can  calculate  and  write 
down,  but  which  the  mind  of  man  is  quite  incapable  of  grasping.  We  and  ours,  aye 
our  paltry  planet,  with  its  8000  miles  diameter,  sink  here  into  utter  insignificance,  and 
so  surely  also  do  all  its  theologies,  which  have  ever  hitherto  spoken  of  the  phenomena 
of  the  mighty  framer  of  these  mysterious  worlds  and  their  ways. 

Without  wandering  away  from  our  own  little  crust,  we  can,  by  some  study,  read 
off  millions  of  years  from  its  latest  fossils  to  its  lifeless  ages,  by  marking  those  of  frozen 
and  tropical  zones,  and  calculating  the  possible  times  which  each  growth  required 
for  its  rise  and  fall.  From  the  glacial  epoch,  at  the  close  of  the  tertiary  period,  to  the 
fossils  of  the  carboniferous  epoch,  now  buried  in  an  arctic  zone,  requires,  we  are  told, 
nine  ecliptic  rotations,  or  24,300,000  years,  and  Sir  Charles  Lyell  says  240  millions  of 
years  are  required  for  the  Cambrian  formations.  We  would  like  to  know  what  ages  he 
would  assign  for  the  upheaval  of  the  great  Indian  continent  or  lower  Himalayas,  which 
in  the  Miocene  formations  of  the  Sivalik  ranges  lying  at  their  base,  have  disclosed  to 
us  huge  extinct  animals,  amongst  which  is  a  strange  four  horned  deer  (the  Siratherium), 
and  a  tortoise  some  eighteen  feet  long  and  seven  feet  high,  with  others,  as  giraffes  and 
the  ostrich,  denoting  vast  plains  instead  of  the  rugged  mountains  which  now  cover  all 
these  parts.  When  were  these  lofty  mountains  a  sea-bed  which  nourished  the  num- 
mulites,  testacea,  and  other  salt  water  creatures,  now  forming  their  earths  and  lime 
rocks,  and  how  long  did  it  take  to  cover  such  lofty  up-heavals  with  their  now  so  prolific 
vegetable  and  animal  life  ?  Sir  Charles  would  no  doubt  answer  us,  as  he  long  since 
did  similar  questions,  that  "  we  require,  when  speaking  of  geological  epochs,  '  to  get 
the  poverty  out  of  our  bones'  before  we  can  take  into  consideration  the  eons  of  time 
that  are  required  during  which  primeval  people  and  language  existed,  and  since  which 
dispersion  and  segregation  have  been  going  on." 

Introductory  Chapter.  27 

With  tins  explanation  as  to  the  early  days  of  my  Chart,  when  the  gods  moved  on 
the  waters  of  life,  we  shall  resume  the  passage  down  our  Streams  of  Faiths. 

Mr  Lesley  would  place  Ancestral  worship  as  man's  first  faith,  just  as  others  would 
place  Serpent  before  Phallic,  and  others  again,  strong  in  Kaldean  history,  claim  the 
first  place  for  Sun,  and  the  classic  scholars  of  Latin  literature  say  the  same  of  Fire  ; 
my  own  travels  and  studies  in  eastern  lands  have  however  convinced  me,  that  the  order 
in  which  I  here  place  these  four  early  symbolic  objects  of  man's  adoration  is  in  the 
order  in  which  they  mostly  flourished,  though  the  idea  of  the  second  is  in  the  first,  and 
abundantly  in  all  that  follow. — 1st,  Tree ;  2nd,  Phallic ;  3rd,  Serpent ;  4^A,  Fire ; 
5th,  Sun  ;  6th,  Ancestral ;  being  the  adoration  and  worship  of  Ancestors,  their  tombs 
and  writings  :  a  faith  deeply  impregnated  with  all  other  streams,  and  with  the  worship 
of  a  representative  man,  as  Amon,  Herakles,  Brahma,  Abram,  &c. 

To  the  above,  some  writers  would  add  worship  of  Fetishes  and  Spirits  ( Demon  - 
ology)  and  Animal  worship,  which  is  said  to  have  flourished  in  Egypt  3100  years 
B.C.  ;  but  although  I  admit  a  sort  of  worship  in  all  nations  of  particular  birds  and 
animals,  yet  this  is  rather  confined  to  the  various  sects  of  the  main  Faiths,  and  may 
be  here  understood  to  be  carried  along  with,  and  included  in,  one  or  other  of  these  six 
great  streams,  just  as  that  of  Apis  is  included  in  my  second  stream. 

Thus  the  ancient  monkey,  our  gorilla,  is  the  most  intelligent,  and  called  the  most 
powerful  of  intelligent  mammals.  He  has  disappeared  from  India,  although  his 
name  has  attached  itself  to  the  great  Hanooman  monkey  of  our  denser  forests  of  the 
East.  He  was  an  attendant  upon  Ram,  the  7th  Avatar  or  incarnation  of  Vishnoo,  of 
sub-Vedic  times.  He  lent  all  his  power  to  Earn,  and  is  represented  as  bringing  back 
to  him  his  heavenly  spouse,  here  as  elsewhere,  the  female  power  of  God,  Maya  or 
Mary,  called  in  the  poems  of  the  Mantra  era,  "  Sita,"  a  "  field  furrow,"  or  seed 
vessel,  female  or  Sakti,  the  name  given  by  Hindoos  to  each  consort  of  the  gods, 
or  to  God  manifested  as  Logos,  Yoni,  Juno,  &c.  In  admiration  of  Hanooman's 
aid  and  devotion  to  Ram,  he  was  venerated  and  then  adored,  and  is  at  this  time  an 
object  of  worship  by  some  Hindoo  sects  which  are  seen  embraced  in  my  sub-Vedic 
stream ;  just  as  I  do  not  show  separately  in  the  Christian  stream  those  who  adore  and 
kiss  the  toe  of  Peter,  Christ's  powerful  though  not  always  faithful  or  very  truthful 
attendant  and  exponent,  so  I  do  not  show  monkey  worship  as  a  Faith.  Some  followers 
of  Hanooman  worship,  when  they  come  into  power,  are  seen  to  revive  the  animal 
symbol  of  their  sect,  as  in  western  India,  where  wealthy  nobles,  in  the  days  of  Siwajee, 
A.C.  1650,  gave  great  grants  of  land  to  be  devoted  to  the  maintenance  of  monkeys  : 
there  we  find  them  daily  fed  at  the  gates  of  these  villages  :  all  the  revenues  left  after 
maintaining  the  estates  are  devoted  to  this  purpose.  This  monkey  deity  is  the  son  of 
Maroot  (see  Vedic  Devas),  the  god  of  storms  and  wind,  and  of  Anjooni,  a  woman  of 
the  mountains,  probably  some  real  person. 

Ram  himself  is  only  a  great  deified  chief,  whose  true  parentage  is  hid  far  back  in 

28  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  myths  of  time  :  many  great  Hindoo  chiefs  claim  descent  from  him,  notably  so  one 
of  the  greatest  in  this  land  from  which  I  at  present  write,  the  Maha  Kana  of  Oodepore. 
For  the  benefit  of  students  of  Professor  Darwin,  I  may  here  state  that  all  the  races  of 
Europe  are  said  by  the  Hindoos  to  be  the  descendants  of  Hanoomau,  who  is  very  com 
monly  called  after  his  father's  clan,  Marooti.  He  asked  a  favour  of  Sita  when  restoring 
her  to  the  arms  of  Ham,  and  she  desired  him  to  go  and  choose  a  separate  part  of  earth, 
and  there  reside,  and  added,  that  "  he  would  beget  a  very  powerful  race  of  men  who 
\vould  eventually  conquer  most  of  the  world ;"  thus,  says  the  Hindoo,  have  we  lost  in 
the  east  the  powerful  race  of  monkeys  who  fought  for  the  gods,  and  there,  says  the 
African  explorer,  stand  the  few  remnants  of  that  race  in  the  'Gorilla  of  Africa  ;  but  the 
Hindoo  knows  not  that  he  is  still  there,  and  says  the  European  is  his  offspring,  and 
like  him  of  old,  more  powerful  than  all  men. 

Everywhere  we  find  beasts  and  birds  the  helpers  or  opponents  of  gods  as  also 
men ;  from  the  eternal  snows  of  the  north  to  the  south  pole  it  is  the  same  tale.  The 
story  of  the  ravens  who  assisted  the  Hebrew  prophet,  the  "  man  of  God,"  who  could 
call  upon  God  and  all  the  winds  of  heaven  (the  Maroots)  to  assist  him,  is  but  a 
similar  tale  to  this  man  of  god,  Earn,  who  claimed  supernatural  aid  from  the  monkeys 
of  ancient  India,  The  eagle  of  the  banners  of  Persia  and  Europe  is  the  chariot  of 
Yishnoo  (Garooda),  "  the  great  God  of  Gods,"  and  is  represented  in  the  sacred  bird  of 
Jupiter  and  in  the  outspread  eagle  of  Christian  churches  as  the  fitting  carrier  of  "  the 
book  of  life."  It  is  as  a  charm  and  as  a  battle  cry  that  it  appeared  at  the  head  of 
every  Roman  legion;  and  became  the  symbol  of  so  many  other  nations  and  potentates  : 
in  all  this  we  find  relics  of  a  sort  of  bird  worship,  similar  to  that  of  the  stork  and 
vulture  veneration  of  Egypt. 

The  peacock  on  the  banners  of  so  many  Asiatic  kings  and  princes  is  generally  a 
symbol  of  a  past  or  present  faith  in  the  Sun.  Barmese  mythology  exhibits  it  with  a 
Hare,  symbolising  the  moon ;  both  adorn  the  canopies  of  great  Boodha's  temples, 
although  the  wise  and  severe  ascetic  thought  he  had  blotted  out  this  old  cultus.  On 
the  Phallic  pole  beside  his  temples  sits  Brahma's  vehicle  the  goose,  on  which  Vishnoo 
winged  his  flight  to  awake  the  drowsy  Creator. 

The  sceptre  of  the  Pharaohs  had  for  handle  the  head  of  Athor,  the  bird  of  love, 
or  Egyptian  Venus,  resembling  the  eastern  Hoopoo  :  all  other  sceptres  of  our  days,  and 
the  shields  of  all  earth's  nobles  hand  down  to  us  the  Totem  adoration  of  our  ancestors  : 
still  does  the  ancient  banner  of  one  of  the  most  powerful  of  our  Indian  princes,  Sindia, 
display  the  Cobra  de  Capello,  or  holy  hooded  snake,  and  over  all  the  walls  of  his  holy 
places,  and  the  sculptured  rocks  of  his  fortresses,  have  I  traced  the  great  old  symbol 
of  this  wide  faith.  The  serpent  sometimes  shares  a  sculpture  with  the  fertile  fish  and 
sun  as  the  fecundating  Ba-al  god,  although  these  two  more  abound  along  Sindia's 
western  frontier,  amidst  the  Chiefs  of  Rajpootana.  Even  the  iconoclastic  ruler  of 
Oud,  ancient  Ayoodya,  could  not,  however  he  abhorred  the  Serpent,  shake  off  Maya's 

Introductory  Chapter.  29 

symbolic  fish,  whilst  the  whole  Mahomedan  world  still,  month  by  month,  watches  for 
respectfully,  and  salutes  with  reverence,  Isis'  new  crescent  moon,  as  she  first  appears  as 
the  horns  of  the  cow  :  nay,  they  place  it  boldly  on  that  proud  banner  which  rules  so 
many  millions  of  peoples  from  the  pillars  of  Hercules  to  the  sea  of  Okotsk.  This  reminds 
us  also  of  the  great  people  who  here  flank  the  Asiatic  continent,  and  whom  I  shall  show 
further  on  are  not  yet  ashamed,  in  their  most  progressive  form  of  the  present  day,  to 
denote  the  old  faiths  of  serpent,  tree,  and  shield,  as  well  as  of  the  sun  god,  from  which 
springs  her  very  name  Japan  (Ja  or  Je,  Sun)  upon  the  new  coin  of  the  Empire.  All, 
whether  the  Sun-god,  "  Sun  of  righteousness,"  Dagon,  Isis,  the  symbolic  flaming 
candle  or  humble  fire-vessel,  on  the  altars  of  the  devout,  the  Fleur-de-lys,  modern  or 
ancient  crosses,  all  and  every  one  of  these,  tell  alike  the  same  story  in  the  eyes  of  the 
pious  archeologist,  seeking  for  the  roots  of  man's  faiths. 

Totem  and  fetish  worship  is  indeed  a  most  important  portion  of  the  study  of  all 
who  seek  for  these  roots  and  straying  branches ;  yet  I  cannot  look  upon  Totemism  as 
a  stream  of  faith,  though  Scrutator  properly  puts  it  first  as  "  man's  nature  of  religion, 
in  his  purely  barbarous  state."  We  do  however  find  nearly  one  quarter  of  the  world 
yet  deifying,  or  at  least  reverencing,  "  sticks  and  stones,  Earn  horns  and  charms,"  and 
I  therefore  feel  inclined  to  exhibit  this  fetishism  and  demonology  by  a  deep  wash, 
forming  a  ground  colour  with  my  streams  of  faith.  It  might  then  be  fined  off  in 
colour  as  the  streams  become  broad  and  well  defined,  but  it  should  in  this  case  be 
continued  to  the  present  time.  It  is  equally  Fetishism  which  adores  relics  such  as  the 
tooth  of  Boodha,  and  bits  of  the  cross  of  Christ,  as  that  which  bows  at  the  sound  of  his 
name  and  venerates  holy  books ;  many  sects  bow  lowly  in  opening  their  Bibles,  and 
surely  it  is  making  fetishes  of  these  books,  when  men  and  women  bend  the  knee  and 
head  to  these,  or  touch  them  with  the  forehead  as  Hindoos,  Mahomedans,  and  others  do, 
and  call  upon  their  God  to  enable  them  to  receive  as  direct  from  Him  everything  they 
may  there  hear  or  read,  no  matter  how  perverse  or  shocking  to  intellect  and  moral  sense. 

We  see  a  strong  phase  of  Fetish  worship  in  the  little  charms  of  Urim  and 
Thumim ;  in  the  Eduth,  (a  lingam)  or  "  the  Testament ; "  and  in  the  Ark  of  present 
synagogues ;  and  we  know  now  that  this  Urim  and  Thumim  were  only  parts  of  the 
paraphernalia  used  in  the  arts  of  divination  and  sorcery,  although  the  origin  I  believe 
to  be  strictly  Egyptian  and  Phallic.  The  root  Thum  we  learn  is  the  Hebrew  and 
Arabic  for  Thmei,  the  Egyptian  for  "  Truth,"  corresponding  to  (few)  Themis,  the 
Greek  for  Justice.  The  Alexandrian  translators  of  the  LXX  give  us  as  the  Greek 
translation  (A^UA;)  Delosis,  manifestation,  and  ('AX^g/a),  Aletheia,  Truth,  and  the 
Alexandrian  Jew  Philo  tells  us  that  the  sacred  breastplate  of  the  Hebrews  contained 
images  of  the  two  virtues  or  powers.  (See  Francis  Newman's  Hebrew  Monarchy, 
p.  34.)  I  therefore  see  Maiya  in  "  Truth,"  and  the  reason  why  the  mirror  was  her 
symbol,  and  thus  why  "  Truth  "  became  the  "  manifestation  "  of  the  generative  or  great 
creative  power  in  the  Thumim  or  Delosis.  The  ideas  were  enigmatically  shown  in 

30  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  two  Ds,  Delosis  and  Delta,  as  usually  put  in  ancient  days,  A  v,  or  xx.  See  Inman 
for  details  (I.  107)  of  these  two  forms.  The  Jewish  ark  itself  was  only  a  larger  charm, 
fetish,  or  talisman,  which  brought  bad  or  good  luck,  prosperity  or  death  and  destruc 
tion,  to  those  who  possessed  it,  nay,  to  those  who  even  touched  it.  In  all  ages  and 
faiths,  we  have  such  fetishism  starting  up  and  running  side  by  side  with,  but  not  I 
consider  forming  a  distinctive  stream  of,  one  of  man's  faiths. 

It  is  with  reluctance  that  I  have  even  allowed  into  the  stream  of  Faiths  the 
worship  of  Ancestors,  as  it  is  found  in  every  Faith,  and  near  its  very  source.  As 
naturally  as  the  child  loves  and  the  man  often  adores  his  parents,  so  have  nations 
adored  their  ancestors,  their  tombs,  and  writings.  As  however  we  clearly  follow  up 
this  ancestral  adoration,  we  find  it  go  through  all  the  usual  phases  of  a  Faith,  viz.  it 
attaches  miracles  to  its  object,  raises  the  parent  into  an  idol,  causes  sacrifices  and  even 
massacres  and  wars  for  the  land  or  places  where  he  lived,  or  which  were  loved  by  him  ; 
and  makes  pilgrimages  to  his  shrines,  as  the  East  and  West  exhibit  daily.  Travellers 
on  the  Euphrates  still  find  hundreds  of  Jews  going  to  the  Tomb  of  Ezra  in  ancient 
Kaldea.  Ancestral  worship  usually  frames  a  Bible  out  of  the  revered  ancestor's 
sayings  or  writings,  as  the  Hebrew  has  in  the  case  of  Moses,  and  the  Mahomedan 
of  those  of  his  "  Peers."  It  is,  then,  because  I  find  all  these  in  Ancestral  worship 
that  I  include  it  as  a  stream  of  Faith,  else  would  I  class  it  as  a  sect  or  phase  of  a  Faith, 
or  a  partial  heresy,  and  liken  it  to  animal  and  fetish  worship. 

Bible  or  Book  Fetishism,  I  am  compelled  to  show  as  a  prominent  part  of  every 
stream  of  Faith,  from  the  days  of  the  Vedas  and  Zendavesta  to  the  present  hour.  I 
shall  also  hereafter  have  much  to  say  of  reverence  for,  if  not  partial  adoration  of 
animals,  and  Fetishes,  and  of  Demonology  ;  meantime,  I  think  what  I  have  to  say  will 
come  better  after  I  have  devoted  a  little  time  to  each  of  my  six  early  and  direct 
sources  of  man's  Faiths. 

Fig.  1.—  THE  FICUS  INDICA  or  BANIAN,  with  Idols  sketched  from  Nature. 



THERE  is  no  doubt  in  my  mind  that  the  first  breathings  of  the  human  soul  were 
manifested  naturally,  not  I  think  on  a  desert  hill-side,  the  trackless  ocean,  or  amid 
the  dark  monsters  or  creeping  things  in  caves  and  caverns,  but  under  the  sweet  shade 
and  shelter  of  one  of  nature's  most  lovely  objects — the  Sacred  Tree  or  Grove ;  espe 
cially  do  we  here  in  the  East  understand  how  loved  its  refreshing  shades  are  ;  when 
escaping  from  the  furious  rage  of  another  but  a  later  god,  the  weary  pilgrim, 
labourer,  or  traveller  throws  himself  down  for  rest  to  body,  eye,  and  soul,  amidst 
the  cool  green  darkness  of  the  grove. 

Are  not  sacred  groves,  the  grand  old  gnarled  oak,  the  wide- spreading  beech  of 
Europe,  the  holy  elm  of  Korasan,  or  far  grander  Banian  of  India,  the  theme  of  much 
of  present  and  of  ancient  poetry  and  history  ?  The  grove  is  called  the  "  retreat 
beloved  by  gods  and  men," — on  the  tree  also  hangs  the,  to  us,  mere  refreshing  "  fruit 
of  the  gods,"  but  in  the  times  I  am  speaking  of,  there  hung  the  principal  part  of 
the  food  on  which  the  infant  race  depended,  for  they  knew  nought  of  the  stores  laid 
up  in  soils  and  seas  for  a  higher  stage  of  their  growth. 

The  tree  was  "a  thing  of  knowledge,  and  of  good  and  evil,"  and  later,  in  "  the 
loved  god  Homa  "  of  Vedic  times,  long  ere  Jewish  fathers  could  have  recorded  Jewish 
myths,  was  perhaps  as  often  the  source  of  evil  as  of  good  ;  though  doubtless  as  Homa's 
fumes  ascended  into  the  human  brain,  it  was  thought  by  the  infant  race  to  be  not  only 
the  tree  of  knowledge  but  of  life.  As  the  great  Spirit-God  Homa,  God  under  various 
names,  created  many  of  the  mighty  gods  seen  in  the  early  stages  of  my  Stream,  so 
from  the  loves  of  Bacchus  and  of  Jupiter  sprang  many  mighty  ones  in  the  later  ages 
of  Grecian  faith  and  poetry.  From  the  most  ancient  times,  as  ^Eneas  tells  us,  "  the 

32  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

most  delightful  green  retreats  and  blessed  abodes  in  groves,"  were  what  the  gods  loved, 
and  "  the  first  bright  sight  he  saw  "  when  coming  "  from  the  nether  world." 

What  place,  indeed,  especially  in  intertropical  lands,  could  be  more  grateful  to 
the  man  bent  on  pious  thought  than  the  secluded  woodland  retreat,  or  the  dark 
recesses  of  a  forest,  or  of  some  ancient  grove,  hallowed  by  many  pious  memories  of 
the  past,  in  connection  with  Fathers  whom  he  and  his  now  worshipped  as  gods,  or  at 
least  reverenced  as  demi-gods  ?  What  so  favourable  to  the  devotional  spirit,  and  so 
inspiring  to  prayer  and  praise,  as  whispering  winds  on  the  rustling  leaves  of 
half-idolised  old  moss-grown  monarchs  of  the  woods,  sweetened  perchance  by 
the  soft  cadence  of  that  dear  murmuring  brook,  whose  winding  stream  recalls 
so  many  sad  as  well  as  joyful  reminiscences,  and  all  quickened  into  a  "dream 
land  "  by  the  melodious  songs  of  the  woodland  choristers,  as  these  rise  ever 
and  again  into  wild  pathos,  or  sink  into  a  sweetness  grateful  to  the  thought 
ful  soul  ?  Alas  !  for  poor  emotional  man  if  the  spirit  be  bold  and  brave,  and  the  soul 
fired  beyond  the  guidance  of  reason  ;  for  the  pietist  has  then  too  oft  madly  sprung  forth 
and  declared  that  he  has  been  in  the  presence  of  his  God.  In  all  ages  there  have  been 
men  who  have  felt  this  in  far  more  fullness  than  I  can  describe  it,  and  have  rushed 
forth  to  the  world  from  their  retreats,  be  they  the  groves  of  Bood-gaya  or  the  wilder 
nesses  of  Western  Asia,  determined  to  declare  what  they  have  deluded  themselves  into 
believing — that  God  has  spoken  to  them.  In  his  excellent  little  book  on  Symbolism, 
under  the  head  Sacred  Trees,  Mr  Barlow  has  expressed  what  I  have  long  felt.  He 
says,  "  the  most  generally  received  symbol  of  life  is  a  tree— as  also  the  most  appropri 
ate.  .  .  .  There  might  be  an  innate  appreciation  of  the  beautiful  and  the  grand  in  this 
impression,  conjoined  with  the  conception  of  a  more  sublime  truth,  and  the  first  prin 
ciples  of  a  natural  theology,  but  in  most  instances  it  would  appear  rather  to  have  been 
the  result  of  an  ancient  and  primitive  symbolical  worship,  at  one  time  universally  pre 
valent."  (The  italics  are  mine.)  As  men  came  to  recognise  in  themselves  two  natures 
—the  physical  and  spiritual,  the  life  of  the  body  and  life  of  the  soul — "  so  these  came 
to  be  represented  either  by  two  trees,  as  sometimes  found,  or  in  reference  to  universal 
life,  by  one  tree  only."  (Barlow,  p.  85.)  Some  thousands  of  -  years  before  even  the 
age  imputed  to  Genesis,  there  were  sculptured  on  the  Zodiac  of  Dendera — Egypt — two 
sacred  trees,  the  Western  and  Eastern  ;  the  first  was  truth  and  religion — the  sacred 
palm  surmounted  by  the  ostrich  feather— the  latter,  the  vital  or  generative  force  of 
nature,  beyond  which  Egypt  thought  she  had  risen,  therein  surpassing  her  Eastern 
parent  ;  at  least  so  I  feel  inclined  to  class  them  chronologically.  "Besides  the  monu 
mental  evidence  furnished,"  says  Barlow,  "of  a  sacred  tree,  a  Tree  of  Life,  there  is  an 
historical  and  traditional  evidence  of  the  same  thing  found  in  the  early  literature  of  vari 
ous  nations,  in  their  customs  and  popular  usages."  All  grand,  extraordinary,  beautiful,  or 
highly  useful  trees,  have  in  every  land  at  some  time  been  associated  with  the  noble,  won 
derful,  lovely,  and  beneficent  ideas,  which  man  has  attributed  to  his  God  or  to  nature. 

Tree  Worship. 


We  can  recognise  the  early  worship  of  trees  in  the  reverence  of  thought  which 
attaches  to  the  two  in  the  centre  of  man's  first  small  world,  or  garden  of  fruits  and 
shade.  All  unhistorical  though  the  tales  may  be,  there  is  a  deep  poetry  underlying 
the  story  of  the  sacred  garden.  We  naturally  picture  it  as  a  "  grove,"  for  man  was 
not  yet  a  cultivator  of  the  ground ;  amidst  the  deep  shades  of  Eden,  we  are  told, 
walked  the  great  Elohim,  with  the  man  and  woman — naked — as  created  by  Him 
through  his  Logos,  Ruach,  Spirit  or  Spouse,  but  yet  "  without  the  knowledge,"  which 
"  the  sacred  tree  of  knowledge  "  was  soon  to  impart.  Here,  as  in  all  Eastern  faiths, 
this  last  is  accomplished  under  the  instigation  of  the  serpent — symbol  of  male 
virility.  The  Hebrew  writer  makes  him  address  himself  to  the  Virgin  Mother  of  man, 
called  Eva,  Yuna,  or  Yoni ;  but  other  Eastern  legends  perhaps  more  correctly  put  it, 
as  the  serpent  in  man,  tempting  him  to  forget  his  Creator  and  all  that  he  had  been 
taught  of  purity  and  holiness.  We  must  remember  that  the  very  names,  Adam  and 
Eve,  or  A-dam  and  A-dama,  are  purely  terms  denoting  gender,  and  to  this  hour,  one 
at  least  is  so  retained  by  all  the  Mohamedan  races  around  me,  who  know  no  other 
name  for  the  symbol  of  Siva  and  Mahadeva,  in  the  temples  of  India,  but  "the  A-dam," 
for  ancient  words  denoted  purposes.1 

These  gender-ic  names,  if  I  may  coin  a  useful  word,  pass  through  every  faith, 
as  with 






Asher,  the  "  red  digger." 
Beltes,  "  the  field." 

These  are  details,  however,  for  which  I  must  refer  the  inquiring  reader  to  special 
books  like  Dr  Inman's  valuable 
volumes,  "  Ancient  Faiths  em 
bodied  in  Ancient  Names."2  From 
it,  by  his  kind  permission,  I  here 
give  what  is  called  "the  Temp 
tation,"  with  the  tree  and  serpent, 
and  dogs  of  passion,  all  in  lustrous 
symbolism,  as  we  shall  hereafter 
more  fully  understand.  The  idea 
is  the  Eastern  one,  and  the 
original  is  by  Colonel  Coombs, 
from  a  cave  in  South  India. 
It  reverses  the  Jewish  idea  of 

1  As  Penates  and  such  words  from  pen-penetro, 
a  penetrator.  The  representative  gods  are  called 
Penates.  We  have  also  the  Hindostani  word 
Chinal,  an  harlot,  from  China — perforata,  root, 
ched  (a  cave).  See  also  the  Vedic  name  for  the 


wife  of  the   gods,   Sita — symbol,  a  field   furrow  ; 
her  sister  in  the  Earn  ay  an  is  Urmila,  "the  waving 
seed  field,''  and  their  father's  banner  is  a  plough. 
2  Triibner,  London,  second  edition,  1872 

34  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  temptation,   but  is  in  my  experience  the  one   most   generally  accepted   in  the 

The  numerous  tales  of  holy  trees,  groves,  and  gardens  repeated  everywhere  and  in 
every  possible  form,  fortify  me  in  my  belief,  that  Tree  worship  was  first  known,  and  after 
it  came  Lingam  or  Phallic,  with,  of  course,  its  female  form  A-dama.  The  Serpent  being 
Passion,  and  symbolic  of  the  second  faith,  followed,  we  may  say,  almost  simultane 
ously  ;  thus  we  find  the  sacred  garden-groves  of  all  Edens  first  mentioned,  then  the 
instructor,  the  serpent,  and  latterly  creative  powers  in  Adam  and  Adama,  or  in  Asher 
and  Ashera,  which  last  female  worship  the  Old  Testament  translators  call  the  "Grove." 
We  are  told  it  was  always  set  up  with  Asher,  Baal,  &c.,  under  "every  green  tree,"  by 
ancient  Israel,  and  up  to  a  few  hundred  years  before  Christ,  and  not  seldom  even  after 
Christ.  Many  writers  who  are  thought  to  be  authorities  have  not  given  this  question 
of  priority  all  the  attention  it  deserves,  and  place  Serpent  worship,  I  think  wrongly,  as 
the  first  of  man's  faiths.  . 

All  Eastern  literature  teems  with  the  stories  told  of  and  under  the  sacred  fig-tree, 
Ficus  Religiosa,  Gooler,  or  Ficus  Indica.  Under  its  holy  shade,  gods,  goddesses, 
men,  and  animals  disport  themselves,  and  talk  with  each  other  on  sacred  and  profane 
themes.  From  it,  as  from  many  another  holy  tree,  ascended  gods  and  holy  men  to 
Heaven,  and  it  and  many  others  are  to  be  yet  the  cradles  of  coming  Avatars.  To  the 
present  hour  we  find  thousands  of  barren  women  still  worshipping  and  giving  offerings 

throughout  the  year  to  this  Peepal,  or  male  fig-tree 
of  India,  to  obtain  offspring  :  nor  is  the  female  tree — 
the  Ficus  Indica — neglected  ;  at  stated  periods  this 
Bar,  or  true  Banian,  must  be  also  worshipped  with 
offerings  by  all  who  wish  such  boons.  Under  this 
sacred  tree  did  the  pious  Stikyamooni  become  a  Boodh, 
or  enlightened  one  ;  and  it  is  from  the  rubbing  to 
gether  of  the  wood  of  trees,  notably  of  the  three 
rig.  3.- THE  FICUS  LEAF  AND  FRUIT.  Banian  figs — Peepal,  B&r,  and  Gooler  (Ficus  Syca 

mores),  the  favourite  ivoods  for  Phallic  images,  that  holy  fire  is  drawn  from  Heaven, 
and  before  all  these  species  do  women  crave  their  desires  from  God. 

On  the  fifth  day  after  a  young  Hindoo's  birth,  the  female  members  of  the  family 
assemble  in  the  mother's  room  at  night,  and  there  are  brought  three  branches  of  different 
trees,  chosen  very  much  according  to  locality.  The  three  probably  represent  the  Triune ; 
one  is  the  plum-tree,  and  the  others,  generally  any  species  with  elongated  leaves. 

At  the  feast  of  the  DSsera  which  follows  the  rains,  and  is  looked  upon  as  an 
auspicious  time  for  any  expedition,  the  worshippers,  accompanied  by  a  Priest,  go  in  pro 
cession  to  the  foot  of  the  Apta  tree,  which  is  on  that  day  called  ".  gold."  It  is  then 
consecrated  by  the  Priest,  after  which  all  take  branches  and  distribute  to  their  friends. 
Others  besides  Jews  have  seen  divers  reasons  why  the  Ficus  is  said  to  have 
been  used  to  cover  the  nakedness  of  the  early  race.  The  Symbolic  trefoil  or 

Tree  Worship.  35 

Jleur  de  lys  with  its  seed  springing  from  its  stems,  is  still  used  as  a  Phallic  ornament, 
and  the  leaf,  especially  of  the  Bo,  is  very  like  the  old  form  of  <p  Ph :  It  has  a  long 
attenuated  point,  and  is  ever  quivering  on  the  stillest  clays. 

The  tree  has  many  peculiarities,  not  only  in  its  leaves  and  mode  of  leafing,  but 
in  its  fruit  and  modes  of  multiplying,  which  could  not  fail  to  make  it  of  a  very 
holy  and  important  character,  in  the  pious,  poetical,  and  imaginative  mind  of  the 
East.  Among  others  the  fruit  or  seed  hangs  direct  from  its  limbs,  yet  it  is 
commonly  said  to  be  germinated  by  seed  from  heaven ;  birds  carry  off  the  seed  and 
deposit  it  on  all  high  places,  and  in  the  trunks  of  other  trees  ;  these  this  Ficus  splits 
asunder  and  entwines  itself  all  around,  descending  by  the  parent  trunk  as  well  as 
aerially,  by  drooping  suckers  until  it  reaches  Mother-Earth,  by  which  time  it  has 
most  likely  killed  the  parent  tree,  which  has  up  to  that  period  nourished  it.  Thus 
the  Ficus  tribe  is  often  hollow  in  the  centre,  and  if  the  hollow  exist  near  the  base, 
it  is  always  a  very  holy  spot  where  will  usually  be  found  a  Lingam  or  Yoni  stone, 
or  both,  or  a  temple  of  Mahd-Deva  or  Siva — the  great  God  of  Creation. 

Not  only  throughout  India,  but  in  all  the  Polynesian  Islands,  the  Ficus  Indicus  and 
the  Ficus  Sycamores  are  most  holy,  and  a  "  basket  of  Figs  "  was  one  of  the  most  sacred 
objects  in  the  procession  of  Bacchus,  whose  symbol  was  always  made  of  the  wood  of 
the  Ficus.  Its  boughs  and  leaves  were  an  important  accompaniment  of  the  proces 
sion  of  the  god  in  Egypt,  and  the  whole  genus  Ficus  was  most  holy  to  him.  The 
fruit  was  looked  upon  as  the  virgin  uterus,  in  contradistinction  to  "the  deity  of 
Damascus,"  or  Pomegranate,  or  gravid  uterus.  The  fig  and  stem  was  the  Sistrum 
of  the  temples,  the  harp  of  the  gods,  and  the  fig  was  as  exhilarating  as  the  vine,  and 
to  "  sit  under  one's  fig  and  vine  "  was  the  greatest  of  joys.  We  must  remember  the 
purpose  for  which  not  only  Jews  but  many  Easterns,  long  before  the  story  of  Eden 
was  heard  of,  or  at  least  penned,  wore  the  trefoil  leaves.  This  leaf  is  always  a  triad? 
and  the  fruit  a  monad,  and  Jews  who  held  it  sacred  above  all  Western  Asiatics, 
called  the  fruit  njxn  taanah,  or  connection,  the  root  of  which  is  still  more  forcible — 
for  the  mystical  Arba  is  here.  (See  Ancient  Faiths,  II.  462.)  Hebrews  usually  say 
that  it  was  a  fig,  and  not,  as  generally  thought,  an  apple  or  citron,  that  Eve  coveted 
and  "  fell  by,"  a  fact  which  if  substantiated  would  make  the  fall  a  natural  sequence 
in  the  eyes  of  those  holding  the  above  signification  of  the  fruits. 

I  will  now  briefly  state  some  details  in  regard  to  the  celebrated  Bo  tree  or  Ficus 
Religiosa  of  Ceylon :  It  is  the  Peepal,  and  has  long,  fleshy,  heart-shaped  leaves  on  a 
slender  stalk.  That  of  Ceylon  is  attached  to  the  ruined  shrines  known  as  the  Brazen 
Monastery,  and  is  one  of  the  holiest  vestiges  of  the  past  in  the  eyes  of  every  Boodhist. 
Though  now  amidst  ruins  and  wild  forests,  and  though  having  stood  thus  in  solitary 
desolation  for  some  1500  years,  yet  there  it  still  grows,  and  is  worshipped  and  deeply 
revered,  by  more  millions  of  our  race  than  any  other  god,  prophet,  or  idol,  which  the 
world  has  ever  seen,  could  have  or  at  least  has  commanded.  Let  us  realize  the  fact, 

36  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

that  there  it  has  stood  for  over  2200  years,  the  oldest  and  best  worshipped  idol  of  man, 
and  after  all,  what  is  it  ?  Only  a  beautiful  tree  ;  yet  in  its  sweet  shade,  says  tradition, 
were  matured  by  the  good  young  Prophet,  those  high  principles,  generous  and  pious 
resolves,  which  overthrew  all  the  great  faiths  of  India  in  the  short  space  of  a  genera 
tion  or  two,  and  indeed  of  all  the  East  in  a  very  few  centuries,  and  which  have 
stamped  more  or  less  on  every  succeeding  faith  the  highest  ideas  of  an  exalted  virtue 
and  self-abnegation,  of  good  works,  and  noble-mindedness. 

This  wonderful  Idol  has  furnished  shoots  to  half  Asia,  and  every  shoot  is 
trained  as  much  as  possible  like  the  parent,  and  like  it  also  enclosed  and  tended. 
Men  watch  and  listen  for  signs  and  sounds  from  this  holy  tree  just  as  the  Priests  of 
Dodona  did  beneath  their  rustling  oaks,  and  as  many  peoples  even  of  these  somewhat 
sceptical  days  still  do,  beneath  the  pulpits  of  their  Pope,  Priest,  or  other  oracle. 

The  worship  of  this  Tree  was  as  complete  in  all  its  parts  as  even  the  organised 
theocracies  of  our  day.  Where  the  Eoman  Catholic  Bishop  put  a  cross  (tree  of  Life) 
before  his  signature,  the  High  Priests  of  Ceylon  affixed  the  image  of  one  of  the  trefoil 
leaves,  and  that  sign  constituted  every  document  or  other  object  on  which  it  was 
affixed  at  once  holy,1  set  apart  or  consecrated,  and  so  "royal"  like  our  "broad  arrow."  It 
has  been  customary  to  attribute  the  worship  of  this,  and  indeed  from  it  of  all  trees 
to  Gotama  Boodha,  and  to  say  that  this  celebrated  tree  sprang  from  the  parent  branch 
which  the  Prophet  tarried  under  at  Gaya,  and  that  "  it  planted  itself  in  a  golden  vase  ; " 
that  it  is  "  always  green,  never  growing,  and  never  decaying ;  none  of  which  traditions 
we  care  to  dispute,  yet  this  I  must  in  toto  dissent  from,  that  it  is  the  parent  of 
Tree  Worship.  On  the  contrary  I  hold  that  its  birth  and  worship  is  but  a  thing  of 
yesterday  in  comparison  with  the  adoration  of  Trees.  Tree  worship  was,  I  think,  very 
old  and  all  over  the  world,  long  before  Gotama  Boodha's  day,  sixth  century  B.C.,  and  I 
cannot  think  that  in  this  isle  of  lovely  trees,  the  "  Eden  of  the  Eastern  Wave,"  and  of 
every  kind  of  spirit,  and  demon,  and  elemental  worship,  that  the  Bo  tree  was  anything 
more  than  the  worship  of  a  tree  which  the  holy  ascetics  of  Boodha  Gaya,  as  persons 

1  I  very  much  incline  to  think  that  this  word  fierce  god  of  love.      We  have  the  female  in  Latin 

holy  comes  from  a  physical  base  in  connection  with  as    Eona-dea ;  and    elsewhere   Agatha,  Belus,    tfcc. 

passion.     The  virgin  is  the  one  specially  set  apart,  In  Hebrew  we  have  the  important  word   Kadesh, 

or  the  Holy  One,  and  ctyvog  is  that  which  is  holy  or  PHp?  to  which    Inman   gives   full  attention  at  II. 

chaste   as   Diana,   or   goddess    Ana,    (Dia-ana)   to  .168,  and  as  a  not  \incommon  Indian  word,  Kadeem, 

whom  the  Af/nus-c&stus  is  sacred,  because  it  does  that  which  is  sacred  as  from  custom,  also  "revered." 

not    permit   of  the   "  bite   of  the  serpent."       The  The  result  appears   to  be  virginity  and  sacred  or 

Agnus-castus   is  also   a.  fish,   that  is    a    nun,  and  hot-ftre.     Sanskrit  quite  bears  out  all  'Dr  Inman 

woman    generally,    as    well    as     "a    chaste    tree"  says  as  to  Kadesh,  and  shows  in  Katdksha  and  its 

The  word  requires  probing  down  to  the  root,  as  to  roots  Kati  and  As,  from  whence  Asher,  more  than 

Ag, fire  in  Sanskrit  and  its  analogues;  love,  goodness,  I  can  here  mention.      Fiirst's  Heb.  Diet,  shows  us 

and  compassion  are  all  the  most  holy  of  passions,  that  the  Kadesh  might  be  a  temple-male  as  well 

whether   in   male  or   female'.     Thus  we   have   the  as  female,  also  that  Kadesh  means  a  place  or  seat 

Serpent  god  of  love,  Agatho  Daimon,  ayadodaifAuv  of  holiness  and  a  well  or  font.      The  original  mean- 

whom    Easterns    occasionally   call    the    demon    or  ing  of  Holy  Ghost  was  thus  only  Hot  air  or  Breath. 

Tree  Worship.  37 

who  ever  loved  dark  woods  and  lonely  places,  sent  to  this  island  because  an  object 
which  they  were  certain  would  be  there  gladly  accepted. 

It  is  a  matter  of  history,  that  the  three  Boodhas  who  preceded  Sakya  Mooni 
knew  Ceylon  and  by  separate  names;1  and  a] so  that  all  had  like  Gotama  specific  sacred 
trees  ;  his  being  known  as  the  Bo  of  Bood  Gaya,  long  before  the  days  of  Asoka,  or  the 
third  century  B.C.  The  Malidvdnso  says  that  the  Ceylon  Ficus  was  a  slip  from  it 
received  about  the  middle  of  the  third  century  B.C.,  and  planted  in  the  centre  of  the 
then  great  and  royal  city  of  Anoo-rada-poora,  a  curious  name,  the  ancient  significa 
tion  of  which  we  would  like  to  know ;  Anoo  is  an  elephant  in  Tamil,  and  Barman 
Boodhists  worship  the  white  elephant.  In  the  eyes  of  all  the  millions  who,  as  I 
have  said,  have  here  worshipped  for  twenty-two  centuries,  the  tree  represents  their 
great  prophet,  and  is  the  type  of  a  faith  which  they  consider  is  "  ever  young,"  for 
like  the  serpent  of  Apollo,  the  Banian  ever  "  renews  its  youth."  Colonel  Forbes 
Leslie,  in  his  Early  Races  of  Scotland,  gives  us  a  beautiful  drawing  of  it  as  spreading 
in  wild  and  graceful  profusion  over  raised  and  prettily  built  terraces,  and  not  looking 
by  any  means  an  old  tree.  The  local  traditions  are  that  Dharma-Soka,  king  of  India, 
sent  the  original  slip  to  the  King  of  Ceylon  by  the  hand  of  the  priestess  Sangha  Mita 
in  307  B.C. 

Sakya  is  said  to  have  reposed  under  the  parent  tree  on  his  becoming  Boodha  after 
his  long  sojourn  and  fast  in  the  wilderness  for  forty-nine  days.  He  had  then  mastered 
all  deadly  sins  and  every  fear,  having  overcome  death  and  entered  upon  the  joys  of 
perfect  quiet  and  peace ;  then  it  was  he  saw  his  way  to  enter  upon  the  duties  of 
his  mission. 

Boodhists  often  have  a  sacred  shrub  in  a  pot  to  represent  this  tree,  or  to  remind 
them  of  it,  at  least  so  they  say,  but  the  fact  I  believe  to  be,  just  as  in  the  case  of  the 
Hindoos  with  their  sacred  Toolsi  and  some  other  shrubs,  that  the  potted  shrub  or  tree 
is  an  emblem  of  the  old  and  first  worship  of  man,  of  which  many  traditions  have 
departed,  and  the  very  memory  of  them  passed  away. 

Colonel  F.  Leslie  tells  us  in  a  note  at  foot  of  page  174,  vol.  I,  of  Early  Races, 
that  Vance  describes  a  sculpture  of  a  tree  in  a  flower-pot,  as  dug  out  of  the  ruins  of 
Hagar-Kim  in  Malta,  which  is  considered  "  an  emblem  of  Phenician  worship,  such  as 
that  still  practised  in  Sardinia,  where  the  vase  and  the  plant  of  corn  growing  in  it 
represent  a  part  of  the  worship  of  Hermes,  in  ancient  times  called  the  garden  of 
Adonis  ;"  for  which  we  are  referred  to  Forrester  s  Sardinia,  p.  334.  This  is  exactly 
what  might  be  expected.  Adonis  is  the  Sun  of  fertility,  the  god  of  Love  ;  Hermes  is  the 
pillar  or  Lingam  god,  and  the  stems  of  all  trees  represent  him,  and  are  very  commonly 
called  the  Ldt  or  pole,  or  sacred  Toth  of  Boodhism ;  from  Ldt  we  still  have  the 
common  words  Ldtti,  a  walking  stick,  and  Lakree,  any  stick  or  piece  of  wood.  The 

1  It   was  called    Oja,  Warad,  and  Mada,  in  the  times  of  the  three  Boodhas  Kakoosanda,  Konagama, 
and  Kasyapa  respectively. 

38  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

"garden"  signifies  merely  "  a  place  of  pleasure  "  or  of  love,  so  that  I  cannot  accord  to 
either  Gotama  Boodha,  or  even  the  previous  Boodhas,  the  origin  of  this  very  old 
Phallo-tree  cult.  We  have  many  traces  of  it  in  and  about  the  cradle  of  the  Aryan 
races  not  confined  to  the  Bo  or  Ficus  Religiosa,  though  in  most  cases  Boodhism  has  so 
very  early  appropriated  all  such  trees  and  shrines,  that  it  is  difficult  to  separate  the 
faiths.  Cunningham,  in  his  Ancient  Geography  of  India,  p.  79,  tells  us  of  a  celebrated 
Ficus  (Peepal)  which  Sang- Yang  the  Chinese  pilgrim  of  500  A.C.,  there  calls  the  Bodi 
tree.  He  says  it  was  always  held  in  the  highest  veneration,  if  not  worshipped. 
Kanishka,  the  great  king  of  North- West  India,  built  here  his  magnificent  Stoopa,  and, 
report  says,  planted  it  about  30  B.C.  ;  but  another  tradition  says  that  Sakya  Mooni  sat 
under  it  and  predicted  the  rise  of  this  great  king  to  propagate  Boodhism.  The 
Emperor  Baber  in  1505  A.O.  says  he  "immediately  rode  out  to  see  this  stupendous 
tree  of  Begram  "  which  is  one  and  a  half  miles  to  the  south-east  of  Peshawar.  The 
Stoopa  of  Kanishka  beside  it,  is  described  by  two  different  pilgrims  as  400  feet 
high,  and  a  quarter  of  a  mile  in  circumference,  and  as  adorned  with  all  sorts  of 
precious  things.  The  tree  is  said  to  be  1500  years  old,  and  the  Stoopa  to  have  been  a 
celebrated  place  of  pilgrimage  for  a  century  or  two  later.  Boodha,  it  is  said,  prayed 
and  meditated  for  seven  weeks  under  four  different  kinds  of  trees  before  starting  on 
his  mission,  which  I  fancy  rather  refers  to  his  seven  years  of  meditation  and  prayer ; 
it  is  a  somewhat  mythical  and  rather  too  solar-looking  a  number  to  be  accepted  as  a  fact. 

At  Alahabad — ancient  Prayaga — there  exists  the  celebrated  "  undecaying  Banian 
tree,"  or  Aksliaybat,  'which  to  this  hour  is  an  object  of  worship,  as  it  probably  was  in 
Asoka's  day — 235  B.C. — when  he  there  erected  his  stone  pillar.  Was  he,  the  Boodhist- 
King,  then  still  pandering  to  tree  and  phallic  worships?  Further  on  I  shall  have  occasion 
to  show  how  this  Prayaga  tree  "  renews  its  youth  "  according  to  the  manner  of  priests. 
A  very  holy  Brahmanical  temple  is  built  facing  the  tree  which  the  Chinese  Priest 
Hweng  Tsang  (7th  century  A.c.)  says  "was  surrounded  by  human  bones,. the  remains 
of  pilgrims  who  had  sacrificed  their  lives  before  the  temple,  a  practice  which  had  been 
observed  from  time  immemorial.  The  tree  was  said  to  be  the  abode  of  a  man-eating 
demon."  This  tree  is  now  situated  under  ground,  apparently  at  one  side  of  a  pillared 
court  where  the  temple  must  have  stood.  A  flight  of  steps  leads  down  to  the  tree  ; 
the  court  was  probably  open  to  the  sky,  but  is  now  closed  over  head  to  secure  darkness 
and  mystery,  priestly  favourites.  In  Akbar's  time  the  historian  Abdool  Khadir  says 
that  from  this  "  tree  of  Prog "  people  cast  themselves  into  the  river.  Now  this 
undoubtedly  tells  us  that  the  temple  was  Siva's,  for  he  loves  human  sacrifice.  The 
fruitful  tree  faced  the  Phallic  emblem  as  we  so  constantly  see  to  this  hour. 

To  aid  my  readers  in  following  me  in  these  Eastern  details,  I  here  give  a  Sivaic 
(Hindoo)  temple,  with  all  the  usual  accessories,  as  Linga-in-Yoni,  below  and 
above  ground,  Pole  and  Serpent  Streamers,  Well,  and  Holy  Tree,  and  Devotees. 
The  Prayag  Pillar  was  possibly  there  long  before  Asoka's  day,  indeed  he  may  have 

Tree  Worship. 


engraved  his  mandates  thereon,  as  was  his  wont,  and  placed  it  in  the  middle  of 
his  capital. 

The  cosmical  Genesis  of 
Boodhism  confirms  what  I 
hope  to  establish  in  the  course 
of  this  work — that  the  Tree 
and  Serpent  are  the  oldest  of 
symbolic  faiths,  and  as  these 
embrace  my  second,  we  have 
thus  the  three  first  streams. 

The  Ficus,  say  Hindoos 
and  Boodhists  and  all  East 
erns,  is  more  peculiarly  sacred 
when  entwining  the  palm,  and 
hence  they  are  constantly 

sown    together ;     when    thus 

Fig.  4.- 


embracing  they  say  Kdlpa  is 
developed,  for  the  Ficus  is  here  the  female  energy,  and  the  embrace  causes  the 
revolutions  of  Time,  and  the  whole  is  "  the  Tree  of  Life."  I  have  heard  very  modest 
young  Boodhist  priests  explain  this  extraordinary  marriage,  and  dilate  on  the 
importance  of  Kalpa  in  a  way  I  shall  not  attempt  here. 

Far  back  in  mythic  ages,  says  Boodhism,  sprang  up  the  Kdlpa  Raksha,  which 
produced  all  that  early  man,  then  immortal,  required ;  even  sun,  moon,  and  the  five 
planets  succeeded  this  Kalpa,  which  we  may  translate  with  Colonel  Forbes  Leslie  as 
"an  immensely  extended  period  of  time;"  whilst  Raksha,  (or,  as  some  spell  it,  without 
corresponding  advantage  to  the  philologist,  and  great  perplexity  to  the  reader  who 
desires  to  remember  what  he  reads,  Wruksha),  "  the  tree  producing  all  things 
desirable"  a  highly  Kal-IOnic  meaning,  of  which  more  hereafter.  This  Kdlpa 
Raksha  exists,  says  the  Cosmogony,  "  at  the  foundations  of  the  world,  beside  the  great 
original  Ndgas" — those  expanding  Cobras  di  Capellos  "possessing  human  intellects." 
It  appears  that  with  this  "  tree  of  knowledge"  which  "produced  all  things"  man,  as 
usual  in  such  cases,  "waxed  wicked,"  when  all  things  were  for  the  fourth  time 
pronounced  by  the  Creator  a  failure,  and  as  the  Greeks  said,  "Zeus  made  Pandora," 
which  the  poet  Burns  expresses  in  a  similarly  brief  way.  It  appears  that  then  great 
varieties  of  plants  sprang  up,  when  men  "eat  of  them,  became  mortal,  and 
found  themselves  in  darkness,"  and  discovered  that  they  were  male  and  female, 
and  that  they  were  "liable  to  mental  passions,  such  as  envy,  covetousness,  and 
ambition,  and  in  addition  to  corporeal  passions,"  which  is  as  discreet  a  way  of  putting 
before  us  strong  subjects,  as  possible;  it  is  added,  "the  race  which  now  inhabits 
the  earth  became  subject  to  all  the  evils  that  afflict  humanity;"  and  "after  their 

Rivers  of  Life \  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 


an  occult  or  difficult 

fall  all  was  darkness,"  that  so  common   manner   of 

To  show  the  worship  of  Tree,  Serpent,  and  Sun,  and  therefore  also  of  Phallic 
forms  of  faith,  I  give  here,  enlarged  from  Mr  Fergusson's  drawings,  part  of  the 
sculptures  of  the  fine  Boodhist  ruin  known  as  the  Amravati  Tope,  as  seen  in  R. 
Asiatic  Society's  vol.  III.  It  is  only  given  as  distinct  as  the  state  of  the  stone 

seems  to  authorise,  but  enlarged  to  shew 
what  it  is  thought  to  be,  and  no  doubt  is 
intended  to  be,  to  the  uninitiated,  a  tree  ;  the 
initiated,  however,  were  supposed,  I  believe, 
to  see  more  than  this,  viz.,  the  fertilization  of 
this  Ark  —  a  flaming  sort  of  vessel  —  for  Crea 
tion  is  here  evidently  the  object  of  worship  ; 
and  the  artists  have  most  successfully  laboured 
to  show  the  Tree  idea  or  the  conjunction  of 
Ge  and  Ouranos. 

Fig.  5.-TREE  A™  FIRE  WORSHIP-AMKAVATI  BOODHIST  TOPE.  In  the  original,  the  Sun,  o?  "  chakra  or 

wheel  "  (superfluous  words  I  think),  are  overhead,  and  over  the  Sun  the  Dagoba-like 
shrine,  and  serpent-crowned  altar,  which  I  here  give  as  Fig.  6,  from  another  part  of  the 
same  holy  shrine.  In  this  second  sculpture  we  see  on  the  right  and  left  the  solar  disk 
and  tree,  with  altars  to  themselves  outside,  but  on  either  side  of  the  main  altar,  on 
which  sits  wreathed  passion  as  upreared  snakes.  To  show  that  there  is  no  mistake  in 
the  ideas  of  this  fable,  I  give  a  drawing  of  another  portion  of  the  sculpturings  of  the 


same  holy  Tope,  also  from  Fergusson,  where  we  see  the  ubiquitous  Trisool,  and  ark  or 
cist,  with  Queens  of  Passion  rearing  proudly  their  wreaths  of  hooded  snakes,  whilst 
others,  as  usual,  fan  the  flames.  The  ark  is  unusually  quiet  in  this  case  ;  no  snakes 
coiling  in  and  out,  as  in  the  Phenician  coins,  but  the  Toth  or  Mercury  is  rendered 
like  the  Ashtaroth  a  flaming  column,  of  which  we  have  many  samples. 

Tree  Worship.  41 

It  has  been  remarked  by  British  archeologists  that  they  do  not  find  trees  or 
tree  worship  in  company  with  the  stone  circles  usually  known  as  "  Druid " 
in  Great  Britain,  but  here  we  have  it  very  clearly  in  India ;  for  adjoining  the  great 
shrine  of  Amravati  is  a  stone  circle  on  an  adjoining  mound ;  of  this  Mr  Fergusson 
gives  us  a  plan,  beside  the  account  and  illustrations  from  which  I  borrow  the  pre 
vious  figures.  In  Armorika  (Bretany),  the  tree  occurs  with  the  harp  and  horse-shoe 
of  lOnic  proclivities,  and  with  the  concentric  circle,  which  is  either  lOnic  or  Solar. 
Amidst  "the  sculptured  stones  of  Scotland  the  tree  appears  twice,  in  both  cases 
raised  on  a  terrace,  and  in  one  the  tree  has  a  serpent  on  each  side,"  so  that 
this  stands  for  the  stones  which  in  Phenicia  are  on  each  side  of  the  tree ; 
my  plate  IV.  gives  some  samples  of  similar  ideas. 

There  is  a  striking  resemblance  betwixt  the  Carthagenian  and  Keltic  trees,  as  I 
here  give  these  from  "Early  Races"  (PL  vi.,  I.  47),  as  well  as  those  sculpturings  we 
see  on  Asyrian  monuments  ;  as  every  nation  worshipped  trees,  this  was  to  be  expected, 
so  the  Kelts  had  a  tree-god,  similar  to  the 
Scottish  Duwkeli,  or  "  hidden  god,"  whom  the 
Irish,  Welsh,  and  Cornish  call  "him  of  the 
groves  or  thickets,"  or  shades  —  sha-des  — 
or  Ades,  or  the  West.  The  above  trees  are 
most  peculiar  in  their  bud  formations. 
These  are  all  triads  of  very  decided  Phallic 
forms,  reminding  us  of  the  acorn-bearing 
trees  of  Phenician  caves  and  sculpturings,  as 
well  as  of  many  Asyrian  "trees  of  life," 
of  which  numerous  examples  will  be  here 
after  adduced.  Were  they  alone,  we  might 
hesitate  to  draw  any  conclusions  from  their  structure,  but  they  swell  a  long  list,  all 
pointing  to  the  same  ideas.  It  is  curious  to  find  that  the  Gaelic  and  Cingalese  for  a 
grove  are  nearly  identical  in  sound.  Of  the  spelling  I  am  ignorant.  The  Gaelic 
Koile  is  the  Cingalese  Kelai  and  the  Cornish  Keli.  The  Gaelic  Keli-duw  becomes  in 
Ceylon  Aboodho-Deyio;  and  Keli1  or  Gele  is  a  youth  and  a  guide  among  Kelts,  whilst 
this  Cingalese  Kelai  is  "  the  god  of  .secresy  and  patron  of  thieves,"  and  a  close  connec 
tion  to,  if  not  Aboodho-Deyio  himself.  Col.  F.  Leslie,  author  of  "  Eleven  Years  in 
Ceylon,"  tells  us  "  that  all  whom  he  questioned  there  were  afraid  to  even  name  this 
god  otherwise  than  the  unknown  one"  (Early  Races,  I.,  1 79).  Now  Hermes  was  a  guide, 
and  the  god  of  numerous  little  and  many  great  evils  and  thefts,  and  he  was  also  the 
stem  or  standard  of  the  groves. 

The  vine,  sacred  to  Bacchus,  another  god  whom  we  may  call  Jove  under  the 

1  In  Sanskrit,  Keli  is  "amorous  sport" — (Eeinfey). 

42  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

influence  of  the  spirituous  god,  is  but  an  old  Aryan  story  of  the  great  god  Homa, 
enriched  by  the  sculptures  of  a  Phidias  or  the  glowing  pen  of  Olympic  poetry. 

Homa  or  Soma  is  Oushddesh,  Heb.  cnp  py,  etz  kadesh,  holy  tree,  or  king 
of  trees,  shrubs,  and  vegetables,  and  also  of  medicines,  for  all  the  vegetable 
kingdom  is  said  to  be  medicinal.  The  plant  containing  the  nectar  of  the  gods 
is  called  after  him  Soma  or  Somavaly :  it  is  said  not  to  be  a  vine,  but  a  creeper 
or  runner  which  some  say  is  now  lost  to  man.  It  is  represented  as  always 
the  first  thing  used  at  all  sacrifices.  Fire  was  at  once  rendered  sacred  by  a 
few  drops  of  Soma  being  thrown  on  it,  and  the  priest,  after  doing  this,  divided  the 
balance  amongst  his  fellows  "  to  quicken  their  memories  "  in  repeating  their  Vedic 
hymns  (see  Haug  on  this  subject).  The  juice  of  the  Soma  is  constantly  mentioned 
with  reference  to  giving  great  gifts  of  memory  and  intelligence ;  and  spirituality,  or 
spirit,  may  be  derived  from  this  vinous  foundation  of  the  god  Homa.  Jollity  is  heavenly, 
and  inspiration  is  from  on  high ;  and  its  reverse  is  the  dull  dead  level  of  ordinary 
mortals,  requiring  for  its  reception  reason  or  common  sense,  and  other  mundane  quali 
ties.  The  Zoroastrians  looked  upon  their  Homa  rite  with  the  same  solemnity  as  the 
Hindoo  on  his  Soma  sacrifices ;  and  it  is  probably  the  Homa,  and  not  the  Vine,  which 
European  writers  on  Asyrian  remains  tell  us  is  there  everywhere  shown  in  company 
with  holy  palms  and  firs.  Layard  says  that  "  the  Zoroastrian  Homa,  or  sacred  tree, 
was  preserved  by  the  Persians  almost  as  represented  on  the  Asyrian  monuments  until 
the  Arab  invasion"  (Nin.  II.,  472,  note).  The  plant,  or  its  product,  was  called 
the  mystical  body  of  God,  the  living  water  or  food  of  eternal  life,  when  duly  conse 
crated  and  administered  according  to  Zoroastrian  rites  ;  thus  we  observe  the  probable 
origin  of  the  celebrations  of  Jewish  "  holy  "  or  paschal  suppers,  and  other  Eucharistic 
rites.  There  is  some  confusion  betwixt  the  Ficus  and  Homa,  as  I  have  read  of  its 
juice,  and  even  the  wood  of  the  Homa,  fulfilling  many  of  the  offices  usually  said  to 
belong  to  the  Ficus  alone ;  but  the  fact  is,  from  both  trees  or  fruits,  an  exhilarating 
and  delightful  beverage  was  made,  much  relished  by  gods  and  priests,  who,  like  our 
medieval  abbots,  had  their  quiet  convivialities,  and  relished  good  cheer. 

I  may  here  note  that  though  both  flesh  and  spirits  are  denied  to  all  Brahmans, 
yet,  as  with  the  Jewish  Levites,  the  remnants  of  those  used  in  sacrifices  to  the  gods 
might  be  taken ;  and  as  the  priest  directs  the  proper  oblation,  so  he  can  get  whatever 
he  desires  in  this  way  ;  especially  do  the  worshippers  of  Bhavani  exceed  in  the  use  of 
flesh  and  spirits. 

M.  Reynaud  thinks  that  Horn  was,  among  the  Aryans  of  Bactria,  a  great' god  who 
preceded  Ormazd,  just  as  El  or  Eloliim  preceded  Jhavh,  "  Ego  dominus  qui  apparui 
Abraham,  Isaac  et  Jacob,  in  Deo  omnipotente ;  et  nomen  meum  Adonai  non  indicavi 
eis"  (Ex.  vi.  3),  Thus  Homa  was,  about  5000  years  ago,  the  Word,  the  Tree,  and 
the  Water  of  Life,  the  Mystical  Body  of  God, — to  partake  of  it  was  a  "sacrament," 
and  if  rightly,  it  was  the  veritable  food  of  eternal  life,  just  as  the  bread  and  wine  of 

Tree  Worship.  43 

Europe  is  this  day.  See,  in  confirmation  of  this,  the  conclusions  of  Barlow  in  his 
"Symbolism."  Borlase  sees  much  similarity  between  the  Magi  and  our  Druids,  and 
Strabo  did  the  same  ;  both  carried  in  their  hands  during  the  celebration  of  their  rites 
a  bunch  of  plants,  that  of  the  Magi  was  of  course  the  Horn,  called  Barsom  ;  Asyrian 
and  Persepolis  sculptures  substantiate  this.  The  Horn  looks  very  like  the  mistletoe, 
and  the  learned  Dr  Stukely  thinks  that  this  parasite  is  meant  as  being  on  the  tree 
mentioned  in  Isaiah  vi.  13.  It  is  generally  agreed  that  the  Tiel  tree  of  the  translators 
should  be  rendered  an  oak,  or  a  species  of  holy  lime  which  has  purple  "  flowers,  like 
those  of  the  vine,  growing  in  bunches,  with  a  fruit  of  ruddy  purple,  the  size  of  a  juni 
per  berry."  l  It  will  be  noticed  that  it  is  winter  time  with  this  tree,  and  the  Doctor 
says  we  should  translate  the  passage,  "As  an  oak,  whose  plant  is  alive  upon  it," 
which,  says  Isaiah,  "  shall  be  eaten,"  so  that  here  we  have  the  same  idea  in  regard  to 
the  All  heal,  or  mistletoe,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Homa.  No  doubt  from  the  Homa,  or 
sacred  wine,  arose  the  practices  of  consecrating  or  offering  an  oblation  to  a  god,  a  tree, 
a  ship;  pouring  wine  over  holy  stones  and  hills,  pledging  oaths  in  drinking  also  over  a 
bottle,  a  bowl,  or  a  glass  of  wine.  Madame  Genlis  says  that  in  her  day  the  Maypole, 
the  summer  Holly  tree  of  our  children,  but  formerly  of  very  manly  men,  was  commonly 
sprinkled  with  wine,  and  the  same  idea  which  so  abundantly  decorates  it  with  tri 
angles  or  sevs,  arks  or  teebas,  is  still  seen  in  the  rags  and  potsherds  which  rustics 
throw  to  solitary  and  mystic -looking  trees. 

Canute,  in  the  eleventh  century,  was  induced  to  forbid  Tree  worship,  but  the 
councils  of  the  churches  may  be  seen  inveighing  against  it  down  to  the  fifteenth  cen 
tury.  "  As  late  as  the  latter  part  of  the  eighteenth  century  it  existed  in  Livonia,  and 
traces  of  it  may  still  be  found  in  the  British  isles"  (Barlow,  p.  118). 

Fergusson,  in  his  beautiful  work  on  "  Tree  and  Serpent  Worship,"  puts  the  Tree 
as  the  first  of  faiths,  although  not  very  clearly  so.  He  says  that  "long  before  the 
Theban  gods  existed,  Tree  and  Serpent  faiths  flourished.  The  Methidy  tree  was 
brought  into  the  later  religion,  to  shade  with  holy  reverence  the  tomb  of  Osiris  ;  the 
Sycamore  was  holy  to  Netpe,  and  the  Persea  to  Athor,  whilst  the  Tamarisk  played  an 
important  part  in  all  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  Osiris  and  Isis ;  and  all  who  are 
orthodox  will  acknowledge  that  Abram  seemed  to  consider  that  he  could  not  worship 
his  Jove  till  he  had  planted  his  grove  and  digged  a  well  (Gen.  xxi.  33).  His  Oak  or 
"  Terebinth,"  on  the  plains  of  Mamre,  was  commonly  worshipped  till  the  fourth  century 
A.C.,  and  it  is  revered  by  Jews  to  the  present  hour.  Jacob  did  nought  without  erect 
ing  his  pillars,  nor  could  Adonijah,  the  rebellious  son  of  David's  old  age,  make  war 
without  sacrificing  by  the  stone  of  Zoheleth  (1  Kings  i.  9).  When  speaking  of  the 
caves  of  Western  India  (Arch.  II.  33),  Fergusson  writes  to  the  effect  that  long  ere 
Boodha  or  his  saints  were  represented  by  images  and  adored,  long  ere  the  caves  and 
temples  of  that  faith  had  sanctuaries  for  holy  relics,  the  first  actual  symbol-worship  he 

1  Marginal  reading  of  Isaiah  vi.  13. — Baggier1  s  Comprehensive  Bible. 

44  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

can  trace,  is  that  of  the  Bo  tree,  which  he  describes  as  upon  a  bas-relief  in  a  cave  called 
the  Jodea-Gopa  (Katak,  Bengal),  "  proving,"  he  says,  "  how  early  that  worship  was 
introduced,  and  how  .pre-eminent  it  was  among  Boodliists  of  those  days,"  and  I  would 
add  before  Vedic  days.  In  comparison  with  it,  the  faith  of  the  princeling  ascetic  of 
Oud  was  young,  and  could  not,  any  more  than  its  predecessors,  clear  or  purify  itself  of 
the  old  loves  of  mankind.  Not  only  did  the  holy  tree  find  an  early  place  in  Boodha's 
pure  faith,  if  indeed  he  ever  entirely  cast  it  off,  but  almost  every  temple  and  cave 
showed  also  its  (the  Tree's)  allied  Phallic  faith  ;  see  Fergusson's  own  drawings,  which 
very  distinctly  embrace  Tree,  Fire,  Phallic,  and  Serpent  worship.  The  latter 
must  of  course  follow  Phallic  worship,  even  as  the  shadow  can  only  follow  the 

Within  certain  limits  the  further  a  Faith  is  removed  from  the  time  of  a  Founder's 
era,  the  stronger  is  often  the  rush  back  to  old  paths.  One  has  only  got  to  glance  through 
the  beautiful  pictures  of  temples  and  caves  in  Fergusson's  volumes,  to  see  this  truth  in 
Boodhism.  Everywhere  will  be  observed  the  long  cist  or  vagina,  with  its  "  holy  of 
holies,"  the  womb,  or  Mundane  Egg  of  eternity, — and  likewise,  ever  standing  at  the 
entrance,  of  these  "  Houses  of  God,"  the  Phallic  pillar  or  pillars.  It  is  the  old  story, 
whether  we  turn  to  Solomon's  temple,  1000  B.C.,  where  some  writers  seem  to  have  missed 
the  pillars  of  which  I  shall  presently  speak,  or  to  the  Kaiii  Boodhist  temples  which 
gaze  down  upon  us  as  we  sweep  on  the  Iron- way  up  the  Western  Ghats  from  Bombay 
to  Poona,  and  which  date  from  about  the  Christian  era.  Fergusson  is  here  a  safe  and 
unbiassed  writer,  and  let  us  pause  for  a  moment  to  see  how  he  describes  this  holy  shrine. 
The  subject  is  not  strictly  Arboreal,  yet  it  leads  to  Sylvan  decoration  without  which 
architects  could  not  get  on,  and  so  neither  archeologists. 

The  Kdrli  temple  as  a  Boodhist  shrine,  is  supposed,  by  those  w^ho  ought  to  know, 
to  have  been  elaborated  as  we  now  have  it,  in  the  first  century  A.C.  Fergusson  in  his 
Architecture,  vol.  I.  24,  says  : — "  The  building  resembles  to  a  very  great  extent  an 
early  Christian  church  in  its  arrangements,  consisting  of  a  Nave  (navis,  boat,  or  ark  of 
life),  and  side  aisles,  terminating  in  an  apse  or  semi-dome,  round  which  the  aisle  is 
carried  ;  its  arrangements  and  dimensions  are  very  similar  to"  those  of  the  choir  of 
Norwich  cathedral." 

Now  listen  to  its  Phallic  decorations,  which,  were  they  not  so  very  costly  to 
engrave,  and  to  be  found  in  many  special  w"orks  on  the  subject,  I  should  very  much 
like  to  give,  and  remark  upon  in  some  detail ;  for  pillars,  elephants,  males,  and 
females  are  here  very  serious  matters  and  always  full  of  meaning.  "  The  aisle  pillars 
have  a  tall  base  octagonal  shaft  and  richly  ornamented  capital,  on  which  kneel  two 
elephants,  each  bearing  two  figures,  generally  a  man  and  woman  but  sometimes  two 
females,"  all  strictly  Phallic  representations  of  Power  and  Creation  ! 

"  Under  the  semi-dome  of  the  apse  and  nearly  where  the  altar  stands  in  Christian 
churches,  is  placed  the  shrine,"  in  this  instance  "a  plain  dome  slightly  stilted  on  a 

Tree  Worship.  45 

circular  drum"  As  my  readers  advance  they  will  find  many  similar  examples  of 
"plain  domes,"  and  "  circular  drums,"  and  even  now,  will  doubtless  be  reminded  of 
curious  articles  of  the  kind  in  Vesta's  shrine  on  Tiber's  banks,  which  I  shall  hereafter 
enlarge  upon. 

Fergusson  says,  that  "  the  great  window  which  lights  all  this  temple  is  arched  in 
the   form    of  a  horse   shoe  "  which   is    the  Isian  head-dress,    and 
Maiya's    holy    sign,    and    after  which  the  Koman   church  adopts 
one  of  Mary's  favorite  head  dresses.     I  give  here  the  Solo-phallic 
idea  from  Dr  Inman ;  he  calls  it  the  "crown  of  Venus  Urania." 
Of  the  Phallic  pillars  in  front,  placed  precisely  as  Solomon  placed 
his  Jakin  and  Boaz  (1  Kings  vii.),  Fergusson  says  only  one  now 
exists  at  Karli,  but  he  thinks  that  a  small  temple  has  replaced  the 
other.     He  calls  the  column  "  a  lion  pillar,  shaft  plain,  with  a  capital  carrying  four 
lions,"  representing  Power  and  cat-like  salaciousness.     The  general  plan  is  unmistak 
ably  Phallic. 

These  pillars  are  a  prominent  feature  of  Boodhist  sacred  buildings,  and  are  classed 
under  the  name  of  Topes,  which  also  signifies  towers  and  tumuli,  and  is  a  corruption  of 
the  Sanskrit  word  Stoopa  meaning  mounds,  heaps,  karns,  or  kairns.  When  the  pillar 
is  of  a  single  stone  it  is  called  a  Lat.  It  is  common  to  find  the  pillar  with  the 
beautiful  honey-suckle  ornament  of  the  Asyrian,  which,  says  Fergusson,  the  Greeks 
borrowed  from  them  with  the  lOnic  order.  This  ornament  is  very  suggestive,  see 
Fergusson's  drawing  of  it  (I.  p.  7-2),  he  says  the  "  oldest  monument  hitherto  dis 
covered  in  India,  is  a  group  of  these  monoliths  set  up  by  Asoka  (the  Constantine  of 
Boodhism)  in  the  middle  of  third  century  B.C.  They  were  all  alike  in  form,  and  all 
have  the  same  inscription,  being  four  short  edicts  containing  the  creed  and  principal 
doctrines  of  Boodhism."  They  all  had  the  honey-suckle  ornament  which  he  calls' 
"  the  earliest  known  monument  of  Boodhist  art."  There  was  also  the  Head  and  Reel 
ornament  so  familiar  to  us  from  Persian-Greek  Architecture,  and  they  are  otherwise  so 
similar  to  those  at  Persepolis  as  to  leave  no  doubt  of  their  common  origin.  It  is 
almost  certain  that  these  pillars  of  Asoka  stood  originally  in  front  of  some  sacred 
buildings  which  have  perished. 

Cunningham  in  his  "  Bilsa  Topes  "  tells  us,  that  all  the  pillars  were  set  up  about 
the  year  236  B.C.,  and  the  rock  inscriptions  cut  250  B.C.,  of  which  the  oldest  are 
at  Ddnti  in  Kutak,  at  Gerndr  in  Goojarat,  and  at  Kapoordigiri  near  Peshawar.  The 
pillars  are  polished,  always  forty-five  feet  high,  and  are  generally  surmounted  by  a 
lion,  symbolizing  power  and  salaciousness,  and  thus  making  the  pillar  in  eastern  eyes 
strictly  Phallic.  The  Chinese  pilgrim  Fahian,  writing  400  A.C.  says  that  Asoka  erected 
such  a  lion  pillar  behind  the  "  Boodhist  Chapel  "  which  he  built  at  Samkiesa,  and  as 
Egyptian  fleets  used  to  anchor  in  his  great  sea-port,  Barygdza,  which  we  call 
Braroch  or  Broach,  we  can  easily  perceive  where  Europe,  and  especially  Venetian 

46  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

sailors  borrowed  their  lion  pillars.  We  know  that  the  great  Tope  of  Sanchi  had  one 
or  two  such  monuments  in  front  of  each  of  its  gate- ways. 

As  time  rolled  on,  the  pillar  ornament  became  still  more  prominent,  and  the 
pillars  much  more  numerous.  Fergusson  gives  a.  pretty  picture  (vol.  I.  42)  of  the 
Tlmparamya  tope  in  Ceylon,  which  one  writer  states  "has  184  handsome  monoliths 
twenty-six  feet  in  height  round  the  centre  holy  moiwd." 

Evidently,  mound,  pillars,  domes,  drums,  lions,  elephants,  dagobas  or  sacred  arks 
with  relics,  \vere  all  of  the  utmost  importance  in  this  faith,  which  in  the  sixth  century 
B.C.  had  determined  to  reform  India.  It  vigorously,  purely,  and  successfully  set  about 
to  do  this,  but  not  so  easily  was  our  first  faith  to  be  here  wiped  out,  and  more  than  it 
was  firmly  located  in  this  "  Eden  of  the  eastern  wave,"  before  Boodha's  day.  Ceylon 
was  not  only  par  excellence  the  land  of  tree 'worshippers,  but  possibly  even  then  of  all 
our  earlier  streams.  We  know  from  many  sources  that  the  Cingalese  specially 
believed  in  spirits  good  and  bad  of  the  woods,  and  of  particular  trees,  as  the  Barmese 
and  most  races  do  to  this  day,  reverencing,  fearing,  and  making  offering  to  these  Spirits 
or  Nats.  Fergusson  says  that  "  Serpent  and  Devil  worship  harmoniously  blended," 
but  this  was  rather  an  after  falling  away  from  the  Faith  of  the  great  Ascetic,  for 
Boodhism  ever  tried  to  abolish  not  only  Serpent  but  Ancestral  worships,  substituting 
Sepulchral  Tumuli  as  depositaries  for  saintly  relics,  and  elevating  as  the  faith 
degenerated,  the  sanctity  if  hot  worship  of  groves  of  trees,  amidst  the  deepest  and 
most  beautiful  of  which  Boodhists  love  to  pass  their  days  "on  holy  thoughts  intent." 

It  has  been  said  that  the  great  impetus  which  Boodhism  gave  to  Relic  worship, 
was  owing  to  the  careful  distribution  of  Godama's  remains.  This  was  no  doubt  a 
politic  movement  on  the  part  of  the  new  missionaries,  and  one  which  all  after- 
proselytisers  adopted,  for  man  is  naturally  a  worshipper  of  relics,  hair,  clothes,  crosses, 
pictures,  books,  images,  and  such  like.  Eight  great  cities  had  this  Prophet's  most 
valued  remains  distributed  to  them,  and  went  mad  with  excitement  over  them,  just  as 
Europe  would  do  to  this  hour,  if  any  good  authority  could  show  to  it  a  bit  of  a  robe 
or  shoe,  &c.,  which  Christ  or  Mary,  or  even  an  apostle  wore.  The  most  celebrated 
relic  of  Godama  is  his  Tooth  which,  till  within  the  last  few  years  the  British  govern 
ment  guarded  as  the  Palla-dium  of  Sovereignty  over  the  Island  of  Ceylon. 

It  is  of  importance  to  note,  in  regard  to  the  original  purity  of  Boodha's  faith,,  that 
Mr  Fergusson,  as  an  architect,  affirms  that'  "-on  no  Boodhist  architecture  of  Azoka's 
days  can  he  discover  either  Tree  or  Serpent  worship,  nor  even  the  worship  of  Boodh 
himself."  In  the  Prophet's  teachings  he  sees  the  very  highest  purity,  morals,  and 
goodness  such  as  had  never  before  been  heard  of,  and  which  has  never  been  surpassed 
though  mixed  with  many  errors — three  comparatively  venial,  one  of  which  is  that 
"  asceticism  was-  the  path  to  salvation."  This  primal  purity  has  been  common  to 
most  faiths,  and  so  also  humility  to  Prophets,  although  never  as  severely  so  as  in  the 
case  of  Godarna-Boodha.  I  cannot  find  that  any  prophets  said  they  were  gods,  or 

Tree  Worship.  47 

"  one  with  the  Father,"  except  in  the  same  sense  as  that  they  were  one  with  their 
brethren,  and  desired  that  they,  the  brethren,  also  might  be  one  with  God.  To  return 
to  our  immediate  subject. 

Some  trees,  as  we  have  shown,  were,  it  was  thought,  productive  of  passion  or 
offspring ;  and  we  read  of  others,  as  the  Lugos,  called  by  the  Romans  Vitex  agnus 
castus,  a  sort  of  willow  shrub  inimical,  to  this.  Under  it  the  female  devotees  at  the 
Athenian  festival  of  "  Thesmophoria  "  slept,  when  "  desirous  to  avoid  the  bite  of  the 
serpent " — thus  showing  clearly  the  true  meaning  of  serpent- worship  in  the  mystic 
language  of  that  period. 

The  Bael  tree,  as  a  representative  of  the  triad  and  monad,  is  always  offered  at 
Lingam  worship,  after  washing  the  lingam  with  water  and 
anointing  it  with  sandal-wood.  The  god  is  supposed  to 
specially  like  all  white  flowers  and  cooling  embrocations, 
which  last  sandal-wood  is  held  to  be  ;  and  he  is  very  com 
monly  to  be  found  under  an  umbrageous  Bael,  more  especi 
ally  if  there  be  no  fine  Ficus  near ;  failing  both,  the  poor 
god  is  often  reduced  to  the  stump  of  a  tree ;  and 
rig.  IO.-THE  BAEL.  jf  ^.]ia^  'g  ^Q  QQQ^QQ^  jjjg  votaries  raise  to  him  a  karu 

or  kairn  of  stones,  with  one  prominent  one  in  the  centre,  and  plant  a  pome 
granate,  bit  of  toolsi,  &c.,  near ;  and  if  water  is  available,  a  little  garden  of 
flowers,  of  which  marygolds  are  a  favorite.  My  readers  must  not  fancy  that 
this  worship  is  indecent,  or  even  productive  of  licentiousness.  It  is  conducted  by 
men,  women,  and  children  of  modest  mien,  and  pure  and  spotless  lives,  though  at 
certain  seasons,  as  in  all  faiths  and  lands,  the  passions  are  roused  and  the  people 
proceed  to  excesses,1  yet  Sivaism  is  peculiarly  free  from  this  with  reference  to  others, 
not  excluding  Eastern  Christianity.  Vishnooism,  which  we  may  call  the  worship  of 
'•  the  left  hand,"  or  female  energies,  is  perhaps  the  greatest  sinner  in  this  respect ; 
Sivaism  is  for  the  most  part  harshly,  ascetic,  as  regards  its  office-bearers  and 
orthodox  followers ;  yet  all  faiths  give  way  at  certain  solar  periods,  and  all  Hindoo 
sects  are  as  bad  as  Romans  at  the  spring  "  hilaria  or  carnival,"  the  more  so  if  Ceres  or 
Kybele  is  propitious,  and  more  apparently  so,  in  countries  where  writings  have  not  yet 
supplanted  pictures.  Amongst  all  the  rudest  tribes  of  India,  and  even  throughout 
Rajpootana,  and  with  the  strict  Jain  sects,  who  abhor  Lingam  worship,  these  still  show 
their  parent  root,  by  devoting  some  fifteen  days  annually,  after  the  harvests  are 
gathered  in,  to  the  most  gross  form  of  Lingam  worship,  in  which  a  complete  naked 
image  of  man,  called  "Elajee"  is  built  of  clay  and  decorated  with  wreaths  of 
flowers,  &c,  and  placed  in  prominent  situations.  In  most  parts  of  Rajpootana,  this 
male  image  exists  at  every  city  and  village  gate,  but  is  not  rendered  conspicuously 
indecent  until  the  hooly.or  harvest  enjoyments  ;  and. low  and  degrading  as  these  are, 

1  See  the  naked  festival  of  the  Israelites  when  they  got  their  golden  calf,  and  of  modern  Shakers,  &c. 


Rivers  of  Life ',  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

reminding  us  of  our  purely  animal  frame,  yet  no  Hindoo  practices  of  harvest  times  (in 
all  countries  the  principal  marrying  season)  are  so  gross,  as  I  have  seen  practised  at 
the  harvest  homes  or  midnight  harvest  revelries  of  our  own  country. 

As  I  have  said,  Hiudooism  looks  upon  Siva  worship  from  a  purely  spiritual 
stand-point,  and  this  anthropomorphising  of  the  god  is  peculiarly  hateful  to  all  good 
holders  of  the  Vedic  creed.  Oriental  scholars  will  remember  how  strongly  Sir  William 
Jones  writes  in  support  of  what  I  here  say: — "Sivaik  rites  or  services  do  not  seem  in  the 
eyes  of  its  people  in  any  way  immodest  or  connected  with  the  passions  ;"  in  fact,  "  the 
congregations  "  take  no  more  notice  of  what  is  said  and  goes  on  in  their  "  churches  " 
than  those  of  Europe  do  when  the  indecent  parts  of  the  Bible  are  read  out,  or  the  purposes 
of  marriage  proclaimed  to  large  adult  assemblies,  who  one  might  think  could  dispense 
with  the  information  as  much  as  the  Sivaite  with  some  of  his  pictures  and  ceremonies. 

Of  Shrub  or  Flower  worship,  the  most  important  in  the  East  and  South  has  been 
that  of  the  Lily  species.  The  lily  of  October — the  saffron — was  very  sacred  to  the 
Karnean,  or  horned  Apollo — that  is,  the  sun — for  horns  usually  stand  for  rays  oj 
glory,  as  in  the  case  of  the  horned  Moses  of  our  poets,  artists,  and  ecclesiastics,  who 
make  him  like  an  Apis  of  Egypt,  because  of  the  text  which  says,  "  his  face  shone " 
when  he  came  down  from  the  mountain.  All  lilies  have  more  or  less  to  do  with  the 
female  or  fecundating  energies,  and  so  even  in  Europe  we  have  many  stories  of  the 
crocus  species,  because  it  is  said  "  of  their  irradiating  light,  having  peculiar-looking 
bells,  three-headed  and  crested  capillaments,  three  cells,  and  reddish  seeds,"  &c.  The 
Jews  placed  such  flowers  on  the  vestments  of  their  priests ;  see  Josephus,  here  very 
full ;  2  Chron.  iv.  5  ;  Ex.  xxv.  3 1 ;  and  some  parts  of  Canticles  and  elsewhere.  I 
shall  hereafter  enlarge  on  this  feature  of  faiths.  A  study  of  fire  worship  and  Apollo- 
lOnic  rites  is  absolutely  necessary  to  the  understanding  of  these  matters,  as  well  as 

the  mysteries  of  candlesticks,  lavers,  &c. — 
not  to  mention  that  of  the  never-dying  fires, 
of  all  nations,  and  of  Lev.  vi.  1 3,  and  else 
where  ;  but  I  must  pass  on  to  the  queen  of 
flowers,  the  sacred  Lotus  and  loved  Kamal 
— god  of  love  and  fertility.  The  Lotus  is 
the  seat  of  most  deities,  but  notably  so  of 
the  creator  Brahma,  who,  thus  enthroned,  is 
called  the  Kamdl-a-yoni,  or  the  great  andro 
gynous  god.  The  Lotus  is  the  womb  of 
all  creation.  It  is  said  to  originate  from 
the  great  fertiliser,  water,  alone ;  and 
dropping  its  great  leaves  on  this  fertiliser 
as  on  a  bed,  it  springs  upwards  with  a 
slender,  elegant  stalk,  and  spreads  forth  in  a  lovely  flower.  Even  the  grave  and  mighty 

Fig.  11 

Tree  Worship.  49 

Vishnoo  delights  in  the  lotus,  which  is  one  of  the  four  emblems  he  holds  in  his  four 
fold  arms.     It  is  Venus'  sacred  flower. 

The  flower  is  shaped  like  a  boat,  is  a  repre 
sentation  of  divinity,  and  is  shown  as  springing 
from  the  navel  of  the  great  god  resting  on  his 
"milky  sea."  It  always  signifies  fecundation. 
Inman,  under  the  head  Nabhi,  navel,  says,  "  The 
germ  is  '  Meroo '  (the  highest  pinnacle  of  the 
earth),  the  petals  and  filaments  are  the  mountains 
which  encircle  Meroo,  a  type  of  the  Yoni,"  and  Sans 
krit  for  mons  veneris.  Amongst  fourteen  kinds  of 
food  and  flowers  which  must  be  presented  to  "Ananta"  (Sanskrit,  eternity),  the 
lotus  is  the  only  indispensable  one,  as  he  (Ananta)  is  then  worshipped  in  the  form  of  a 
mighty  serpent  with  seven  heads.  For  the  force  of  the  restriction,  see  Glossary  under 
this  head. 

Hindoo  and  other  writers  often  tell  us  that  the  lotus  originated  the  idea  of  the 
triangle,  which  is  "  the  first  of  perfect  figures,  for  two  lines  are  an  imperfection  ; "  and 
the  lotus  also  gives  us  a  circle  on  a  triangle  which  is  full  of  cells  and  seed,  and  so  is 
more  perfect  still.  Siva  is,  as  Orientalists  know,  "  the  god  of  the  triangle ;  "  and  hence, 
in  his  palace  in  Kaildsa,  we  are  told  the  most  precious  object  on  "his  table  of  nine 
precious  stones  is  the  padma  (lotus),  carrying  in  its  bosom  the  triangle,  as  origin  and 
source  of  all  things  ; "  and  that  from  "  this  triangle  issues  the  lingam,  the  eternal  god  who 
makes  in  it  his  eternal  dwelling ; "  which,  however,  is  not  quite  correct  on  the  part  of 
M.  Guigniant,  whom  Mr  Barlow  quotes  (p.  11).  The  lotus  is  an  inverted  triangle,  and 
is  therefore  the  female  sign  ;  the  pyramid,  or  triangle  on  base,  is  Siva,  or  the  Ray  of  Light, 
the  sun-god.  I  cannot  see  what  some  authors  urge  as  to  pyramid,  or  pura-mid,  or 
fire-tower,  being  a  combined  lingam  and  yoni,  unless,  as  often  represented,  it  has  a 
circle  or  dot  in  it.  The  ordinary  idea  of  its  being  a  ray  of  Sol's  fire  piercing  the 
earth  seems  the  more  likely  one,  for  Asiatics  are  very  strong  on  the  subject  of  the  sun 
being  a  Darter  with  piercing  rays. 

Another  reason  why  the  lotus  is  in  all  lands  so  sacred  is  its  androgynous  or 
hermaphrodite  character,  a  feature  imperative  in  the  case  of  all  the  great  gods  of  man, 
though  this  is  not  very  clear  if  we  dive  deeply  below  the  surface,  either  in  the  case  of  the 
Jewish  Elohim  or  the  lotus;  however,  "Holy  Writ"  says  that  this  lily  is  produced  with 
out  the  aid  of  male  pollen,  and  a  truce  at  present  to  that  "dry  hard  light"  which  always 
spoils  the  stories  of  our  childhood.  Brahma,  the  creator,  whilst  sitting  on  the  lotus,  as 
all  great  gods  do,  desired,  says  the  "  Hindoo  Inspired  Word,"  to  create  the  universe,  and 
for  this  purpose,  became  androgynous,  or  a  Breathing -spirit  (Ruach  ?) — prakriti  or 
nature  ;  when  creation  at  once  commenced  and  progressed,  much  as  we  have  it  in  the 
genesis  of  most  faiths.  The  details  of  this  mystic  plant  have  much  exercised  all 

50  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Asiatic  and  Egyptian  minds.  In  its  circular  stamina  it  shows  two  equilateral  triangles 
placed  across  eacli  other,  which  Sanskritists  call  the  shristi-chakra,  also  sixteen  petals 
called  the  shoodasa  ;  and  this,  it  is  held,  is  a  Revelation  from  the  deity  as  to  the  proper 
age  for  the  representative  woman  or  prakriti,  in  the  Sakti  ceremonies.  These  triangles, 
with  apex  upwards  and  downwards,  are  the  chapel  or  magic  diagram  which  the  pious 
are  told  to  ponder  over,  for  it  has  many  significations  and  possesses  numerous  spells ; 
and  hence  we  see  it  venerated  in  all  early  ages,  and  still  an  important  article  of  Free 
masonry.  The  spells  go  by  the  name  of  the  devi-chakrams,  or  goddesses  of  circles, 
no  doubt  having  a  solar  signification.  This  will  be  made  clearer  when  I  treat  of 
Hindooism.  The  Padma  and  Kamdlata,  or  Granter-of -desires,  or  "  Consummator-of- 
our-wishes,"  are  all  terms  applied  to  the  lotus.  It  is  the  symbol  of  Venus  or  Lakshmi, 
or  of  her  incarnation — Krishna's  wife,  Radha,  who  is  commonly  a  nude  Venus  or 
Sakti.  It  is  also  called  "  loves  creeper,"  the  throne  and  ark  of  the  gods,  and  the 
water-born  one.  One  author  writes,  that  from  far  Tibet  to  Ceylon,  and  over  every 
Eastern  land  and  islet,  the  holy  Padma  is  only  a  little  less  sacred  than  the  Queen  of 
Heaven — Juno  (lOni)  herself.  It  is  as  mysterious  as  the  Yoni — is,  like  it,  the  flower 
of  concealment,  of  night  and  of  silence  and  that  mysteriousness  of  generation  and  repro 
duction  ;  it  is  described  as  a  sort  of  incomprehensible  dualism  which  veils  the 

Almighty  One  and  his  mysteries  from  our  finite  minds.     Linnseus  tells  us  it  is  the 
Nelutnbo,  but  R.  Payne  Knight  is  clearer  when  he  writes  to  this  effect.     The  flowers  of 

Tree  Worship.  51 

the  lotus  contains  a  seed  vessel  shaped  like  an  inverted  cone  or  bell  which  are  very  holy 
symbols  with  all  peoples,  and  representative  male  and  female.  This  inverted  bell  is 
punctuated  on  the  top  with  little  cavities  or  cells,  in  which  the  seeds  grow  as  in  a  matrix, 
fed  by  the  parent  plant  till  they  arrive  at  such  a  size  as  to  break  open  "  the  ark-boat  of 
life."  They  then  emerge  and  float  away,  taking  root  wherever  they  find  ground,  and 
throwing  down  long  tentacles  or  tendrills  in  quest  of  it.  This  idea  is  expressed  by  Brahma 
in  his  address  to  the  angels,  as  given  in  the  Linga-Pooran,  beginning  :  "  When  I  sprang 
into  existence,  I  beheld  the  mighty  Narayana  reposing  on  the  abyss  of  waters;"  which 
reminds  us  of  the  Jewish  Elohim-god  who  it  is  said  generated  all  things  by  "brooding 
o'er  the  deep."  Of  their  Jhavh,  also,  it  is  said,  "  He  sitteth  on  the  flood,"  and  is 
"enthroned  on  the  deluge"  (Ps.  xxix.  10). 

The  drawings  and  holy  books  of  China  and  Japan  are  full  of  such  groups  of  the 
sacred  plant — the  Nelumbium  Speciosum,  as  I  here  give,  although  it  has  been 
usual  there  to  call  it  "  the  Holy  Bean  of  Egypt  and  Japan."  This  group  is  the  same 
plant  as  the  single  stem  shown  in  figure  No.  10.  I  wish  my  readers  to  thoroughly 
know  the  Lotus,  and  to  endeavour  to  understand  its  symbolism,  for  regarding  it 
much  will  occur  in  this  work,  and  does  occur  in  all  ancient  faiths. 

Among  plants  denoting  fertility,  we  must  not  overlook  the  "  Tappuach,"  or  Apple 
of  Proverbs  and  Canticles,  which  is  now  commonly  held  to  be  the  Citron,  an  elongated 
fruit,  which,  with  the  Palm  tree,  is  borne  in  procession  by  all  Jews  at  "  the  Feast  of 
Tabernacles,"  or  their  harvest  festival— fitting  symbols,  indeed,  of  Phallic  lore. 

In  connection  with  Jacob  and  his  idol- worshipping  wife  Eachel,  whose  "  idols  " 
by  the  bye  were  "Lingams  "  according  to  the  original,  we  have  a  very  curious  story 
in  Gen.  xxx.  regarding  Mandrakes  or  Dudai  ("  baskets,"  or  fertilizing  love  "apples  "), 
which  Kitto  and  others  tell  us  are  the  fruit  of  a  plant  called  the  Atropa  Mandragora, 
of  which  I  give  here  a  drawing.  Its  root,  we 
are  told,  is  generally  forked,  and  closely  re 
sembles  the  lower  part  of  a  man ;  its  fruit 
is  about  the  size  of  an  apple,  very  ruddy,  of 
an  agreeable  odour,  and  is  still  often  eaten,  as 
exhilarating  to  the  spirits  and  provocative  to 
venery.1  Any  plant  or  animal  whose  colour  or 
appearances,  and  sometimes  even  whose  hair  re 
sembled  that  of  any  part  of  the  human  body,  was 
in  olden  times  considered  to  be  useful  in  affec 
tions  of  those  parts,  like  the  Archis  Mascida, 
which  resembles  the  scrotum  or  dudai,  and 
is  probably  the  basket  we  see  the  priest 
always  presenting  in  Phallic  temples.  This  is  a  drawing  of  the  Archis  Mascula 
1  Kitto  and  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary.  v 

IBI  11 1-    MASCU.I 

52  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

shown    in    section.        "  Love    apples "    are     a     well-known     offering    to    Venus ; 
and    we    see  a  loving    couple    presenting    these  to  the    goddess    in  a  picture    on 

the  walls  of  Pompeii.  A  temple  was  dedicated  to 
"  apples"  and  Love  was  "  comforted  with  "  them, 
says  Solomon  in  chapter  ii.  5  of  his  Song.  Canticles, 
chapter  viii.  5  is  still  stronger.  Properly  translated,  it 
reads  :  "  I  awakened  you  under  the  apple  tree,  when 
your  mother  lost  her  innocence."  I  hesitate  to  men 
tion  this  matter,  but  such  "  inspiration  "  must  be  put 
down.  In  Smith's  Dictionary  we  are  told  that  the 
Mandrake  is  intoxicating,  of  a  very  fetid  odour,  and 
that  its  apples  are  always  ripe  after  harvest  is  over — when  it  would  appear  the  two 
sister- wives  of  the  patriarch  had  their  highly  indelicate  quarrel. 

It  has  always  been  the  custom  amongst  rude  races  to  imagine  that  likes  cured  or 
induced  likes.  No  doubt,  where  they  observed  such  effects,  these  must  have  arisen 
from  the  sympathy  of  the  organs  on  the  brain  by  sight  or  feeling ;  still  it  is  difficult 
to  imagine  how  looking  at  a  serpent  on  a  pole  could  cure  a  serpent's  bite,  or  how  the 
Emerod  images  could  have  cured  this  disease  in  the  Philistines.  My  own  opinion  is, 
that  these  tales  of  the  desert  wanderers,  and  what  they  relate  of  their  enemies 
the  Philistines  and  Beth-shemites,  are  a  form  of  pictorial  writing,  depicting  Phallic 
beliefs  which  could  not  be  put  more  broadly.  The  serpent  and  pole  we  know ; 
the  emerods  have,  it  is  believed,  been  purposely  made  obscure  ;  but  we  can  see  that 
they  are  "  protuberances  "  of  or  on  "  the  secret  parts,"  and  that  the  injury  was  caused  by 
the  Ark — the  female  symbol.  So  has  the  word  "Feet"  been  used  as  a  euphemism  in 
Isa.  vii.  20,  and  elsewhere.  The  Athenians,  we  may  remember,  had  to  offer  Phalli 
for  neglecting  the  Phallic  god  Bacchus  ;  and  for  a  male  to  look  into  an  Ark,  there 
was  but  one  punishment,  and  that  masculine. 

It  was  not  only  plants  which  produced  mysterious  procreative  propensities  on 
the  females  of  man  and  beast ;  for  we  are  told  of  the  genital  organs  of  many  creatures 
doing  this,  especially  when  in  any  respect  peculiar  ;  nay,  a  creature  in  close  resem 
blance  to  a  man  merely  in  the  face,  has,  we  are  assured — and  this  is  believed  by 
thousands — often  produced  fertility.  The  Turtle,  Beaver,  and  Otter  have  always  been 
allied  to  these  occult  powers;  and  Herodotus,  in  IV.  109,  speaks  of  others.  The 
Skythians  used  the  Beaver  for  all  diseases  connected  with  the  womb ;  and  a  friend  of 
mine  had  to  give  up  a  Turtle,  nolens  volens,  which  he  caught  in  the  holy  river  Sftrjoo, 
off  the  ruins  of .  ancient  Ayoodia,  to  the  Hindoo  ladies  of  the  place,  who  at  once  took 
out  the  genitals,  which  are  in  this  creature  of  an  extraordinary  size,  fried  them  to 
ashes,  and  then  ground  them  to  powder  for  aphrodisical  and  other  supposed  properties 
in  connection  witli  generation  and  gestation.  But  to  return  to  holy  trees  and  shrubs. 
I  believe  that  in  many  cases  we  can  discern  in  the  prevalence  of  worship  or 
veneration  for  the  same  tree  or  plant  in  different,  and  sometimes  quite  hostile  faiths, 

Tree  Worship.  53 

where  no  distinct  evidence  is  forthcoming  as  to  how  the  veneration  first  arose,  a  proof 
that  the  hostile  faiths  have  drawn  their  inspiration  from  the  same  source — that  is, 
from  an  older  faith.  This  is,  I  think,  the  case  with  the  veneration  of  the  Bo  tree, 
Toolsi,  and  a  dozen  others. 

All  Indians,  Hindoos,  and  Boodhists  carefully  plant  and  tend  the  sweet-scented 
Basil,  or  Black  Ocymum  Sanctum,  which  both  call  Toolsi:  this  Sivaites  particu 
larly  honour,  saying  that  Krishna,  the  Indian  Apollo,  turned  his  sky-nymph  into 
it,  as  the  Grecian  god  turned  his  into  a  laurel.  The  Toolsi  is  specially  worshipped 
by  women  after  bathing,  and  more  particularly  at  the  full  moon  of  Kartika,  if  the 
bathing  be  in  the  Ganges.  In  1873,  this  festival  fell  on  the  4th  of  November,  which 
nearly  corresponds  to  the  "  Holy  Well  Day  "  of  Christians,  and  the  "  Neptunalia  " 
of  Ancient  Komans,  see  my  tables  of  Festivals  in  chapter  on  Solar  Faiths. 
All  black,  or  blue-black  shrubs  and  animals  are  sacred  to  the  Indian  Apollo, 
whose  name  signifies  blackness,  and  whose  lingam  is  always  black,  as  Sivas' 
is  white,  and  the  Etruscan's  red.  Siva's  faith  may  have  thus  come  from 
the  north,  but  Krishna's  is  thoroughly  indigenous  to  the  Indian  continent.  These 
colours  are  very  important  towards  the  tracing  of  emigrant  races  and  faiths ; 
and  Dr  Inman  properly  devotes  much  attention  to  the  subject,  see  his  Vol. 
II.,  265,  and  elsewhere.  Krishna's  first  great  war  was  with  a  mighty  serpent — 
Kalya  (suspiciously  Kalaik  or  Sivaik) — that  is,  with  a  faith  which  this  serpent  repre 
sented  ;  from  this  cause  he  was  changed  to  Krishna,  or  the  Dark  One.  We  are  told 
that  the  great  Lingam  which  the  Roman  Emperor  and  his  court  worshipped  in  the 
third  century  of  Christianity  was  black  ;  and  if  so,  we  may  be  pretty  certain  that  it 
came  from  the  Solo-phallic  worshippers  of  India — Krishnaites.  The  symbol  was 
called  Helio-ga-belus,  which  may  be  a  shortening  of  the  words  Helio-agatha-belus,  or 
the  Stone  of  the  Sun  and  Love,  as  we  have  the  same  idea  in  the  Agatha  Demon,  or 
Lingam  God  of  Egypt.  The  Roman  Emperor  married  his  "  Black  Stone  "  to  the  Moon 
Goddess  of  Carthage,  Astarte,  and  of  course  both  were  Phenician  or  Syrian.  Krishna 
is  a  great  favourite  with  Vishnooites,  because  he  is  the  Sun  or  fertiliser,  so  that  in 
Siva  or  Krishna  we  have  a  sort  of  light  and  dark  sect — an  Osiris  and  Nox.  I  fancy 
Krishna  was  a  sort  of  heretic  like  Abram,  as  when  this  patriarch  forsook  Ur,  or  the  Fire 
Worship  of  Kaldia,  and  came  into  Syria  apparently  desiring 'to  worship  only  trees,  wells, 
and  his  Phallic  God,  El,  Elohim  or  Al-Shadai,  the  Tsur,  or  Rock,  and  Sun  Stone,  or  Pillar. 

It  has  been  urged  that  certain  shrubs  become  sacred  to  certain  deities,  because 
the  name  of  the  shrub  is  similar  to  some  other  sacred  object  :  as  the  Plialares,  to 
Venus,  because  of  the  similarity  to  a  Phallus  ;  the  Kisos,  or  Ivy,  to  Bacchus,  because  of 
Kittos ;  and  Myrrh  to  Mary  or  Miriam  ; — but  we  are  scarcely  yet  sufficiently  in 
formed  on  ancient  rites  and  myths  to  decide  this  positively.  Such  words  as  have  their 
roots  in  Phal,  Pal,  or  Pul,  and  in  Ma,  Mee,  Mwe,  &c.,  have  yet  to  be  much  investi 
gated.  Undoubtedly  they  all  point  generally  to  the  male  and  female  energies. 

54  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

We  have  still  abundance  of  worship  of  trees  and  shrubs  all  over  the  world, 
especially  in  India,  and  more  especially  among  the  aboriginal  races.  In  a  paper  by 
Mr  Da-want,  B.C.S.,  in  the  Indian  Antiquary  of  November  1872,  upon  the  Koch  and 
Palias  tribe  of  Dinajpore,  Bengal — who,  it  appears,  are  descended  from  a  virgin 
mother  overshadowed  by  Siva — he  says,  that  at  all  their  holiest  ceremonies  they  always 
turn  reverently  to  the  rising  Sun -God,  as  Christians  do  to  their  Eastern  or  altar 
window.  At  marriages  they  plant  four  plantain  trees,  on  which  to  erect  their  bridal 
house  roof,  and  have  as  their  choicest  gifts  Mango  branches  and  water.  As  soon  as  a 
mother  is  purified,  she  takes  her  babe,  places  it  on  a  winnowing  fan,  and  presents  it 
to  the  Toolsi  shrub.  She  places  it  before  this,  and  then  reverently  salutes  the  "  holy 
basil  "  herself.  A  well  is  then  rendered  sacred  by  having  a  Mango  branch  placed  in 
it,  and  the  child  is  carried  towards  it  by  women,  who  proceed  to  draw  the  holy  water, 
and  pour  it  forth,  "  invoking  the  god  to  whom  it  is  offered ;  "  which  god  Mr  D.  does 
not  name,  but  who  I  doubt  not  is  the  Divine  Mother,  whose  symbol  water  is  ;  it  may 
be  poured  forth  to  the  procreating  Father  God,  personified  in  the  Sun,  regarding  which 
see  details  under  Aboriginal  Tribes  ;  here  we  probably  see  the  origin  of  Baptism. 

Mango  branches  are  a  prominent  feature  in  all  ceremonies.  The  Mango  is  the 
"  apple  tree  "  of  India,  which  Man  in  Indian  tale  tempted  Eve  with. 

The  leaves  of  the  Margosa  tree  are  thought  by  Brahmans  to  drive  away  devils, 
and  are  always  placed  over  the  pyre  of  Sanyasis,  or  men  under  a  VQW  of  affliction ; 
salt  is  generally  also  placed  with  the  leaves.  It  is  said  that  salt  was  also  used  upon 
corpses  in  England :  it  is  still  used  in  parts  of  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  and  at 
Roman  Catholic  baptisms,  as  an  exorciser. 

The  stories  of  Keltic  and  Skandinavian  peoples  are  full  of  the  worship  and  rever 
ence  of  trees,  shrubs,  and  parasites.  Many  of  the  Highlanders  of  Scotland  to  the 
present  time  plant  the  Mountain  Ash,  or  Rowan  tree,  near  their  dwellings  and  fields, 
to  keep  away  devils.  If  heath  and  flowers  be  added  to  Rowan  wands,  the, most  im 
portant  services  may  be  anticipated,  and  especially  if  all  be  thrice  carried  round  fires 
kindled  at  Bel-tine,  or  the  May  solar  festival.1 

The  Rowan,  or  Mountain  Ash,  will  be  always  found  near  holy  places  and  circles 
or  kldchans.  It  was  absolutely  necessary  that  on  Beltane,  or  May-Day,  all  sheep  and 
lambs  should  pass  through  a  hoop  of  the  Rowan  tree,  and  that  on  all  occasions  Scotch 
shepherds  be  careful  to  drive  their  flocks  to  the  hills  with  a  Rowan  wand.  In  all  our 
isles,  where  malign  influences  are  feared,  it  was  necessary  to  put  one  of  these  over  our 
doorposts  (the  Delta,  lOna,  or  Yoni).  No  churchyard  should  be  without  the  tree  ; 
and  pious  persons  were  in  the  habit  of  wearing  a  cross  of  Rowan,  or  Mountain  Ash, 
on  a  certain  day  of  every  year. 

The  Ash  proper  is  the  Skandinavian  "  Tree  of  Life"  the  "greatest,  the  best,  the 
inscrutable,"  "the  life  of  all  things" — the  "ygdrasil."     It  has  a  triple  root,  one  of 
1  CoL  Forbes  Leslie's  "Early  Races,"  i.  101. 

Tree  Worship.  55 

which  enters  the  cloudy  nifl-heim ;  the  2d,  Esir ;  and  the  3d,  the  "  abode  of  the 
giants."  The  Fates,  or  Horns,  sit  at  its  base  near  the  "  fount  of  Undar  ;  "  and  there 
relate  the  awful  things,  past,  present,  and  to  come,  and  enact  the  laws,  and  establish 
the  religions  of  mankind.  The  mighty  tree  dwells  not  on  the  highest  summits  of 
earth,  but  its  going  forth  is  over  all  the  heavens,  and  its  branches  unto  the  ends  of  the 
world,  and  its  sweet  moisture  gladdens  and  revivifies  all  living  things.  It  is  "  an 
inscrutable  power," — male  and  female, — a  sort  of  Logos  or  Wisdom,  and  therefore  a 
Parvati,  Isis  and  Diana,  and  yet  a  "  trinity  in  unity"  Its  fall  was  looked  upon  as 
something  very  serious,  and  to  cut  it  down  was  death.  When  such  language  is 
used,  we  require  to  be  reminded  that  the  most  sober  philosophers  acquiesced  gene 
rally  in  all  this.  Even  Pliny  wrote,  about  the  time  of  Christ,  that  "  trees  are  the 
temples  of  the  gods  ;  we  delight  to  worship  the  same  god  in  the  silent  groves  as  we  do 
in  our  stately  temples.  The  fairest  trees  are  consecrated  to  certain  gods  ; " — and  not 
the  trees  only,  but  any  parts  of  them  which  seemed  to  amplify  or  symbolise  certain 
natural  features  of  our  frame. 

If  the  Kelt  or  Skand  attached  peculiar  powers  to,  and  saw  certain  occult 
matters  in,  many  of  his  trees  and  shrubs,  the  South  did  the  same.  Many  fruits, 
such  as  the  apricot,  quince,  almond,  pomegranate,  &c.,  &c.,  represented  great 
females  or  great  female  attributes,  as  I  have  pointed  out  in  the  case  of  this 
last  fruit,  the  fig,  and  the  lotus.  The  Pomegranate  has  long  been  reverenced 
alike  by  Pagans,  Jews,  and  Christians ;  its  fruit  was  embroidered  on  the  Ephod, 
and  carved  all  over  Solomon's  Temple  ;  Bacchus  metamorphosed  the  girl  who  died 
from  love  of  him  into  a  pomegranate  tree.  It  is  everywhere  a  prominent  Church 
ornament ;  and  Empress  Ann  of  Austria  used  the  fruit,  doubtless  very  ignorant  of  its 
Phallic  meaning,  as  her  device,  writing  underneath,  "  My  worth  is  not  in  my  crown." 

Dr  Inman  gives  me  this  illustration  (fig  15),  of  the  fruit  as  it  appears  with  bells,  on 
ecclesiastical  ornaments ;  taking  it  from  "Pugin's  Glossary"  (Lond.  1868),  and  sees  in 
it  the  shield  of  David,  double  triangle,  and  Vesica  piscis  (Yoni),  a  favourite  form  for 
church  windows,  Pagan  and  Christian.  The  name  would  doubtless  repay  careful 
investigation,  for  the  Eimmon  (pen)  was  the  great  goddess  of  the  most  sacred  temple 
in  Damascus,  and  all  roots  like  Ri,  Re,  Ra,  &c.,  are  connected  with  the  Sun,  Heat, 
Fertility,  and  such  like ;  Ra  is  the  Sun,  and  Ri  "  she  who'  sees,"  and  therefore  "  the 
eye,"  as  at  page  72,  in  my  figure  for  Ishtar.  Ram  in  Sanskrit  is  "coition,"  and 
"  delight "  in  respect  to  the  act,  and  is  the  root  of  all  words  like  Rameses,  Rama,  &c.— 
(See  Benfey's  Sanskrit  Diet.)  Rama  is  "  beautiful,"  "  delightful,"  and  I  am  told  "  the 
diligent  one,"  a  name  very  often  applied  to  the  Fertilizer  and  Sol.  In  old  Pali 
the  symbol  for  R  was  a  simple  stroke  or  pillar  |, — the  Egyptian  Toth.  In 
Phenician  and  Old  Hebrew,  R  is  a  circle  or  oval  with  a  pillar,  and  almost 
the  same  in  Greek,  Etruscan,  and  Umbrian ;  in  Oskan  and  Samnite,  the  triangle 
of  similar  signification  seems  the  favourite  form. — (Ancient  Faiths,  ii.  546). 
In  Asyrian  Ra  is  any  god,  such  as  11,  Ilu,  El,  or  Al,  Alia,  &c.,  the  root 

56  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

signification  being  the  Light,  Sun-God,  or  he  of  the  Rock  or  Stone,  irc  Tsur, 
(allied  in  this  faith  to  -us  Ur,  light),  the  Rock,  "  who  begot  us,"  and  "  whose  work  is  per 
fect"  (see  Deut.  xxxii.  4-18,  &c.,  and 
Appendix  V.  to  Dr  Oort's  Worship 
of  Baalim,  annotated  by  Bishop 
Colenso).  The  Egyptian  Mahadeva 
is  called  Amon  Ra,  or  the  hot  or 
heated  Sun,  and  our  Indian  word 
Ra-ja  means  the  Illuminated  and 
Illuminator  and  Ruler,  hence  Ra, 
Rex,  Re-gina,  &c.  Jah,  according 
to  Fiirst's  Heb.  Lex.,  is  an  increaser, 
so  that  here,  as  is  so  common  with 
Easterns,  the  meaning  is  repeated, 
probably  to  strengthen  what  is 
meant,  as  in  El-Elohe,  &c.  Every 
Hindoo  temple  has  the  pomegranate 
or  Rimmon  tree  planted  within, 
if  not  around  the  sacred  precincts, 
and  in  company,  if  possible,  with 
the  ficus,  almond,  custard,  and 
apricot ;  and  the  priests  of  this 
faith  never  place  such  objects, 
nor  put  a  scratch  upon  the  stones 
of  their  sacred  buildings  without 
strong  and  well  considered  reasons.  There  is  but  little  chance  or  hap-hazard  in  a 
line  of  Hindoo  sculpture  or  painting,  and  whether  we  look  at  the  face  or  prominent 
ornament  of  a  god,  or  the  number  of  beads  or  curves  of  his  footstool,  we  must  invariably 
bear  this  fact  in  mind.  Volumes  have  been  written  on  the  volutes  and  convolutes  of  the 
pediment  of  the  most  ordinary  Mahadeva,  though  erected  as  -an  every-day  matter  of 
course,  in  the  most  rustic  village  retreat ;  and  how  much  more  so,  on  temples  to  which 
multitudes  of  men,  well  versed  in  all  these  mysteries  of  their  faith,  annually  resort  ? 

All  nations,  and  perhaps  Aryans  in  particular,  have  considered  tree  planting  a 
sacred  duty,  and  we  still  see  the  noble  amongst  us  fond  of  planting  a  tree  to  their 
memory,  or  to  mark  great  events.  Thus  Abram  planted  his  "  grove  "  at  Bee'rsheba  to 
commemorate  his  "  covenant "  or  agreement ;  and  every  Eastern  to  the  present  hour 
loves  to  do  the  same.  These  grand  old  trees  became  centres  of  life  and  of  great 
traditions,  and  the  very  character  of  their  foliage  had  meanings  attached  to  it.  Vienna 
seems  to  have  been  built  round  its  sacred  tree.  Abram  seems  to  have  chosen  Mamre 
because  of  its  grand  oak  or  pine  (Gen.  xii.  6,  and  xiv.  13),  for  the  word  usually 
rendered  "Plain,"  is  Terebinth,  which  Bagster's  " Comprehensive  Bible "  tells  us  was 

JKCT.— Fig.  16. 

Tree  Worship. 


an  oak  or  "turpentine  tree,"  possibly  of  "stupendous  height  and  bulk."  The  pine 
usually  denotes  a  great  living  male,  as  does  the  Cyprus  a  dead  male,  and  the  rounded 
elm  and  sycamore  a  matron  or  maid.  German  agriculturists  usually  signalize  a  marriage 
by  planting  a  walnut  tree  (all  nut  trees  are  holy  in  these  matters),  and  give  a  name  or 
motto  to  every  tree  they  plant.  This  nation  solemnly  planted  a  lime  tree  over  the  grave 
of  their  poet  Schiller,  and  revolutionary  France  commemorated  that  era,  so  far  as  revolu 
tionary  people  can,  by  planting  "  trees  of  liberty,"-  which  remind  us  of  a  name  sacred  at 
once  to  liberty,  books,  and  Bacchus.  Strange,  but  true,  that  the  word  "book"  or  bok  is 
derived  from  the  name  of  this  god,  which  I  have  seen  spelt  in  Keltic  Mythi,  "Bakas." 
The  Latin  word  liber,  which  signifies  a  book,  whence  our  word  library  or  collection  of 
books,  was  also  one  of  the  names  of  this  god  Bacchus.  From  liber  is  also  derived  our 
word  "liberty,"  signifying  in  its  higher  sense,  the  freedom  which  knowledge  confers, — the 
freedom  which  was  given  to  slaves,  and  the  general  liberty  or  licence,  which  was  allowed 
at  the  festival  or  orgies  of  Bacchus,  and  when  the  youth  became  a  man.  Taken  in 
connection  with  the  other  meaning  that  the  name  liber  bears,  we  may  see  the  origin  of 
the  custom  formerly  observed  in  this  country  of  conferring  liberty,  or  securing  freedom 
or  exemption  from  punishment  to  the  learned,  under  the  title,  "  benefit  of  the  clergy." 
But  liber  signifies  also  the  bark  or  inner  rind  of  a  tree,  on  which  books  were  originally 
written.  It  is  owing  to  this  connection  of  a  tree  with  a  book,  that  we  speak  of  the 
leaves  of  a  book,  as  we  do  of  the  leaves  of  a  tree,  and  the  similarity  is  preserved  in  the 
Latin  when  we  speak  of  the  folios  of  a  book,  and  of  the  foliage  of  a  tree.  Again,  the 
word  "  edition,"  used  with  reference  to  books,  derived,  says  M.  Littre  in  his  great 
French  work,  from  the  Sanskrit,  to  eat,1  allies  the  idea  of  books  with  the  fruit  of  trees  ; 
thus  the  tree  of  knowledge  becomes  the  "book  of  wisdom,"  and  we  have  a  "tree  of 
life  ;"  so  we  have  also  the  conception  of  a  "book  of  life,"  and  the  tree  spoken  of  in  the 
Kevelations,  whose  leaves  were  to  be  "  the  healing  of  the  nations,"  is  simply  a  symbol 
of  the  "Book  of  Life." 

All  Deities  had  representative  trees  or  plants,  of  which  we  may  note  the  following : — 

Jupiter                was 

the  Oak     Pine,     Palm,     Ash, 


was  the  Orange  Flower3  (the  maid), 

Poplar,  and  such  like. 

and       Agnus       Castus, 


„       Rose,       Myrtle,2      Poppy, 

which    prevented   "  ser 

Anemone,  &c. 

pent  bites." 


„       Poppy,            Pomegranate, 


,',       White  Violet. 

Wheat,  and  all  Corn. 



M  inerva 

„       Olive,  Mulberry,  &c. 


„       Saffron  Flower. 


„       Pomegranate,  &c. 

All  the  Muses 

Wild  Thyme. 


„       Periwinkle,  &c. 


by      Fruit  and  Gardens. 


„       Southernwood     or     Arte 


„       Forests. 



„       Hay. 


„       Adonium,  Anemone,  &c. 


„       The  Laurel. 


„       Helenium,  &c. 


The  Poplar. 

Kybele  or  Cybele  „ 

Pine  Apple  —  "  Cybele  Pomum." 


„       The  Alder. 

1  In  Latin  "Edo  is  /  give  out,  but  "Edo  is  /  eat.  2  Because  its  leaves  resemble  the  Vesica  Piscis. 

3  This  bridal  flower  is  highly  phallic  in  its  details,  having  long  white  or  Sivaik  cones  and  open  flowers. 


58  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

All  the  goddesses  loved  that  which  was  sacred  to  the  "superior"  gods,  thus 
Cybele  loved  the  pine,  and  Diana  the  poplar ;  all  goddesses  also  at  times  are,  or 
assume  to  be  water,  for  this  has  divers  significations  which  I  dare  not  fully  enter  upon. 
Neither  Al,  El,  Al-shaddai,  Yahve,  or  Jove  could  create  without  this.  Occasionally 
Atmosphere  seems  to  fill  the  place  of  Solatia,  as  in  the  case  of  Juno  (lOna  or  10),  but 
usually  "  The  Thunderer"  acts  by  rain  and  storms,  as  the  Jupiter  Pluvius  of  Greece, 
and  as  did  Indra,  the  first  of  Vedic  gods,  long  ere  Jove  was  heard  of. 

In  Skandinavia  the  Hazel  tree  represents  Tor,  the  Vulcan  of  the  North,  who 
creates  or  fashions  with  his  hammer,  and  hazel  nuts  still  represent  lovers,  and  are 
thrown  to  Vulcan  or  Ool-Kan  in  pairs,  at  Scottish  festivals.  Bohemians  say  that 
"wherever  hazel  abounds  there  will  illegitimate  children  abound,"  and  Scotland 
certainly  excels  in  both.  Hazel  groves  were  favourite  spots  with  our  forefathers  for 
their  temples,  and  hazel  rods  were  diviners  of  mysteries,  and  still  work  miraculous 
cures,  it  is  said,  but  only  in  school-rooms.  In  Bavaria  the  baton  of  office  must  be  of 
hazel.  Should  a  snake  breathe  upon  a  hazel  rod,  the  rod  at  once  turns  into  a  stone  of 
bluish  colour,  which,  if  then  thrown  into  water,  will  cure  any  animal  of  snake  bite — a 
true  priestly  allegory  when  we  remember  that  water  is  the  feminine  energy,  and  Siva 
the  bluish  snake  god,  the  Neel  Kanta.  The  Bohemians  tell  us  that  Herodias'  daughter 
who  sought  to  please  Herod,  in  the  ancient  story,  hovers  between  heaven  and  earth  till 
all  the  world  sleeps,  and  then  descends  upon  oaks  and  hazels  till  cock-crow,  when  she 
disappears  ;  also  that  "  wherever  there  are  nuts,  there  are  wasps,  and  the  women  are 
fruitful ; "  so  that  Herodias  and  these  trees  evidently  meant  in  Bohemia,  more  than 
mere  matters  arboreal.  Bohemians  could  not  have  looked  upon  this  story  from  the 
same  point  of  view  as  Jews  and  Englishmen. 

Much  very  emotional  poetry  is  everywhere  mixed  up  with  such  innocent-looking 
things  as  "our  modest  crimson-tipped  daisy,"  "forget-me-nots,"  the  homely  flax,  the 
ferns  which  were  of  old  plucked  at  a  certain  season  for  their  seeds,  the  sweet  "  lily  of 
the  valley,"  which  represents  the  Virgin  Mother,  her  by  whose  aid  we  can  ascend,  says 
the  Roman  Catholic,  to  "  a  heaven  of  bliss,"  for  is  not  its  flower  called  "  the  ladder  of 
heaven."  Curiously,  all  Maries  have  had  the  lily  or  fertile  iris  as  their  symbol,  whether  it 
is  that  called  the  Lotus,  Nelumbium,  our  garden  Lilium  Candidum,  or  the  Gallic  Fleur- 
de-lis,  of  most  masculine  section.  The  Rose,  ever  a  lady  and  our  national  favourite, 
where  others  have  preferred  a  male  symbol,  has  thousands  of  tales  of  love  and  passion 
told  regarding  it,  which  I  cannot  here  dwell  upon,  or  I  should  have  to  wade  through 
the  mythologies  of  every  nation  on  earth.  The  most  precious  gift  from  the  Pope  is  a 
golden  rose,  and  it  is  only  given  to  Sovereigns.  Dante  calls  "  The  Virgin  Queen  of 
Heaven  the  Rose,  or  word  divine,  which  in  her  became  incarnated."  It  is  a  favourite 
emblem  of  nations.  Persians  hold  annually  a  great  feast  in  its  honour  ;  their  sacred 
writings  say  that  when  Abram  was  cast  into  a  fire  by  his  persecutors,  God  made  the 
flames  a  bed  of  roses  for  him.  Cupid  bestowed  a  rose  on  the  god  of  Silence,  and  secret 
counsellings  were  marked  by  suspended  roses. 

Tree  IVorship.  59 

In  Scottish  clan  symbols  we  see  veneration  for  special  trees,  as  the  Cameron's 
Oak,  and  the  Macgregor's  Pine,  &c.  The  Scotch  and  Irish,  who  fear  what  they  call 
Water  kelpies,  or  spirits  of  ocean,  lake,  or  stream,  particularly  value  as  a  protection 
from  these,  the  Elder  or  Sour  tree,  which  is,  it  appears,  valuable  also  for  some  other 
matters,  of  which  I  cannot  at  present  remember  the  details. 

Mahomedans  attach  much  importance  to  the  Lote  or  Tooba,  which  seems  to  be 
looked  upon  as  a  "  tree  of  life."  Mahomed,  in  the  53d  chapter  of  the  Koran,  says 
that  he  saw  Gabriel  standing  by  the  Lote  tree,  which  is  the  seventh  heaven,  and  at 
the  right  hand  of  the  Eternal  One.  It  is  everlasting  beatitude,  and  Moore  says  of  it 
(Art  Journal  of  March  1873), 

"  My  feast  is  now  of  the  Toba  tree, 
Whose  scent  is  the  breath  of  eternity." 


The  Pine,  as  particularly  sacred  to  Zeus,  was  beloved  by  Virgins.  Chloe,  in  the 
pastorals  of  Longus,  is  adorned  with  a  Pinea  Corona  as  an  emblem  of  Virginity,  which 
Daphne  takes  from  her,  and  puts  on  her  own  head.  So  in  Virgil  we  read,  "  Pronuba 
nee  Castos  accendit  Pinus  odores ;  Ovid  calls  the  Pine  pura  Arbor."1  Diana  or  maids 
mix  its  chaplets  with  the  mastic,  as  a  tree  of  all  others  most  fruitful,  but  not  with  the 
myrtle,  which,  as  sacred  to  Venus,  may  not  appear  in  a  professed  virgin's  wreath. 
The  pine  appears  to  have  been  the  most  sacred  tree  in  Asyria,  for  all  over  her  palaces 
Mr  Layard  shows  us  what  he  calls  the  "  corner  stone  and  sacred  tree,"  and  the  corner 
stone  is  usually  considered  the  principal  stone  of  a  building ;  hence  the  Principle  in 
each  religion  is  called  its  principal  or  corner  stone,  and  the  fruit  of  this  most  sacred 
tree  is  the  commonest  and  best  gift  to  the  gods.  This  is  probably  why  we  find  this 
tree  everywhere,  and  why  Asyrian  priests  are  usually  shown  as  presenting  a  pine  cone 
to  their  gods  and  altars.  The  seed  cone  seems,  however,  to  be  at  times  the  cone  of 
Indian  corn,  but  M.  Layard  thinks  that  the  pine  or  cypress  cone  is  most  used  in  the 
'  Cult  de  Venus.'  The  Thyrsus  of  Bacchus,  we  may  remember,  has  a  fir  cone,  and 
the  Bacchic  Pole  is  usually  held  to  be  of  pine,  as  very  inflammable  and  odoriferous — it 
is  remarkably  like  the  insignia  of  Boodhism  and  of  most  other  faiths,  as  the  Tri-Sool 
or  three  Thorns  of  Siva,  the  tridents  of  Neptune,  and  other  deities.  The  Pine  was 
called  the  Kybele  or  "  Cybele  Pomum  "  because  sacred  to  Rhea  and  daughter. 


No  class  of  trees  yields  more  to  man  than  the  Palm,  and  none  has  therefore  been 
more  prized  and  sculptured.  Nineveh  shows  the  Palm  surrounded  by  "  winged 
deities  or  ministers  holding  the  pine  cone — symbol  of  life,  which  there  takes  the 
place  of  the  Crux  Ansata."  Greeks  and  Etruscans  copied  Asyrians  or  Egyptians  or 
Phenicians,  and  Christians  Jews  and  Latins  copied  these.  Christians  and  Jews  say 
that  their  righteous  ones  will  "  flourish  as  the  Palm-tree,"  and  that  by  the  pure  water 

1  Fast.  2,  25-8. 

60  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

of  the  River  of  Life  there  will  grow  the  tree  of  Life,  which  yieldeth  her  fruit  every 
month,  for  the  Palm  was  held  to  be  Solar  in  respect  to  marking  every  mouth,  by 
putting  forth  a  new  shoot,  and  at  the  Winter  Solstice  fetes,  it  was  shown  with 
twelve  shoots. 

At  the  Jewish  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  which  is  in  consequence  of  the  Autumnal 
Equinox  and  harvest,  Jews  are  ordered  to  hang  boughs  of  trees  laden  with  fruit — 
as  oranges  and  lemons,  round  the  borders  of  their  tents  or  booths,  not  over  them  ; 
also  boughs  of  barren  trees,  and  when  the  worshippers  go  to  the  synagogue,  they  are 
told  to  carry  in  their  right  hand  one  palm  branch,  three  myrtle,  and  two  willows,  all 
tied  up  together;  and  in  the  left  hand,  a  citron  branch  with' fruit  on  it;  the  palms  and 
citrons  are  severely  Phallic  and  are  here  indispensable.  These  they  make  to  touch  each 
other,  and  wave  to  the  east,  then  south,  then  west  and  north  :  this  was  termed  Hosana. 
On  the  seventh  day  of  the  Feast  of  Tabernacles,  all  save  the  willow  bough  must  be 
laid  aside.  Of  course,  the  same  fetes  would  be  observed  at  Pentecost,  in  the  end  of 
Yiar — the  second  month,  as  in  Nisan  the  first  month,  for  this  last  was  merely  the 
end,  as  the  other  was  the  beginning  of  the  harvest,  which  lasted  over  the  fifty 
days  as  Pentecost  implies.  Plutarch  says  that  the  Jews  also  carried  about  javelins 
wrapped  round  with  Ivy — iugaoi — as  at  the  worship  of  Bacchus,  usually  shouting  'Iloz- 
anoth.'  Great  libations  of  wine  and  water  from  the  Shiloah  river,  were  then  brought 
and  poured  over  the  altar  of  the  temple.  Of  the  shouting  we  shall  have  much  to  say 
hereafter ;  Germany,  ever  fond  of  its  old  Tree  worship,  is  said  to  have  introduced  this 
into  the  Jewish  synagogues  of  Germany,  but  this  I  doubt.  Buxtorf  says  that  there 
are  two  very  sacred  sticks  attached  to  '  the  book  of  the  Law,'  called  "  the  Wood  of 
Life ; "  and  after  the  reading  is  over,  all  press  forward  to  touch,  with  but  the  tips  of 
two  fingers,  these  two  "  Sacred  sticks,"  with  which  they  then  touch  their  eyes ;  for 
this  touch  cures  sore  eyes,  and  bad  vision,  and  "is  of  singular  service  to  all  women 
labouring  with  child."  These  matters  recall  to  memory  sundry  rites  in  Sivaik  lore 
which  this  is  not  the  place  to  dwell  on. 

Many  early  Christian  writers,  as  well  as  the  Koran,  tell  us  that  the  weary  persecuted 
Virgin  mother-to-be  of  "  the  Almighty  God  of  all  worlds,"  sat.  down  faint  and  perish 
ing  under  the  root  of  a  withered  Palm-tree,  without  head  or  verdure,  and  in  the 
wintry  season,  where  at  the  command  of  the  foetal  child,  she  shook  the  tree  (a  difficult 
task  for  the  strongest  man  in  the  case-  of  a  "withered  Palm,"  and  unnecessary,  one 
would  think,  in  this  case)  when  down  fell  ripe  dates  in  abundance,  for  Gabriel  "  re 
vived  the  dry  trunk,  and  it  shot  forth  green  leaves  and  a  head  laden  with  ripe  fruit " 
(Koran,  i.  63,  ii.  130).  The  so-called  spurious  gospels  have  many  similar  tales,  and 
those  of  the  canonical  writings  have  wonders  no  less  strange  in  the  "  incarnation,"  &c. 

The  Palm  of  Delos  ("  Palladia  Arbore  Palmaa  ")  was  sacred  to  the  second  person 
of  the  Trinity,  and  all' the  Jewish  temple  was  adorned  alternately  with  cherubim  and 
Palms  ;  Christian  writers  make  Christ  be  ushered  in  to  the  sacred  Akropolis  with 

Tree  Worship.  61 

branches  of  Palm-trees.  Toth  wrote  upon  Palm  leaves,  as  we  still  do  all  over  Asia, 
and  thus  in  a  measure,  like  his  obelisk  symbols,  the  straight  Palm  stem,  and  leaf,  became 
also  linked  with  all  the  learning  and  civilisation  of  the  country.  Toth  and  the  Pillar 
were  synonymous  with  learning. 

It  is  not  known  whether  the  mythic  Phenix  gave  the  name  to  the  Palm  or  the 
tree  to  the  bird,  but  the  bird  is  often  seen  on  the  tree  with  a  glory,  symbolizing  "  Re 
surrection  to  eternal  life  ; "  for  the  Phenix,  was  a  beautiful  bird  which  ever  as  the  year 
swept  round,  came  and  died  upon  the  altar  of  the  sun ;  but  from  its  ashes  a  worm  was 
developed,  which  in  its  season,  became  again  a  beautiful  bird,  and  so  was  astronomy 
taught  in  the  language  of  pictures  and  allegory. 

The  four  evangelists  are  shown  in  "an  evangelium "  in  the  library  of  the  British 
Museum  as  all  looking  up  to  the  Palm-tree,1  and  hence  no  doubt  did  Christians  similarly 
try  to  instruct  their  illiterate  masses,  and  so  put  a  cross  and  Alpha  and  Omega  on  it. 
These  Palms  have  curiously  enough  got  two  incisions  on  their  stems  such  as  we  in  the 
East  would  call  lOnis ;  it  is  a  Chavah  mn  ;  an  Eve,  and  an  Asyrian  Goddess.  On 
the  top  of  the  tree  is  a  cross  having  suspended  from  its  two  arms  the  Greek  Alpha 
and  Omega,  as  I  show  in  figure  16  of  the  Eastern  Christian  Palm. 

There  is  a  strange  resemblance  betwixt  some  of  the  Skandinavian  Tau,  or  Tor- 
trees,2  and  the  Egyptian  Phenix-dactylifera ;  for  on  the  two  arms  were  commonly 
suspended  all  the  fruits  of  the  season — a  sort  of  "Christmas-tree"  idea.  The  incisions 
above-mentioned,  as  on  the  stems  of  Palms,  were  almost  invariably  made  on  all 
holy  Ficus-Sycamores,  for  without  them  says  Barlow,  "  the  inhabitants  believed  the  trees 
could  not  bear  fruit.  ...  On  the  upper  part  also  of  the  tree  was  a  bust  of  Netpe," 
who,  in  the  tree  of  life,  "  is  surrounded  by  a  triple  row  of  leaves  somewhat  of  an  oval 
form,  and  suggestive  of  the  glory  around  .  .  .  the  Virgin  Mary."  Thus  Netpe 
markedly  personified  the  principle  "  of  maternal  nourishment  "  (Bar.  p.  66).  Dr  Lep- 
sius  says,  "  from  the  upper  part  of  the  stem  proceeded  two  arms,  one  of  which  presents 
to  the  kneeling  figure  of  a  deceased  person  a  tray  of  fruits ;  the  other  pours  from 
a  vase  a  stream  of  water,  which  the  deceased  receives  in  his  hand  and  thus  conveys  to 
his  mouth.  .  .  .  Beneath  the  tree  are  two  herons  feeding  from  triangles  " — a  very 
suggestive  apparatus.  Dr  L.  thinks  that  this  Stele  is  anterior  to  the  15th  century  B.C.  ; 
and  mark,  that  this  tree,  which  first  fed  the  living,  is  now  feeding  the  dead,  and  was 
then,  and  is  now  a  cross ;  and  this  symbol  with  its  streams  of  "  living  water  "  became 
Christian,  and  the  symbol  of  a  dead  Saviour. 

Mr  Barlow  states  that  from  the  "  equi-lateral  triangle,  the  Lingam  and  Yoni,  and 
the  Crux  Ansata,  is  derived  the  Tau  and  the  cross — the  present  received  symbol  of 
eternal  life,  and  one  of  the  most  ancient ;  "3  so  that  "sexual  or  universal  life,"  as  he 
calls  it,  is  the  root  of  this  religious  life ;  it  is  a  sad  fact,  but  there  is  no  use  in  disguis- 

1  Barlow's  Symbolism,  p.  73.  2  The  Hindostany  for  a  Palm  is  still  Tar. 

3  Essays  on  Symbolism.      Lond.  1866.      H.  C.  Barlow,  F.G.S.      Preface  vi. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

ing  facts,  especially  when  put  before  us  by  a  "learned,  critical,  historical,  and  philoso 
phical  writer ; "  it  is  but  "  kicking  against  the  pricks,"  as  the  old  saying  of  "  the 
Pagans  "  put  it,  long  before  the  age  of  Paul  of  Tarsus. 

The  TAU,  so  common  in  the  times  ascribed  to  Abram,  whether  as  the  looped 
Lingam-in-Yoni,  or  the  plain  Bacchic  cross  of  my  PL  v.  5,  was,  said  Jews,  that  which 
checked  the  march  of  the  angel  of  death — it  was  in  fact  a  sign  everywhere,  of  salva 
tion  or  health  (Ezek.  ix.  4).  The  Greek  said  it  was  life,  and  that  the  0  was  death,  nox 
or  immature  life,  or  the  silence  of  darkness  ;  but  we  are  forgetting  our  Palms. 

At  Najran  in  Yemen,  Arabia,  Sir  William  Ousley 
describes  the  most  perfect  tree  worship  as  still  existing 
close  to  the  city.  The  tree  is  a  Palm  or  Sacred  date, 
which  it  appears  has  its  regular  priests,  festivals,  rites, 
and  services,  as  punctiliously  as  have  any  of  the  pro 
phets  or  deities  of  earth.  He  writes  on  the  authority  of 
a  MS.  of  the  9th  century  after  Christ,  and  adds  this  note 
from  a  writer  on  Indian  and  Japanese  symbols  of  divinity ; 
"Arboris  truncum  in  cujus  summitate  sedet  supremus 
Creator  Deus.  Aliud  quiddam  esset  observatione  dig- 
num  :  sed  ego  truncum  arboris  meditor,  &c.  At  sive 
Japonenses,  sive  Indos,  sive  Tibetanos  adeas,  ubique  tibi 
occurret,  virentis  arboris  religio,  ob  synibola  forsan  crea- 
tionis,  et  conservationis  rerum  recepta,  atque  retenta  ; J  a 
passage  which  shows  us  clearly  the  Lingam  signification 
of  'the  trunk'  as  this  will  hereafter  be  abundantly  more  clear.  It  is  the  high  bare  stem  of 
the  palm  which  added  to  the  great  usefulness  of  the  tree,  made  it  so  sacred.  It  was  the 
first  offspring  of  Mother  Ge,  says  the  Odyssey  (lib.  VI.),  and  against  it  did  fair  Latona  rest 
at  the  moment  she  gave  birth  to  Apollo — hence  the  Christian  gospel  tale.  The  Koreish 
tribe,  from  which  the  Arabian  prophet  sprang,  were  from  earliest  known  times  wor 
shippers  of  the  Palm  tree,  and  here  as  in  other  lands,  had  it  been  succeeded  by  the 
Lingam  and  latterly  by  solar  and  ancestral  worship.  The  Arabs  used  to  hang  on  the 
Palm  not  only  garments  or  pieces  of  garments,  but  arms  or  portions  of  their  warrior 
gear,  thereby  showing  that  they  saw  in  the  Palm,  virility — a  Herakles  or  Mercury. 
They  must  long  have  heard  from  across  the.  water — Sea  of  Soof,  of  Totli — the  pillar 
god — or  the  obelisk  ;  and  they  saw  in  this  natural  pillar  and  fruit,  the  same  idea  as  in 
Toth  and  Osiris.  Another  Arabian  god,  sometimes  called  goddess,  was  named  Aza, 
usually  written  Uzzah,  and  she  or  he  was  worshipped  under  the  form  of  a  tree  called 

1  Georg.  Alphab.  Tibetan.,  p.  142,  quoted  of  the  tree.  Moreover,  whether  you  go  to  the 
from  Barlow,  p. .  108.  Translation — "The  trunk  Japanese,  or  to  the  Tibetans,  everywhere  will  meet 
of  a  tree  on  whose  top  si£s  Deus,  the  supreme  you  green  tree  woi^ship  (which  has  been)  trans- 
Creator.  Some  other  object  might  be  worthy  of  mitted  and  preserved  as  symbolic  perhaps  of  the 
observation  ;  but  I  fix  my  attention  on  the  trunk  creation  and  preservation  of  the  world." 

Fig.  17. — PALM  TREK,  WITH  CROSS. 

Tree  Worship. 

Samurch.     Her  sanctuary  was  denominated  a  Boss,  but  beyond  this  I  cannot  learn  any 
particulars  of  him  or,  I  suspect,  rather  her ;  the  Boss  is  an  umbo,  see  fig.  8 1 . 

The  Palm  has  always  borne  a  most  important  part  in  all  the  faiths  of  the  world 
down  to  the  present  hour,  and  even  amongst  our  European  centres  of  civilisation.  In 
the  Eleusinian  mysteries,  as  we  may  see  in  the  Hamiltonian  collection  of  Greek  vases 
in  the  British  museum,  the  woman  who  is  a  candidate  for  what  we  in  India  would  call 
the  office  of  a  Sakti,  or  one  who  desired  to  dedicate  herself  to  God  or  to  the  worship 
pers  at  the  temple  of  her  God,  is  seen  brought  forward  naked  to  a  sacred  font  in  which 
her  right  hand  is  placed.  She  has  been  washed  apparently  there,  or  as  we  would  say 
baptised,  and  now  the  priest  raises  his  Palm  branch,  symbol  of  the  power  over  her  of 
the  Maha-deva,  and  prays,  declaring  her  pure  or  Kadastrtnp,  and  dedicated  to  him,  and 
able  now  to  assist  in  the  mysteries  of  Bacchus.  It  is  clear  that  the  Palm  has  here  the 
same  signification  as  the  Rod  of  the  Egyptian  priest,  and  hence  of  the  Jewish  and 
Tibetan  or  Shaman  Sorcerer,  all  of  which  will  be  shown  presently  to  be  merely  the  re 
presentatives  of  Asher,  the  Obelisk  or  "  pillar  god,"  or  Toth,  and  of  his  Greek  idea, 
Mercury,  with  his  Kaduceus  or  serpent  rod.  The  Palm  is  a  necessary  accompaniment 
in  all  Phallic  and  Solar  festivals,  and  the  tree  must  have  a  prominent  place  on  all 
temple  sites,  as  well  as  in  temple  ornamentation.  It  was  with  branches  of  Palms  that 
Jews  went  forth  to  meet  their  Messiah,  which  by-the-by  is  an  old  word  for  the  Sun- 
Stone  as  "  the  Anointed  One."  Women  shared  the  name  of  a  Palm,  perhaps  from  its 
grace  and  beauty  as  Tamar  (Heb.  Palm),  the  wife  of  Judah  (Gen.  xxxviii.  6),  and  the 
fair  sister  of  the  erring  Absalom  and  others.  The  Palm  is  also  one  of  the  ensigns 
which  the  glorified  spirits  in  heaven  go  about  with  in  their  hands  (Rev.  vii.  9).  There 
is  great  justice  in  the  laudation  which  all  easterns  bestow  upon  this  tree  ;  every  part, 
almost  every  atom  of  it,  is  of  the  greatest  use  to  man — from  its  juice  he  makes  spirits, 
wine,  sugar,  and  a  kind  of  honey,  and  drugs  of  all  kinds  ;  its  fruits  are  meat  and 
drink,  the  shells  form  vessels,  dyes,  paper,  cloth,  mats,  &c.,  &c.,  and  so  also  is  the 
wood  and  foliage  applied  to  a  score  of  purposes.  We  have  seen  that  the  Jews  gave  the 
Palm  a  distinguished  place  at  their  festivals,  so  also  in  architecture.  The  tree  and  its 
lotus  top  says  Kitto  (Pic.  Bible  II.,  Chro.  III.) 
took  the  place  of  the  Egyptian  column  on  Solo 
mon's  famous  phalli,  the  Jakin  and  Boaz.  Dr 
Inman  gives  me  this  very  clear  drawing  of  the 
meaning  of  "the  palm  tree  As-slier."  I  shall 
have  to  speak  hereafter  of  the  meaning  of  the 
arroW-head  which  is  shown  as  piercing  its  centre. 
The  figure  is  from  a  Babylonian  gem,  figured  by 
Lajard,  and  tells  us  how  clearly  the  Asyrian 

Understood     Phallic      lore,      and    this    Symbolism  ;        Fig.  IS.-THE  MYSTIC  PALM  WITH  ALL  ORGANS,  AND  PASSION 

for    here  we   see  man  and   animals    gazing   and    frolicking    round    "  the    tree    of 

64  Rivers  of  Life,  or  FaitJis  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Life."  We  have  also  here  symbols  of  the  Yoni  and  Isis,  as  well  as  of  the 
fleur  de  Lis  and  spotted  goat  or  fawn,  regarding  which  much  interesting  matter 
will  be  found  at  pages  356-7  and  532-3  of  Dr  Inman's  first  volume  of  Ancient 
Faiths.  He  tells  us  here  also  of  the  usual  confusing  sexual  facts,  that  "  the 
palm  tree  Sarah  is  (also)  an  emblem  of  the  celestial  goddess,"  and  that  the  male  Tamaz 
becomes  Tamar  the  palm — See  Vol.  IT.,  p.  449.  I  show  in  figure  4  of  a  most 
interesting  plate,  No.  IV.,  the  Palm  tree  associated  with  the  Phallus,  around  which  i.s 
coiled  the  serpent,  and  on  the  other  side  of  which  stands  the  upright  konch  veneris  ; 
all  the  coins  here  seen  are  borrowed  by  me  from  Dr  Inman,  and  by  him  from  various 
sources ;  I  shall  have  often  to  refer  to  the  plate  in  this  work.  Of  course  religious 
iconography  is  a  very  difficult  arid  somewhat  confusing  subject ;  vines,  pines,  cones, 
heads  of  Indian  corn,  branches  of  dates,  and  even  cocoanuts,  all  come  tumbling  across 
our  path  in  a  most  bewildering  manner,  still  the  general  result  which  the  races  strove 
to  depict  admits  of  no  doubt  whatever  in  the  eyes  of  any  one  who  has  studied  eastern 
religions  amongst,  and  in  a  free  and  kindly  way,  with  its  priests.  We  may  hesitate  to 
say  with  Barlow  that  Apollo  drawn  by  Griffins  is  "  properly  the  symbol  of  Christ "  (p. 
76),  though  very  much  to  strengthen  this  will  appear  by-and-by  ;  but  we  need  not 
hesitate  in  declaring  that  the  Crux  Ansata  followed  the  pine  cone  and  the  Palm,  and 
led  to  the  Christian  cross,  and  all  these  quaint  guises  in  which  we  find  Christ,  even  to 
that  of  the  Arglia-Nat  or  -Lord  of  the  Vase,  which  we  often  see  him  placed  in  !  It 
would  seem  indeed  as  if  from  Bacchus'  thyrsus  and  vine,  men  took  to  calling  Christ 
their  vine  and  themselves  the  branches  (Bar.  77).  The  true  cross  they  said  was  "  a 
slip  cut  from  'the  tree  of  Life,'  which  by  the  favour  of  the  angel  who  guarded  it,  Seth 
was  privileged  to  take  and  plant  in  the  world  "  (M.  Didron) ;  this  Seth  was  a  far  more 
important  person  than  even  Genesis  makes  him  out,  as  we  shall  see  in  sketching 
Egyptian  and  Jewish  Faiths.  Of  course  he  planted  all  the  world  in  Hebrew  estima 
tion,  for  he  was  their  Adam,  and  Moses  is  often  called  his  prototype.  Let  us  now 
speak  of  the  Oaks  of  the  Druids,  and  Oracle  of  Dodona,  which  sent  forth  its  decrees  on 
its  leaves. 


[\j  E  T  P  E  The  Oak  was  Israel's  ancient  "  tree  of  the  Cove 

nant  ;  "  tli<?  word  actually  means  this,  but  at  present 
I  wish  to  draw  attention  to  the  Skaudinavian  idea  of 
the  tree  which  we  see  in  this  illustration.  .It  was  in 
this  form  that  the  Druids  cut  their  cross  out  of  the  live 
tree,  and  called  it  their  Thao,  Tau,  Tor  or  Thor,  the 
Thunderer,  or  Fashioner,  in  fact  Jupiter  Tonans, 
though  with  these  northerns,  Odin  and  Balder 
more  \>QC<dmQ  them  than  Mars  or  Apollo.  I  do 

). — TOR  .S  HAMMER 

Tree  Worship.  65 

not  know  if  their  symbolism  reached  to  a  Crux  Ansata,  but  this  Tau  was 
no  doubt  that  holy  sign  of  life  which  rendered,  or  aided  in  rendering,  the  Egyp 
tian  Scarabeus  so  sacred,  and  what  the  Jewish  Seer  alluded  to  as  "  stamped  upon 
the  foreheads  of  the  faithful."  The  Samaritan  cross,  which  they  stamped  on  their 
coins  was  No.  1,  but  the  Norseman  preferred  No.  2 — the  circle 
and  four  stout  arms  of  equal  size  and  weight,  and  called  it  Tor's 
hammer.  It  is  somewhat  like  No.  3,  which  the  Greek  Christians 
early  adopted,  though  this  is  more  decidedly  phallic,  and  shows 
clearly  the  meaning  so  much  insisted  on  by  some  writers  as  to 
all  meeting  in  the  centre.  The  later  Greeks  do  not  seem  to  have 
thought  of  these  early  crosses,  as  having  any  connection  with  their 
new  faith — the  Christian,  and  it  is  now  generally  acknow-  Fig. 
ledged  that  they  had  a  solar  origin.  So  far  as  I  know,  the  cutting 
of  a  live  tree  into  a  "J" — tau  or  Deity,  is  unique  on  the  part  of  the  Druids.  Borlase  in 
his  Cornwall  thus  describes  the  operation.  "  The  Druids  all  consenting,  pitched  on  the 
most  beautiful  Oak  tree,  cut  off  its  side  branches,  and  then  joined  two  of  them  to  the 
highest  part  of  the  trunk,  so  that  they  extended  themselves  on  either  side  like  the  arms 
of  a  man"  (p.  10 8) ;  the  whole  of  this  they  called  "Thau  or  God,  that  on  the  right  Hesus, 
that  on  the  left  Belenus,  and  he  the  middle,  Tharanis,"  which  we  may  grant  our  valiant 
author  of  the  History  of  Thorn  Worship,  meant  the  thorn,  or  upright  divider.1 

Maximus  Lyrius  tells  us  that  amongst  the  Kelti,  a  tall  Oak  was  considered  not 
only  an  idol,  but  the  very  image  of  Jupiter.  Pliny,  in  his  Natural  History,  says 
that  there  were  worshippers  of  the  Oak  throughout  France,  whom  the  Greeks  called 
Drus.  He  calls  them  French  Magi  and  Dryade,  that  is,  priests  of  the  Oaks,  and 
sorcerers.  The  Oak  was  esteemed  by  Greeks  and  Romans  the  arbor  Jovi  sacra,  the 
tree  devoted  to  God,  and  so  was  it  amongst  the  Hebrews,  who  called  it  El-on,  as 
much  as  to  say  the  Tree  of  God.2  Turner  shows  that  Deukalion,  the  Greek  Noah, 
"preached  or  prophesied  by  or  under  an  Oak  or  tree,  not  after,  but  before  the  Flood," 
as  Abraham  did  under  the  Oaks  of  Mamre.  Both  Noah  and  Deukalion  were  instructed 
by  a  lOne  or  Dove — the  latter,  I  should  say,  for  all  evidence  is  converging  to  prove 
to  us  that  Deu-kal-ion  was  Siva  or  Deva-Kala,  or  incarnation  of  this  Lingam  God. 
Deu-kal-ion  and  his  were  the  beloved  of  God — Dod-Donai,  or  Do  Adonai ;  and  the 
Greeks,  as  is  here  well  shown,  had  ''corrupted  the  traditions  of  the  East!'  They  called 
Dodona  At/a  ruv  tixeavttuv,  a  sea-nymph,  or  goddess  who  had  come  to  them  by  the  sea  or 
way  of  the  sea.  Sphanheim  derives  Dodona  from  (ruv  in)  Duda  lona  or  Amabilis 
Columba,  which  is,  I  suspect,  Kali,  or  the  Yoni,  and  hence  the  myths  about  Arks, 
Jonahs,  lonahs,  and  Doves ;  in  the  mythology  of  "  the  Ark  and  tlje  lonah,"  Holwell 
and  Bryant's  Mythology  says,  that  there  is  a  continual  reference  to  the  Moon :  The  Ark 

J  London:  Nisbet  &  Co.,  1873. 
-  Dodd's  translation  of  Caliiinaekus'   Hymn  to  Delos.     Note,  p.  126. 


66  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

was  Luna,  Laris,  Bceotus,  Naus,  Men,  and  the  mother  of  all  beings.  Meno  Taurus  and 
Tauris  Liinaris  signified  the  same,  and  both  were  the  Deus  Arkitis ;  hence  the  deity, 
Meen  and  Manes,  which  later  became  Magnes,  and  was  so  applied  to  great  people. 
Noah  was  called  the  Deus  Lunus,  because  the  Moon,  or  Lunette,  was  his  Ark,  as  it 
was  that  of  all  gods. 

Deborah  the  prophetess  preferred  dwelling  under  a  Palm-tree,  and  Rebeka's  nurse, 
Deborah,  was  buried  under  an  Oak  ;  first  a  Beth-el,  or  altar,  probably  a  Lingam  stone, 
such  as  Jacob  was  partial  to  anointing  (Gen.  xxxv.  8,  14),  being  erected,  and  of 
course  under  the.  Oak.  On  this  occasion  it  was  denominated  a  "  place  of  weeping." 
All  connected  with  these  holy  trees  was  deeply  venerated,  so  much  so,  as  to  have 
left  their  impress  even  immortally  in  language,  as  in  (Sanctus)  Quercus,  «x<rof,  and 
lucus,  which  still  recall  to  us  ideas  of  something  sacred,  just  as  our  Bible  "  Testimony" 
and  Testament  does  this,  quite  irrespective  of  the  strange  origin  of  such  word.  Every 
grand  and  noble  tree  was  a  god-like  object,  and  the  abode  of  deities,  and  where  they 
might  always  be  asked  to  make  their  presence  manifest.  No  ancient  races  would  start 
at  being  told  that  sprites  or  fairies  had  been  seen  dancing  under  a  fine  or  quaint-looking 
tree,  or  that  the  voice  of  Jove  had  spoken  to  any  one  from  amidst  its  branches.  Xerxes, 
at  the  head  of  his  army  on  his  way  to  Sardis,  paused  respectfully  before  a  huge  Plane 
tree,  and  offered  golden  ornaments  to  the  deity,  and  left  a  guard  to  protect  it ;  and  an 
earlier,  and  perhaps  as  great  a  king  as  he,  may  be  seen  on  a  bas-relief  of  Koyoonjik 
(Nineveh),  stopping  in  his  chariot  and  devoutly  saluting  a  tall  Palm  tree  (Bar 
low,  99).  Nor  have  Persians  yet  forgotten  such  ways,  although  for  eleven  centuries 
they  have  been  strict  Islamees ;  it  is  still  common  in  Persia  to  see  grave  men  address 
ing  Darakti-fasels,  or  sacred  trees,  and  many  of  these  are  still  said,  as  in  the  days  of 
Moses,  to  show  fires  gleaming  in  their  midst.  Jeremiah,  in  ii.  20,  alludes  to  the  tree 
adoration  of  his  people,  and  Mr  Bruce  tells  us  that  the  Abysinians  worshipped  the 
Wanzy  tree  "avowedly  as  God."  "In  Arabia,  Africa,  India,  China  and  Japan," 
says  Barlow,  the  same  stories  still  reach  us,  and  still  the  deity  sits  "  on  the  summit  of 
the  trunk,  sufficiently  near  for  the  attendant  spirits  below  to  transmit  to  him  readily 
(he  used  in  Egypt  to  be  generally  she,  the  goddess  Netpe)  the  prayers  offered  up  by 
the  faithful.  We  see  the  same  idea  in  this  deity  on  the  Lingam  stump,  as  we  do  in 
the  Pythoness  sitting  on  the  serpent-column  over  Delphi's  thermal  fountain  ;  and 
Mr  Fergusson  tells  us  he  sees  the  same  oh  the  panels  of  the  gateway  of  the  Sanchi- 
tope.  He  considers  also  that  it  is  only  Tree  Worship  he  sees  in  the  altar  with  angels 
depicted  by  me  in  fig.  No.  5  ;  but  I  see  a  good  deal  more  than  this.  Captain  Wilford, 
in  1  Oth  vol.  w  Asiatic  Researches,"  says  that  the  tree  of  life  and  knowledge  is  a 
Manicheian  cross  on  a  Calvary,  and  as  such  it  is  called  the  "  Divine  tree  "  or  "  tree  of 
the  gods."  If  it  is  a  trunk  without  branches  (which  is  a  simple  lingam),  it  is  said  to 
be  "  the  seat  of  the  Supreme  One" — Maha  Deva.  When  two  arms  are  added,  it  becomes 
"  the  Tri-moorti,"  or  Brahma,  Vishnoo,  and  Siva,  who  are  then  said  to  be  seated  there  ; 
regarding  which,  says  M.  Guiniaut,  in  his  Religions  de  I'Antiquite,  p.  147  :  "  Quand 

Tree  Worship.  67 

se  furent  formes  les  quatorze  mondes,  avec  1'axe  qui  le  traverse  et  au-dessous  le  mont 
Calaya,  alors  parut  sur  le  sommet  de  ce  dernier  le  triangle,  Yoni,  et  dans  1'Yoni  le 
Lingam,  ou  Siva  Lingam.  Ce  Lingam  (arbre  de  vie)  avait  trois  ^corses:  la  premiere 
et  la  plus  exterieure  e*tait  Bramhma,  celle  du  milieu  Vishnou,  la  troisieme  et  la  plus 
tendre  Siva ;  et,  quand  les  trois  dieux  se  furent  de'tache's,  il  ne  resta  plus  dans  le 
triangle  que  la  tige  nue,  desormais  sous  la  garde  de  Siva." 

"  Wisdom/'  says  the  Jewish  Proverb,  "  is  a  tree  of  life  to  them  that  lay  hold  on 
her,"  and  the  serpent  is  often  this  symbol  of  wisdom,  as  Sophia  is  in  the  Greek  Church. 
The  Kelt  had  his  Tri-Sool,  or  the  tliree-tliorned  One,  or  Trimoorti,  or  Bel  in  his 
Thar  amis,  which  the  Skandinavian  denoted  by  Odin,  Balder,  and  Tor.  Theramis  was 
Tor  or  Jove  or  Indra.  Esus  was  Mars,  the  irresistible  torrent,  which  some  say  is 
derived  from  the  Roman  Eas  or  Es.  Belenus,  Balder,  or  Bel  is  the  good  and  the 
beneficent,  who  shines  on  all  alike  ;  but  Odin  is  the  Jewish  "  God  of  Battles/' — a  Tor, 
who,  as  Jeremiah  says,  was  "  a  hammer  that  breaketh  the  rock  in  pieces  "  (xxiii.  29)  ; 
he  is  "the  mighty  One,"  the  "bruiser,"  the  very  Oak  himself,  "the  Covenant  God"- 
Pillar  or  Terebinth-stem,  before  whom  (Gen.  xvii.  1-3  ;  xviii.  1)  this  God  swore  and 
the  Patriarch  agreed  ;  thus  in  connection  with  an  Oak  (Gen.  xii.  6,  7)  Jews  and  Chris 
tians  received  their  glad  promise  from  Jhavh-Elo-him,  and  on  Mahadeva  the  two 
patriarchs  executed  their  most  solemn  oaths  (Gen.  xxiv.  2,  3  ;  xlvii.  29),  and  beside  him 
the  pious  Josiah  had  to  stand  in  making  his  new  covenant  (2  Kings  xxiii.  1-3).  His 
very  name  is  an  oath  and  "  a  strong  one  "  (n^),1  and  a  "  testimony  "  as  that  for  which 
the  Ark  was  built,  viz.,  an  Edutli  (Ex.  xxv.  16,  21),  which  I  shall  have  occasion  here 
after  to  dwell  upon.  No  place  is  so  holy,  no  shrine  or  grave  so  sacred  as  Deru's 
sanctum,  said  Sklavonians  and  Kelts,  and  so  also  thought  Jacob,  Joshua,  and  great 
Jhavh  himself.2  (See  Gen.  xxxv.  4  ;  Joshua  xxiv.  26  ;  and  Judges  vi.  11-21.) 

"  In  Palestine/'  says  Barlow,  to  whom  I  am  indebted  for  reminding  me  of  some 
of  the  above,  "  the  Oak  is  the  semblance  of  a  divine  covenant,  and  its  shadow  indi 
cated  the  religious  appropriation  of  any  stone  monument  erected  beneath  it ;  it  was 
symbolical  of  the  Divine  presence."  a  Many  a  decree  or  covenant  besides  those  of  the 
Jewish  Patriarchs  have  been  ratified  and  sealed  throughout  Europe  "  sub  Quercibus," 
or  "  sub  annosa  Quercu."  Not  only  was  the  Quercus,  and  so  the  Quercetum  or  grove 
of  Oaks,  the  "  Sancta  Quercus,"  but  the  "  Holy  Oak  "  of  -pre-Christian  times  became 
the  gospel  tree  of  Christian  days,  as  I  hope  to  make  clear  in  the  course  of  this  work. 

It  was  Drusus  or  oaks  that  sheltered  Zeus  on -Mount  Lycseus,  and  there,  in  con 
sequence,  was  erected  its  universal  female  accompaniment — a  holy  well  or  a  fountain, 
and  'afterwards  a  temple.  The  oak  was  the  patron,  nay  teacher  of  hospitality,  for 
its  shade  was  as  sacred  as  the  medieval  church  navis,  which  indeed  took  its  place. 
The  wisest  men,  no  less  than  the  ignorant  masses,  saw  in  it  a  god  ;  Jews,  Pagans, 
and  Christians,  nay  the  enlightened  Sokrates,  all  swore  their  most  solemn  oaths  under 

1  Heb.  Alah;  Arabic  Alat  =  Phallus.  2  The  Vulgate  prefers  to  read  here  "God."  3  "Symbolism,"  p.  98. 

68  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

this  monarch  of  the  woods,  and  the  martial  Roman  coveted  a  wreath  of  it  as  the 
highest  of  all  rewards.  In  these  respects  it  was  even  more  to  the  West,  than  the 
Ficus,  et  hoc  genus  omne  was  to  the  East;  like  these  species,  its  wood  alone  must  call 
down  fire  from  heaven,  and  gladden  in  the  yule  (Suiel  or  Seul)  log  of  Christmas-tide 
even  Christian  fires,  as  well  as  annually  renew  with  fire  direct  from  Ba-al,  on  Bel-tine 
day,  the  sacred  flame  on  every  public  and  private  hearth,  and  this  from  the  temples  of 
Meroe  on  the  Nile,  to  the  furthest  icy  forests  and  mountains  of  the  Sklavonian.  The 
Tree  was  called  "  the  Healer  of  the  Nations,"  to  gaze  down  its  "  elfish  looking  holes," 
or  torture  oneself  on  its  quaint  gnarled  stem,  was  sure  to  bring  about  some  happy 
result,  if  not  an  immediate  and  direct  answer  from  Jove,  Tor,  or  Toth.  The  tree-god 
was  more  peculiarly  efficacious  as  a  Healer  at  Yule-tide,  just  as  all  sects  still  hold 
their  sacraments  and  prayers  to  be,  at  their  great  festivals,  more  specially  beneficial ; 
if  a  ruptured  person  was  stripped  naked  and  passed  three  times  betwixt  two  slips  of  oak 
at  Yule-tide,  he  was  almost  immediately  healed,  and  the  gods  latterly  conceded  the 
same  privilege  to  similar  good  deeds  on  "  Good  Friday,"  arid  naturally  so,  as  this  is 
the  most  hallowed  day  of  the  Vernal  Equinox. 

The  passing  naked  through  Odin's  arms  reminds  us  of  many  strange  rites,  and  has 
an  evident  connection  with  Phallic  lore.  Osiris  allowed  no  clothed  ones  to  approach, 
and  carry  him  in  his  Isinian  car,  as  will  be  made  abundantly  clear  hereafter.  The 
superstition  of  passing  through  natural,  or  even  artificial,  clefts  in  trees  and  rocks,  or, 
failing  them,  caves  and  holes,  has  scarcely  yet  left  the  most  civilized  parts  of  Europe, 
and  is  firmly  maintained  throughout  the  rest  of  the  world,  and  in  India  takes  the 
thoroughly  literal  aspect  of  the  question,  viz.,  of  being  really  "  born  again" — the  person 
to  be  so  regenerated  being  actually  passed  through  the  mouth  and  organ  of  a  properly 
constructed  cow — if  the  sinner  be  very  rich,  of  a  gold  or  silver  cow,  which  is  then 
broken  up  and  divided  among  the  purifying  priests.  A  wooden  or  lithic  perforation, 
that  is  an  lOni,  is,  for  ordinary  men,  however,  a  sufficient  "  baptism  of  grace,"  and  in 
these  islands,  the  holy  Ash  or  Ygdrasil,  is  the  proper  tree  to  regenerate  one.  Major 
Moore  describes  his  gardener  in  Suffolk  as  splitting  a  young  Ash  longitudinally  (the 
Oak  is  its  equivalent)  and  passing  a  naked  child  through  it  three  times,  "  always  head 
foremost,  for  Rickets  and  Rupture."  The  tree  is  bound  up  again,  and  if  it  heals,  all  goes 
well  with  the  child.1  The  operation  is  called  "drawing"  in  Suffolk,  and  in  1834  seems 
to  have  gone  beyond  the  spiritual,  and  passed  into  the  sphere  of  a  medical  luxury — a 
sort  of  Turkish-bath,  though  called  Regeneration  but  a  few  years  previously.  In  England 
the  Ash  is  for  drawing,  preferred  to  the  Oak  ;  it  should  be  split  for  about  five  feet,  as 
closely  as  possible  East  and  West,  and  in  the  Spring  or  fertilizing  season  of  the  year,  be 
fore  vegetation  has  set  in,  and  just  as  the  sun  is  rising ;  the  child  must  then  be  stripped 
quite  naked,  and,  say  some,  passed  feet,  and  not  head  foremost  through  the  tree  three 
times  ;  it  should  then  be  carefully  turned  round,  as  the  Kelts  say,  Deasil-ways — that  is 

1  "  Oriental  Frags.,"  505,  author  of  "  Hindoo  Pantheon." 

Tree  Worship.  69 

with  the  sun,  after  which  the  cleft  of  the  tree  must  be  bound  up  carefully.  Here  we 
see  the  Tree  as  a  thing  of  Life,  and  forming  the  very  lOni-ish,  door  of  life,  and  in  the 
presence  of  Siva  or  the  Sun,  without  whom  regeneration  of  old,  or  giving  of  new  life, 
is  known  by  all  to  be  impossible. 

I  attach  a  good  deal  of  significance  to  the  following  remarks  of  the  author 
of  the  Hindoo  Pantheon,  for  rude  races  I  have  always  found  to  be  very  keen 
observers  of  such  peculiarities.  He  says,  "  a  longitudinal  wound  in  the  bark  of 
a  tree  will  primarily  assume  the  Sivaik  form — the  erect,  obeliscal — like  the  tree 
itself,  symbolic  of  the  Linga ;  expanded  for  a  mysterious  purpose — and  it  is  curious 
what  a  number  of  mysterious  purposes  seem  to  have  occurred  to  prurient  eyes — 
it  is  lOnic.  Duplicated,  when  healed,  and  healed,  we  find  it  still  of  like  allusion." 
All  the  forms  which  this  learned  Orientalist  alludes  to,  are  spells,  and  highly  mystical, 
and  are  worn  on  the  foreheads  of  millions,  as  charms  ;  just  as  Europe  puts  a  cross  or 
Tau — equally  Phallic,  on  her  churches,  tombs,  and  all  sacred  things.  Now  the  Cross 
or  Tau  was  the  ancient  dams  or  key,  by  which  it  was  said  trees  were  propagated, 
especially  the  holy  Ash  and  Sycamore  ;  the  cutting  or  graft  was  in  fact  a  clavis,  and 
in  Christian  times  our  ancestors  transferred  their  love  for  Tau  or  Thor  to  the  church 
door  key,  for  this  was  the  "portal  of  bliss,"  the  "gate  of  heaven;"  so  their  church  key 
and  Bible,  (of  this  they  knew  little,)  became  fetish  charms,  which  together  could  un 
fold  matters,  especially  matrimonial.  The  key  was  in  this  case  laid  in  the  fetish  volume, 
and  certain  words  were  then  repeated  as  to  the  wish  of  the  searchers,  and  the  verse  on 
or  over  which  it  was  found,  was  the  god's  answer  ;  witches  much  feared  this  fetish, 
and  no  wonder,  for  they,  poor  ill-used  wretches,  were  weighed  against  the  church 
Bible  !  The  "  thread-needle  fetes,"  elsewhere  mentioned  in  Cornwall,  are  of  the  same 
significance  as  passing  through  tree  or  rock  clefts,  indeed  passing  through  the  Killarney 
tree  cleft  is  called  "  threading  the  needle  ;"  and  as  Cicerones  there  tell  one,  are  speci 
ally  fertilizing  and  "  saving  of  pains  your  honor,  to  your  lady,  if  in  a  certain  way." 
Oxford  exhibits  the  same  phase  in  her  "  groaning  cheeses,"  the  cut  of  which  in  a 
circular  or  oval  form,  must  be  kept  ready  at  a  birth  to  pass  the  new-born  babe 
through  ;  afterwards,  like  wedding  cakes,  it  is  cut  up  and  given  to  maidens  to  sleep 
upon,  "  to  excite  pleasant  and  expressive  dreams." 

The  Dodona  of  history  was  not  purely  grove  or  tree  worship  ;  that  faith  had,  I  think 
much  faded  before  these  days  ;  a  close  scrutiny  of  all  the  most  ancient  records  I  can  get 
regarding  this  celebrated  oracle,  seems  to  place  the  matter,  to  be  brief,  somewhat  thus: — 
The  Peliades,  of  whom  much  will  be  hereafter  said,  were,  says  Pausanias,  "  the  most 
ancient  prophetesses  of  Dodona  in  Ka-onia  (query  Kal-IOnia  ?)  even  antecedent  to  the 
celebrated  Phemonoe;"1  their  first  oracle  was  Zeuth-Zeus,  the  Lingam  god,  who  stands 
through  mythology  variously  as  Prometheus,  Noah,  or  Deukalion — Deva  Kala,  or  Devi 
Kali,  for  sexes  are  here  of  no  account,  Jupiter  being  frequently  styled  the  mother  of 

1  Hoi  well's  Myth.  Die.,  Dodona. 

yo  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  gods,1  here  meaning  merely  the  Parental  source,  or  the  Peliadian  idea  of  the 
cause  of  generation,  see  volume  cited,  under  numerous  articles,  as  to  Zeutli.  The 
worship  here,  that  is  at  Dodona,  was  evidently  lOnish  or  Dove-ish 2 — a  name  the 
Greeks  appear  to  have  punned  much  upon,  saying  however  that  it  came  from  Theba 
or  Thebes,  the  Ark.  Thebais  of  Egypt  was  founded  by  Koothites,  variously  styled 
JEl-o-pians,  Pier-ians,  and  Kad-mians,  regarding  whom  we  shall  speak  a  good  deal 
etymologically  and  otherwise  further  on.  The  worship  at  Dodona  appears  to  me,  from 
my  experience  in  the  study  of  Eastern  Sivaik  shrines,  to  have  gone  through  such  changes 
as  :  first,  a  sacred  tree,  no  doubt  an  oak  ;  then  a  Lingam  under  the  oak  ;  then  a  sacred 
grove  whose  leaves  rustled  and  whose  priests  interpreted ;  then  a  fountain  whose 
murmuring  improved  on  these  ;  then  tinkling  cymbals  on  the  oaks  ;  then  the  Lingam 
pillars  on  which  the  brazen  kettles  hung  arid  the  boys  played ;  then  Fire  and  statuary 
gods,  ending  in  Jove.  The  grove  was  undoubtedly  man's  first  temple,  and  became  a 
sanctuary,  asylum,  or  place  of  refuge,  and  as  time  passed  on,  temples  came  to  be 
built  in  the  sacred  groves.  There  is  no  doubt  but  that  where 'the  holy  Al-Ka-abo?  of 
Meka  stood  was  but  a  grove  and  a  well,  and  round  all  the  "  holy  circles  "  of  England, 
and  KlacAans  or  Kirks  (circles)  of  Scotland,  stood,  say  our  best  authorities,  "  sacred 
woods,"  and  the  same  holds  good  wherever  I  have  been  able  to  investigate  the  origin 
of  a  shrine.  Let  me  repeat,  for  the  matter  is  most  important, — First  and  prominently 
comes  the  tree  ;  then  the  grove  and  well ;  then  the  little  column  or  Phallus ;  then  the 
altar  of  unhewn  stone,  and  an  Ark  or  adytum,  then  poles,  gongs,  or  bells,  streamers 
or  serpents,  &c.  The  early  gods  liked  not  walls,  said  Pliny  very  truly,  and  that  the 
Jews  well  knew  this  we  see  in  Gen.  xii.  6,  7  ;  xiii.  18,  and  elsewhere,  though  our 
translators  too  freely  use  the  word  "  altar  "  or  nnr»,  instead  of  tree. 

We  have  in  the  story  of  the  origin  of  the  great  temple  of  Ephesus  another  case 
like  that  of  Dodona,  but  showing  the  worship  of  the  elm  or  beach,  or  both,  as  the 
substitute  for  the  Sancta  Quercus.  Callimachus,  in  his  beautiful  hymn  to  Diana,  is 
thought  to  ascribe  the  origin  of  the  shrine  of  Ephesus  to  the  Beech  tree,  whilst 
Dionysius  thinks  that  the  first  holy  tree  there,  was  the  Elm.  Both  these  trees  were 
much  revered  by  the  Amazon  who  fervently  worshipped  Diana,  to  whom  they  were 
sacred.  Callimachus  wrote, — 

"  Beneath  a  Beech  the  war  affecting  race 
Of  Amazons  to  Thee  a  statue  raised, 
Where  Ephesus'  proud  towers  o'erlook  the  main." 

And  it  appears  that  the  beginning  of  this  celebrated  oracle  was  the  placing  here  of  a 
little  statue  of  the  goddess  in  the  niche  of  an  Elm  ;  some  say  it  was  a  figure  in  ebony 
made  by  one  Kunitia,  but  others  more  orthodox  declare  that  it  fell  down  from  Jove — 
and  why  not  ?  All  good  and  great  things,  nay,  all  earth's  great  ones  came  direct 
from  heaven,  and  so  also  do  all  the  Bibles  of  the  human  race. 

1  Holwell's  Myth.  Die.,  Jupiter. 

'2  The  priestesses  of  Dodona  were  called  by  Greeks  Peliades,  and  by  Latins  Columlcc. 

3  From  Kabl,  the  Front,"  " -Place  of  Plenty,"  the  "  Pudendum  viri  vel  feminae. 

Tree  Worship. 

The  Jewish  temple  had,  it  is  said,  an  enclosure  planted  with 
Olive,  as  the  mosque  which  stands 
on  its  site  now  has.  We  know 
that  the  fruitful  olive  was  Maiya's 
or  Asherah's  or  Mylita's  symbol, 
as  the  cedar  and  the  palm  are 
Mahadeva's  and  Asher's.  The 
last  act  of  Joshua's  life — -1427 
B.C.,  says  English  orthodoxy —  j 

Palm,  Cedar,  and 

and  be  it  remembered  he  was  the 
circumciser1  of  all  the 
was,  "to  set  up  a  great 



tribes,  was,  "to    set   up  a 

stone  under  an  oak  that  was  by 

the    Sanctuary  of   the  Jhavh   at 

Shechem    (Jos.    xxiv.     26)   as   a 

witness,"  lest  the  tribes  should  afterwards  deny  their  Elohim  ;  under  this  oak,  with  its 

sacred  pillar  stone — which  stone  could  hear  and  no  doubt  speak — was  Abimelech  crowned 

king  of  Israel  228  years  later  (Jud.  ix.  6).     In  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary  we  read  that 

"  this  veneration  throughout  Old  Testament  history  of  particular  trees,  was  amongst 

the  heathen  extended  to  a  regular  worship  of  them."     Surely  by  this  it  is  not  meant 

that  these  Jewish  tribes  were  other  than  heathens ;  but  I  doubt  the  applicability  of 

this  word  to  any  peoples.     Eusebius  writes  that  the  tree  under  which  God  sat  and 

talked  with  Abram,  and  arranged  the  great  Covenant  on  the  plains  of  Mamre,  was 

worshipped  down  to  the  days  of  Constantine,  but  that  "  he  cut  it  down  to  build  a 

temple  to  St  George  I  " 

As  the  early  Indian  and  Israelite  worshipped  under  what  they  each  thought  most 
beautiful  and  good — so  do  the  pious  of  our  own  day  ;  and  so  we  in  India  find  Asher  and 
Asherah,  Baal  and  the  Grove,  and  the  sacred  fire-ark-altar,  set  up  under  lovely  and 
sacred  trees ;  it  was  in  later  times  that  man  built  temples  with  domes  and  minarets, 
and  herein  still  symbolized  his  old  faiths ;  and  so  do  we  still  enshrine  all  we  hold 
sacred,  in  altars  and  cathedrals,  with  spires  and  towers  pointing  to  heaven,  and  marked 
by  that  symbolic  cross  which  carries  us  back  to  the  origin  of  Faiths  in  many  lands. 
If  it  was  not  the  "  Asyrian  Grove  "• — (Asherah)  or  Asher,  I  believe  we  see  the  Jewish 
idea  of  "  grove  "  worship  to  the  present  hour  all  over  India  in  the  worship  of  Mdmqjee; 
numerous  grotesque  but  very  symbolical  figures  commonly  seen  seated  under  a  holy 
banian  tree  in  the  outskirts  of  many  villages,  which  are  worshipped  monthly  throughout 
the  year  by  all  classes.  The  picture  at  the  head  of  this  chapter  is  meant  to  represent 
this  worship.  The  usual  figure  is  an  elephant  with  a  curiously  shaped  horse's  head  ; 
it  is  always  hollow,  with  a  large  orifice  behind.  The  elephant  represents  power,  and 

1  A  religious  rite  ordered  by  the  tribal  god. 

Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  horse's  head  intelligence,  as  also  the  Sun-god  Baal  or  Asher.     It  is  more  phallic 

than  Hippos-like,  hut  my  sketch  both  here  and  in 
No,  1  is  from  nature  :  Clearly  the  large  hollow  inside 
denotes  the  mighty  womb  of  Maiya,  Mama,  or 
Mamojee,  that  is  mother '-jee,  the  affix  signifying 
respect,  "great"  or  "universal." 

The  "grove"  of  our  Old  Testament  trans 
lators  was  pure  Phallic  worship,  approaching  to 
the  Sakti,  or  Left-hand  sect,  whilst  the  worship  of 
Baal,  or  Asher,  was  the  Sivaite  form  of  the  faith  : 
I  hope  I  shall  not  offend  my  Vishnoo-ite  friends,  if 
I  say  that  the  "grove"  sects  of  Syria  seem  to  have 
come  nearer  to  their  phase  of  the  faith  than 

to  the  Sivaites  ;  we  may  grant  that  both  worshipped  "  the  Tree  of  Life,"  for 
it  is  male  and  female.  I  give  here  a  precise  sculpture  of  the  Asyrian  and 
Jewish  Grove  from  Dr  Inman,  I.  161,  where  full  particulars  as  to 
the  sistrum-looking  object  and  its  thirteen  flowers  will  be  found. 
The  Israelites,  as  all  old  nations  did,  worshipped  the  "  grove  "  and 
lingam  separately  or  together  "under  every  green  tree,"  and  our 
English  version,  as  before  said,  translates  the  Hebrew,  Asherah, 
wrongly  into  "  the  grove."  Smith's  Biblical  Dictionary  says,  that 
Ashtoreth  is  the  proper  name  of  the  Phenician  goddess  called  by 
the  Greeks  Astarte,  whilst  her  worship,  or  name  of  her  symbol  or 
image,  was  Asherah.  The  general  notion,  says  the  learned  writer, 
here  symbolised  alike  by  Jews  and  Gentiles,  is  that  of  productive 
power,  as  Asher  or  Baal  symbolised  generative  power;  Asherah  THE GROVK OKASHKI:AH- 

was  the  Asyrian  Ishtar  or  Star  of  love,  very 
often  represented  thus,  as  an  eye,  so  that  we  are 
left  in  no  doubt  as  to  the  purity  of  the  faith  of 
this  "  holy  Jewish  people/'  - 

The  male  "  tree  of  life  "  is  quite  differently 
delineated  to  this  "  burning  bush  " — the  symbol  of 
the  ark  'goddess,  and  is  probably  most  clearly  re 
presented  in  this  next  Asyrian  sculpture,  where 
the  man  with  knife  and  cone  in  hand  is  seen  approaching  the  "door  of  life,"  em 
battled,  to  denote  "  dominion,"  as  Isis  is  very  usually  shown  ;  the  seeding  tree  stands 
in  the  midst  of  the  picture,  and  beside  it  the  Bull,  or  Power  with  "  Passion  "  as  the 
serpent  round  his  neck ;  more  will  appear  on  this  subject  in  my  chapter  on  the 
Faiths  of  Kaldia  and  Asyria. 

The  tree  and  serpent,  says  Fergusson,  are  symbolised  in  every  religious  system 

Fig.  23. 

Fig.  24.— i 

Tree  Worship. 


Fig.  25 

which  the  world  has  known,  not  excepting  the  Hebrew  and  Christian  ;  the  two  together 

are  typical  of  the  reproductive  powers 

of  vegetable  and    animal    life.       It    is 

uncertain  whether  the  Jewish   "tree  of 

life "  was  borrowed  from    an  Egyptian 

or  Kaldean  source,  but  the  meaning  was 

in  both  cases  the  same,   and  we  know 

that  the  Asyrian  tree  was  a  life-giving 

divinity,  and    Moses,   or    the  writer  of 

Genesis,    has    represented     very    much 

the  same  in  his  coiled  serpent  and  love-apples  or  citrons  of  the  "  tree  of  life." 

Let  us  now  try  and  probe  this  phallo-tree  worship  to  its  root ;  for  very  many 
years  it  was  to  me  inexplicable,  and  I  made  it  a  constant  source  of  inquiry  among  all 
races  in  India.  At  the  time  of  the  earliest  tree  worship,  I  look  upon  it  that  man  was 
but  a  little  removed  from  the  state  of  the  animals  amongst  which  he  roamed,  and,  like 
them,  was  wild  and  homeless.  Though  the  soul  was  here  with  its  germ  which  was 
yet  to  teach  the  heart  to  aspire  to  the  spiritual  and  beautiful ;  nevertheless  above  all, 
were  within  man,  at  this  infantine  period  of  his  growth,  chiefly  those  potent  sensual 
passions  which  caused  him  to  feel  the  law  of  his  continuance,  and  the  preservation  of 
his  species,  as  the  one  great  and  controlling  object  of  his  life.  He  was  thus  in  entire 
unison  and  sympathy  with  every  animal,  nay,  every  animate  object  of  creation, 
which  seemed  to  partake  of  or  to  symbolise  that  which  his  own  sensual  nature  most 
dwelt  upon  ;  and  the  more  dwelt  on,  the  more  impetuous  and  imaginative  would 
his  nature  become,  especially  when  not  hindered  here  by  those  higher  cerebral 
developments  which  refine,  and  in  a  manner  curtail  the  brutal.  As  we  study  rude 
peoples  we  can  see  that  in  a  thousand  forms  they  observe  generating  nature  where  our 
higher  cultivation  sees  only  natural  phenomenon.  It  is  quite  evident  that  in  the 
shrouded  circular  covering  of  the  tree,  with  its  abundant  fruits  and  flowers,  and  its 
earth-piercing  stem,  ancient  wild  races  saw  distinctly  pourtrayed  what  we  can  scarcely 
imagine,  and  hesitate  to  announce  even  when  the  facts  force  themselves  upon  us, 
exclaiming,  "  this  is  too  far-fetched  ; "  yet  long  and  in 
timate  acquaintance  with  men  of  every  Indian  sect, 
has  assured  me  of  the  truth  of  such  matter  as  I 
have  already,  and  desire  further  here  to  treat  of. 

I  have  in  figure  10  given  "the  Skandinavian 
idea  "  of  the  tree,  and  I  now  give  that  which,  after  much 
study,  I  have  come  to  the  conclusion,  is  the  Asiatic  idea 
— viz.,  that  it  is  the  Toth  or  Pillar,  and  the  Earth  or  Isis. 
We  must  not  expect  to  find  a  clear  and  logical  sequence  Fi*-  26--THE  TREE  ">**-*«*• 
in  things  mythical,  any  more  than  in  our  ecclesiastical  or  theological  "mys- 

I.  K 

74  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

teries" — we  see  how  the  most  learned  Christians  fight  about  transubstantiation  and 
consubstantiation,  and  openly  aver  that  neither  their  words  nor  arguments  are  to  be 
taken  according  to  the  reasonable  and  grammatical  meaning,  which  the  outside  and  uii- 
regenerate  world  affixes  to  these ;  they  assert  that  "  the  real  presence"  is  in  the  bread  and 
wine,  and  yet  is  not,  and  that  no  one  knows. how  or  when  it  got  there ;  in  fact  there  is 
a  considerable  muddle,  which  yet  we  are  to  receive,  and  try  and  swallow  with  what 
faith  "  the  Lord  only  can  grant  to  us ; "  and  so  it  is  with  Hindoo  mysteries,  as  the 
orthodox  have  often  told  me,  when  hard  pressed  to  dry  and  logical  conclusions.  Some 
say  that  the  tree  pierces  the  skies,  of  which  Juno  (lOni)  is  the  representation,  and 
that  hence  its  flowers  and  fruits,  which  it  culls  from  the  rich  abundance  of  the  heavens  ; 
others,  that  the  dews  which  nightly  suffuse  its  leaves  and  branches  are  the  "  over- 
shadowings  "  of  great  Dius  or  Indm,  who  thus  becomes  the  Greek  Ouranos,  and  the 
earth  the  Ge  or  female  energy ;  this  is,  I  think,  the  real  Asiatic  idea,  for  the  Greeks 
learned  their  lore  in  Asia,  and  they  are  never  tired  of  their  Ge  and  Ouranos  idea,  and 
this  is  the  most  usual  Indian  notion  by  those  few  priests  who  know  anything  of  the 
subject.  Perhaps  a  compromise  is  possible  by  saying  that  the  Pillar  or  Stem  is  Jove, 
whilst  Ge  and  Juno  is  mundane  matter  and  moisture,  acting  and  reacting  on  the  fruit  - 
yielding  mass ;  anyhow  the  whole  is  "a  thing  of  beauty,"  and  was  for  long  long  ages  a 
veritable  god.  The  Cross  Idea  probably  followed  at  a  very  remote  interval  the  Phallic 
and  Serpent  symbolism,  but  rapidly  on  the  Cross,  came  semi-spiritual  notions,  which 
crystallised  themselves  eventually,  and  then  concreted  with  other  matter  into  such  forms 
or  names  as  the  Kaldian  " Memra"  the  Greek  "  Logos  " — the  "Divine  Wisdom"  or 
"  Word"  which  existed,  it  was  averred,  " from  the  beginning  with  the  Father."  This 
wisdom  was  heard  no  less  amidst  the  thunderings  on  desert  mountains  and  the  oaks 
of  Dodona,  than  "  among  the  branches  of  the  Tree  of  Life  in  the  Paradise  of  Osiris,"  for 
Egyptians  held,  that  from  her  seat  on  her  sylvan  throne,  Netpe,  "  the  goddess  of  divine 
life,"  there  proclaimed  the  will  of  Heaven.  It  was  she  of  Sais,  and  she  of  "  a  thousand 
lights,"  who  sat  there,  and  it  is  her  lights  which  Jews  and  Christians  have  carried 
down  to  the  present  day  and  set  up  in  their  altar  candlesticks  ;  and  it  is  her  "  tree  of 
lights"  and  good  gifts  which  they  still  symbolise  in  Christmas-trees  at  the  winter 
solstice  :  True,  we  here  have  it  from  Germany,  but  it  originally  came  from  the  Nile 
or  from  the  furthest  east,  where  it  is  now,  though  in  a  somewhat  different  way, 
vigorously  maintained. 

The  identity  of  the  Tree  and  Cross  is  often  to  be  observed  in  Christian  literature — 
sometimes  the  terms  are  interchangeable.  Thus  in  the  tenth  chapter  of  the  Acts  of 
the  Apostles,  Peter,  speaking  of  Jesus,  says,  "whom  they  slew  and  hanged  on  a  tree." 

The  tree  of  knowledge  represents  the  life  of  the  soul  or  spiritual  life.  The  "  tree 
of  life,"  or  he  who  gives  life  and  supplies  food,  which  is  the  true  old  meaning  of  the 
word  Lord,  represents  the  physical  life,  or  the  life  of  the  body.  It  is  said  that  in 
•Egypt  the  Pyramid  has  the  same  mythological  meaning  as  the  tree,  but  I  rather  think 

Tree  Worship.  75 

we  ought  to  look  at  the  two  as  forming  the  sacred  double  triangle  of  Phallic  meaning, 
which  signifies  Fire  and  Water,  of  which  I  will  speak  by  and  by. 

The  Cross,  of  course,  my  learned  readers  all  know,  is  a  pre-Christian  symbol.  It 
was  not  employed  as  a  symbol  in  Christian  worship  till  300  A.C.,  nor  till  600  A.C.  was 
the  crucifix,  or  "cross  of  the  crucifixion"  employed.  The  cross  after  300  A.C.  began 
to  be  looked  upon  as  an  exerciser,  possessing  great  efficacy  against  all  sorts  of  devils 
and  evil  spirits,  and  had  thus  again  become  the  charm  which  the  old  Pagan  faith 
attached  to  it.  It  was  still  the  tree  symbol  in  another  form,  though  after  600  A.C.  it 
merged  into  "  the  Cross  of  Calvary."  To  the  present  time  the  cross  retains  its  old 
significance.  On  Good  Friday,  Christians  regard  it  as  the  symbol  of  death,  whilst  on 
Easter,  or  resurrection  day,  it  becomes  the  emblem  of  eternal  life,  therein  inheriting 
all  the  pleasing  associations  that  belonged  to  its  Pagan  prototype.  Easter,  of  course, 
is  the  well-known  Solar  and  favorite  Phenician  festival  of  Astarte  or  Ashtaroth,  the 
Female  Energy,  and  to  Sol  we  owe  all  such  festivals,  and  most  of  the  rites  and  sym 
bolism  they  develop. 

The  writer  of  Genesis  probably  drew  his  idea  of  the  two  trees — that  of  Life  and 
that  of  Knowledge — from  Egyptian  and  Zoroastrian  story,  for  criticism  now  assigns  a 
comparatively  late  date  to  the  penning  of  the  first  Pentateuchal  book.  After  Genesis 
no  further  notice  is  taken  in  the  Bible  of  the  "  Tree  of  Knowledge"  but  that  of  Life,  or 
the  Tree  which  gives  Life,  seems  several  times  alluded  to,  especially  in  Apocalypse  ii.  7. 
The  Lingam,  or  pillar,  is  the  Eastern  name  for  "the  Tree  which  gives  Life,"  but  when 
this  Tree  became  covered  with  the  inscriptions  of  all  the  wisdom  of  past  ages  as  in 
Egypt,  then  Toth — "  the  Pillar,"  came  to  be  called  the  Tree  of  Knowledge,  for  it  im 
parted  life  to  the  body  secular  and  spiritual.  Mr  Barlow  writes  thus  : — 1  "  Rosellini, 
in  his  great  work  on  Egypt,  has  a  scene  in  Paradise  taken  from  a  tomb  at  Thebes,  in 
which  several  generations  of  an  Egyptian  family,  which  flourished  under  the  eighteenth 
dynasty,  up  to  the  age  of  Eameses  III.,  or  from  sixteenth  to  thirteenth  century  B.C., 
(this  is  now  thrown  further  back),  are  represented  partaking  of  this  immortal  nourish 
ment — the  fruit  of  '  the  Tree  of  Life."1  .  .  .  The  head  of  this  fkmily  was  named  Poer. 
(here  clearly  a  worshipper  of  Peor  the  Phallus).  .  .  .  Each  is  receiving  from 
the  Tree  of  Life,  or  rather  from  the  divine  influence  residing  in  the  Tree  ...  a  stream 
of  the  life-giving  water,  and  at  the  same  time  an  offering  of  its  fruit.  .  .  .  The  tree  is 
the  Ficus  Sycamorus,  the  sycamore  tree  of  the  Bible,  and  it  stands  on  a  sort  of 
aquarium,  symbolical  of  the  sacred  Nile,  the  life-supporting  agent  in  the  land  of 
Egypt  .  .  .  the  lotus  is  seen  on  its  banks,  and  a  heron,  the  symbol  of  the  first  trans 
formation  of  the  soul  in  the  Paradise  of  Osiris,  stands  on  each  side."  Now  Osiris  is 
the  sun  and  the  Lingam,  and  Osiris  is  the  Nile,  and  so  here  we  have  our  "  Asyrian 
tree  of  life,"  and  our  fig-tree,  so  sacred  to  Siva,  and  so  worshipped  by  women  in  India, 

1   Barlow's  "Symbolism,"  pp.  59,  60. 

76  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

and  which  so  sorely  tempted  poor  Eve  to  her  "fall."  Under  it  did  the  Egyptian 
receive  his  baptism  of  "  life-giving  water,"  poured  upon  him  by  Netpe,  she  who  sits 
amidst  the  branches,  with  trays  of  fruit,  and  vases  of  the  water  of  life  ;  and  it  is  the 
flow  of  these  waters,  says  Mr  Barlow,  that  our  early  Norman  Christian  temples  show 
as  falling  in  parallel  zig-zag  lines  over  doors  and  fonts,  figurative  of  the  initiatory 
sacrament  of  the  Church,  called  its  gate  or  door,  the  janua  ecclesice.  This  baptismal 
rite  was  no  new  thing  to  the  Egyptian,  as  numerous  sculptures  show,  but  occasionally 
the  "  water  of  life  "  is  represented  by  "  cruces  ansatce,  joined  together  in  a  zig-zag  man 
ner"  (p.  61),  as  if  this  water  was  like  that  mentioned  in  John  iv.  13,  14,  different  from 
all  ordinary  water,  because  drawn  from  "a  well  of  water  springing  up  into  everlasting 

Now  the  first  Egyptian  Tree  of  Life  was,  says  Barlow,  quoting  his  authorities,  the 
sacred  Date-Palm,  or  Phenix-dactylifera,  of  which  Dr  Lepsius  shows  us  so  much 
worship  1600  years  ago,  and  of  which  "the  Spouse  of  the  Church"  says,  "I  will  go 
and  take  hold  of  the  boughs  thereof"  (Canticles  vii.  8),  possibly  being  unaware  of  the 
meaning  of  the  Skandiuavian  tree.  The  second  sacred  tree  of  Egypt,  the  writer 
thinks,  was  the  Ficus,  and  we  need  not  dispute  the  chronological  order,  but  any  how, 
the  cross  was  the  grand  idea,  as  Tree  worship  faded ;  and  we  possibly  see  a  good  picture 
of  the  transition  in  that  celebrated  one  which  Barlow  so  well  describes  as  in  the  Apsis 
of  St  John  (Ion)  Lateran  at  Kome — a  fitting  place,  reminding  us  of  the  holy  name 
lOna  or  Columbse,  which  so  prominently  figures  here.  Mr  Barlow  says  that  the  holy 
tree  is  there  fenced  off  from  all  mankind,  on  the  sacred  mount  of  the  four  holy  streams 
— the  gospels  of  living  waters.  At  the  entrance  of  the  enclosure  an  angel  with  drawn 
sword  bars  the  way ;  "  behind  him,  in  the  centre  of  the  enclosure,  is  a  palm  tree,  and 
on  it  is  perched  a  Phenix  with  a  glory  of  rays.  On  one  side  of  the  tree  stands  a 

venerable  old  man,  on  the  other  side  a  younger  one — 
each  has  a  glory ;  these  figures  are  intended  for  the 
Father  and  the  Son,  and  the  palm-tree  between  them 
is  'the  Tree  of  Life  in  the  midst  of  the  Garden.'  On 
the  top  of  the  mound,  and  planted  in  the  fountain 
of  water,  from  whence  the  four  streams  gush  forth 
(understood  to  be  nations),  is  a  lofty,  articulated,  and 
gemmed  cfoss,  bathed  in  beams  of  light  from  the 
radiant  body  of  a  dove — the  Holy  Ghost — hovering 
over  it "  (Barlow,  p.  72).  Let  us  here  try  to  get  a 
very  distinct  idea  as  to  what  we  have  arrived  at,  for 
the  change  of  faith  is  now  clear  and  sharp,  and 
meant  to  be  so, — a  drawn  sword  bars  the  old  way, 
rig.  27.-TREE  AND  SOLAR  IDEA  AS  I>EVBLOPED  AT  SOME,  ^at  towards  the  tree,  and  behold  the  new  one !  I  have 
but  drawn  from  the  words  of  the  describer  of  this  picture,  what  appears  from  a 

Tree  Worship.  77 

thousand  other  illustrations,  and  not  only  from  this  one,  in  the  celebrated  temple  to 
lOna,  the  new  banner,  which  the  young  faith  has  selected.  I  too  have  stood  and 
studied  this  remarkable  picture,  and  wondered  if  its  circumambient  Jordan  would 
ever  increase  its  bounds  to  embrace  all  the  family  of  man,  and  wash  away  the  Phallic 
mound,  and  release  the  dove  from  its  ark ;  for  we  have  here  indeed  a  very  Phallic- 
looking  picture,  which  if  we  but  twined  a  serpent  on  that  tree  in  the  fountain,  we 
might  suspect  had  originated  in  Benares  or  Kashmere. 

The  Palm  and  Ficus  have,  it  is  true,  gone,  but  only  so  in  their  natural  forms ;  the 
substance,  or  "  real  presence,"  is  all  here.  Here  also  is  the  Caput-Oline  or  Olympus, 
with  a  fountain  of  water,  from  which  flow  the  waters  of  the  life  of  mankind,  and  in 
this  has  been  placed  the  old,  old  cross,  and  the  fount  seems  to  suit  it,  as  the  ring  of  the 
Egyptian  Crux-Ansata ;  but  there  is  no  place  now  for  the  sweet  goddess  who  nestled 
amidst  the  branches  of  the  old  Tree  of  Life.  So  she  has  disappeared,  but  by  no  means 
altogether ;  for  she  has  left  her  symbol,  the  mystic  Dove,  illuminating  it  from 
above.  There  does  not  here  seem  much  for  the  old  and  new  faiths  to  quarrel  about, 
and  certainly  not  for  the  adherents  of  each  to  hate  and  loathe  one  another ;  not 
to  say  to  slaughter  each  other  for,  by  thousands  and  tens  of  thousands,  and  for 
long  centuries.  A  wise  umpire  might,  one  would  think,  from  a  mere  glance  at  the 
leading  features  of  each,  have  reconciled  them  ;  but  it  is  not  so  with  faiths  ;  a  shred 
of  an  old  vestment  is  quite  sufficient  to  draw  the  sword,  and  to  light  the  fires  of  a 
hundred  Smithfields.  And  surely  a  descent  from  Osiris  to  the  Palm  tree,  then  to  the 
Ficus  Sycamora,  an  ignoring  of  Netpe,  though  the  substitution  be  the  lOni,  then 
the  quarrel  as  to  whom  the  Cross  belonged,  a  denial  of  fair  Netpe's  baptism  and 
office  as  the  Lady,  or  "  bread  distributor,"  now  claimed  for  the  virgin  mother  of  Beth 
lehem,  though  both  words  signify  the  same,  was  enough  to  arouse  the  ire  of  even 
saints.  Whether  it  should  have  been  so  or  not,  it  was  so  ;  and  the  new  God,  and  new 
Virgin,  and  Cross,  were  boldly  declared  as  having  no  connection  by  idea  or  otherwise 
with  the  old  ;  yet  wise  philosophers,  in  secret  nooks  (for  they  were  too  discreet  to 
speak  their  minds),  no  doubt  smiled  and  thought  otherwise.  They  had  learned  that 
though  faiths  may  be  held  by  their  votaries  to  have  started  at  times  with  a  tabula  rasa, 
yet  none  ever  remain  so  ;  for  God  moves  not,  so  far  as  historians  and  critics  have 
been  able  to  investigate,  by  new  creations,  or  by  fits  and  starts.  He  ever  weaves  the 
new  threads  of  progressive  ideas  into  the  old  ones,  for  the  bottles  are  too  fragile  to 
bear  an  entirely  new  wine.  The  discreet  old  philosophers  probably  said  among  them 
selves,  "This  Virgin  and  Prophet  of  Nazareth,  whether  historical  or  mythical,  must  have 
sprung  from  the  old,  old  virgins  and  prophets,  and  in  time  the  ideas  will  again  entwine 
themselves  about  our  old  ones,  altering,  and  mayhap  improving  on  them,  but  never, 
as  time  progresses,  able  to  ignore  them." 

Netpe,  the  Holy  Spirit  of  the  Egyptian  Tree  of  Life,  was  female,  as  was  Jehovah, 
but  after  ages  changed  her  sex,  from  casual  circumstances  noticed  elsewhere.     "She  was," 

78  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

says  Eosellini,  "a  form  of  the  Egyptian  Rhea,  the  sister  and  wife  of  Sev  (Siva)  or  Saturn. 
.  .  .  Her  hieroglyphic  name  is  the  '  Abyss  of  Heaven  '  "  (Barlow,  p.  63).  Of  course,  for 
"  Heaven  "  here  is  Siva,  and  the  consort  of  all  gods  is  called  in  Sanskrit  an  "  Abyss," 
"  Cave,"  and  such  like,  which  I  would  rather  not  illustrate,  equivalent  to  the  Syrian 
Cbiun,  Kiun,  or  Kevan.  Osiris  was  the  Son  of  Time  (Kronus  of  later  days),  who  was 
Sev  of  Egyptian  cosmogony,  and  his  mother  was  Netpe,  the  vault  of  heaven ;  and 
thus  in  a  sense  Netpe  was  Mary,  for  Osiris  was  "  he  alone  of  all  the  Egyptian  gods 
who  was  born  and  died  on  earth  ;  his  birthplace  was  Mount  Sinai,  called  by  the 
Egyptians  Nysa,  hence  his  Greek  name  Dio-nysus — "  the  same,"  says  Mr  Sharpe,  "  as 
the  Hebrew  'Jehovah  Nissi,'  which  Moses  gave  to  the  Almighty  when  he  set  up  an 
altar  to  Him  at  the  foot  of  the  holy  mountain  (Ex.  xvii.  15).  Philae,  or  the  holy 
island,  is  the  more  accredited  place  of  his  burial,"  for  islands  are  always  holy  to  Siva. 
Osiris  came  to  earth  for  the  benefit  of  mankind,  was  put  to  death,  and  rose  again  to 
judge  the  quick  and  the  dead,  "which,"  says  Barlow,  "was  the  great  mystery."  All 
were  to  appear  before  him,  to  give  an  account  of  every  deed  done  in  the  body,  an 
amount  of  labor  (for  all  is  to  be  recorded  we  are  told),  clerical,  and  argumentative,  of 
the  audi  alteram  partem  kind,  which  entered  not  into  the  minds  of  these  poor  writers 
to  conceive  of.  I  may  mention  that  all  great  plains,  and  even  continents,  have  very 
feminine  names,  thus  Isis  or  Isha  (woman)  is  often  applied  to  the  plains  of  the  Nile 
and  other  fertile  pastures,  and  so  we  have  Berti-Koonti  as  a  name  of  India. 

The  Hebrew  prophet  Ezekiel  shows,  in  xxxi.  3,  6,  9,  that  he  and  his  tribes  under 
stood  trees  to  stand  for  great  nations  and  great  men,  and  Eden  for  a  garden  of  gods 
or  of  god-like  men,  or  for  the  rich  lands  ruled  over  by  great  and  powerful  nations. 
"  Asyria  was  a  cedar  in  Lebanon  with  fair  branches,  the  cedars  in  the  garden  of  God 
could  not  hide  him,  the  fir-trees  were  not  like  his  boughs,  and  the  chesnut-trees  were 
not  like  his  branches  ;  nor  any  tree  in  the  garden  of  God  was  like  unto  him  in  his 
beauty.  I  have  made  him  fair  by  the  multitude  of  his  branches ;  so  that  all  the  trees 
of  Eden  that  were  in  the  garden  of  God  envied  him."  Thus  then  neither  the  "  Tree 
of  Life"  or  "  Tree  of  Knowledge"  which  the  angel  was  set  to  guard,  was  like  unto 
what  man  had  developed  into.  Isaiah  says  that  the  blessed  are  to  have  "  beauty  for 
ashes,  the  oil  of  joy  for  mourning,  the  garment  of  praise  for  the  skirt  of  heaviness, 
that  they  may  be  called  trees  of  righteousness,  the  planting  of  the  Jhavh  "  (Ixi.  3)  : 
another,  of  numberless  sayings,  which  we  may  glean  from  all  the  sacred  writings  of 
earth,  to  show  how  glorious  a  thing  a  tree  was  ever  looked  upon  by  men  in  their  early 
infancy.  If  Nebukadnezer  likened  himself  to  the  central  tree  of  the  whole  earth, 
whose  height  reached  unto  heaven,  which  was  fair  to  look  upon,  and  whose  fruits  and 
protection  all  the  birds  and  beasts  of  earth  sought,  but  which  was,  he  foresaw,  reduced 
to  a  mere  Lingam — a  stump  sunk  into  the  tender  grass  of  the  earth,  and  bound  with 
brass  and  iron  ; — ^so  did  Christ  ask  that  his  followers  should  look  upon  Him  as  the 
vine-tree,  and  themselves  as  the  branches  ;  and  so  has  Europe,  like  more  ancient 

Tree  Worship.  79 

peoples,  connected  the  ideas  of  the  Cross  and  the  Tree.  The  poor,  who  could  not  get  a 
metal  representation  or  image — (query,  Lingam  ?)  to  worship,  usually,  even  in  Isaiah's 
days,  got  "  a  tree  that  will  not  rot,"  and  prepared  from  it  "  a  graven  image  that  could 
not  be  moved  "  (xl.  20).  Mr  Barlow,  who  notices  this,  says,  that  "  most  nations,  if 
not  all,  would  appear  at  some  time  or  other  to  have  had  a  sacred  tree,  and  from  the 
worship  of  sacred  trees  to  have  proceeded  to  the  adoration  of  idols  formed  from  their 
wood.  This  was  the  opinion  of  Winckelmann  and  Caylus  ;  it  was  also  held  by  Pau- 
sanias  "  ("  Symbolism,"  p.  97).  Now  this  is  a  very  clear  and  powerful  support  to  my 
views,  and  to  the  order  in  which  I  place  the  Tree  and  the  early  roots  of  faiths.  See 
also  what  were  the  first  "  idols  formed  from  their  wood  ; "  why  Phalli,  all  over  Asia 
and  Egypt.  The  Ficus  wood  was  absolutely  necessary  for  this  purpose,  and  for  the 
production  of  sacred  fire  (that  is,  generative  fire],  far  down  in  the  annals  of  Home's 
religious  history.  Dr  Stukely  called  Abraham  "  the  first  Druid,"  in  reference  to  his 
Oak  grove  at  Beersheba ;  and  although  the  one  had  in  point  of  time  and  locality 
possibly  no  direct  contact  with  the  other,  yet  our  progressiveness  will  be  often  found 
to  exhibit  itself  in  the  same  forms  and  features,  merely  varied  according  to  our  climate 
and  other  circumstances  ;  and  nothing  travels  faster,  or  takes  a  stronger  grip,  than  the 
rites  and  wonderful  stories  of  a  faith.  However  purely  a  new  prophet  or  new  idea 
may  arise,  yet  so  firm  is  the  old  grip,  that  the  listening  ear  is  pulled  by  the  old  heart 
and  hand,  and  so  long  and  stoutly,  that  finally  a  compromise  has  always  to  be  made 
before  the  words  of  the  ear  be  allowed  to  take  the  place  in  the  old  heart  of  the  man 
or  the  nation.  Now  all  nations  seem  to  have  adopted  a  "  Tree  of  Life,"  and  generally 
"  in  the  midst  of  a  garden."  "  It  is  sometimes  a  symbol,  sometimes  an  idol  ;  but 
there  it  is,  in  Europe,  in  Asia,  and  in  Africa,  a  perpetual  testimony  to  the  fitness  of 
the  original  idea,  and  a  confirmation  of  its  truth.  .  .  .  The  Divinity-Homa  of  the 
Zendavesta,  is  identical  with  the  Divinity- Soma  of  the  Vedas  ;  " x  and  both  Soma  and 
Homa  still  live  in  the  fertile  and  religious  minds  of  millions. 

In  Europe  the  worship  of  Trees  is  said  to  have  taken  a  firmer  hold  than  that  of  the 
second  and  third  of  my  streams  ;  but  then  we  must  remember  that  it  is  much  more 
difficult  to  trace  these  last  than  the  first,  and  that  the  search  of  all  three  has  only 
lately  been  begun  in  a  proper  way. 

All  mythical  ladies  are  serpents,  if  not  indeed  all  women  !  and  Horace  assures  us 
that  "  you  (Europa)  are  the  wife  of  Jove,  and  a  division  of  the  world  shall  bear  your 
name  "  (Odes  xxvii)  ;  and  she  is  even  called  "  the 'great  or  chief  serpent"  in  a  manner 
which  must  have  pleased  the  Reverend  Dr  Stukely.  Serpent-mounds  indeed  abound ; 
and  "it  may  be  granted  that  Ab ury,  is  Europe  transposed,  and  that  this  remarkable 
shrine  gives  cause  for  very  much  that  has  been  written  concerning,  it  in  regard  to  its 
circles,  its  wavy  avenues,  columns,  and  conical  hill  in  front,  of  which  more  anon. 

Fetes  or  festivals  give  us  in  their  rites,  accessories,  and  recurrences,  so  many 

1  Barlow,  "Symbolism,"  114,  5. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

important  aids  towards  understanding  faiths,  that  I  have  searched,  though,  I  am  sorry 
to  say,  without  any  great  results,  to  get  some  details  of  Tree  fetes.  This  stream  is, 
however,  evidently  hid  away  beyond  our  grasp,  for  although  we  have  many  fetes  in 
groves,  yet  they  are  all  connected  with  phallic,  serpent,  or  solar  worship,  and  beyond 
prayers  and  meditations  in  the  shades  of  the  tree  god,  I  have  had  little  aid  from  this 
source.  In  Asam  we  have  a  fete  called  the  Jaintia,  because  held  on  the  first  day  of 
the  Jaintia  year,  which  seems  to  bear  a  closer  connection  to  the  old  tree  faith,  though 
with  a  dash  of  phallic  and  solar  in  it,  than  most.  It  takes  place  at  the  midsummer 
solstice,  or  about  the  new  moon  of  July,  when  rival  villages  meet  in  the  midst  of  a 
stream,  and  contend  for  the  possession  of  long  straight  trees  which  they  have  previously 
barked,  and  tied  tufts  of  feathers  to  the  ends  of.  The  youths  and  maids  here  try  to 
excel  in  skill  and  grace ;  they  dance  and  sing,  and  vociferate  loudly,  like  the 
Bacchantes  of  old,  whilst  all  endeavour  to  show  who  can  break  up  the  largest  and 
strongest  %)oles.  Scenic  effect  is  given  by  a  great  display  of  figures  of  elephants, 
giants,  animals,  and  hobgoblins ;  but  the  prominent  feature  of  the  whole  is  this  large 
boat  with  its  Sivaik-looking  shrine,  made  of  bamboo  and  blue  cloth  (Siva's  favourite 

colour),  and  rising  like  a  mast  from  the 
centre.  In  this  pagoda,  gorgeous  with 
gold  and  silver  tinsel  and  bright  colours, 
is  enshrined  some  sacred  figure,  regard 
ing  which  I  cannot  get  any  reliable  in 
formation.  The  boat  is  accompanied  by 
a  huge  bird  intended  for  a  peacock,  in 
whose  body  is  concealed  the  upper  part 
of  a  man,  his  legs  acting  for  the  bird's. 
There  is  a  procession  of  giants  and  giant 
esses,  also  huge  figures  of  bamboo  covered 
with  white  cloth ;  the  leader,  who  is  a 
man,  has  a  crown,  and  eleven  supplementary  heads  growing  out  of  his  shoulders — 
evidently  a  solar  idea. 

The  locale  is  where  a  stream  is  divided  by  a  village,  and  just  above  a  fall,  and 
where  the  ground  becomes  highish  and  open,  but  where  the  stream  narrows — all  of 
which  is  very  Sivaik  in  character.  The  peacock  is  par  excellence  the  bird  of  Sol,  and 
even  among  early  Christians  divided  their  affections  with  the  dove ;  some  held  that 
his  flesh  was  incorruptible.  The  force  of  much  of  the  above  will  only  become  clear  to 
readers,  who  have  not  studied  these  subjects,  as  they  advance  further  through  these 


This  parasite,  wherever  found,  was  most  sacred,  but  that  which  came  to  perfection 
on  the  oak  at  Yuletide  was  surpassingly  so ;  our  Teuton,  Saxon,  and  Gallic  forefathers 

Fig.  28. — BOAT  AND  IDOL. 

Tree  Worship.  81 

were  enthusiastic  about  it,  but  fear  was  very  much  mixed  up  with  their  reverence  ;  they 
called  their  priests  and  assembled  all  their  neighbouring  clans-folk,  and  with  a  golden 
sickle  the  high-Druid  or  "  man  of  God  "  cut  the  precious  shrub,  and  dropped  it  without 
defilement  of  hand  into  a  pure  white  cloak.  Then  two  pure  white  bulls  (Siva's  re 
presentatives)  were  if  possible  procured,  and  sacrificed,  and  all  partook  of  a  solemn 
banquet — so  wrote  Pliny.  The  mistletoe  was  the  dread  means  by  which  Odin's  wise 
son  Balder  or  Apollo  was  killed  ;  it  baffled  the  wisdom  of  fair  Friga,  who  had  exacted 
from  all  creation  an  oath  never  to  injure  her  child  Balder,  but  she  overlooked  this 
little  floweret,  and  Loki  discovered  it,  and  contrived  to  have  it  fired  towards  Balder. 
The  great  god  was  thus  killed,  and  carried  away  to  Ades  or  the  far  west,  there  to  live 
with  the  Nefl-heim  and  great  ones  of  the  earth  in  Sheol,  a  serious  and  suggestive 
word,  regarding  which  we  shall  have  much  to  say  hereafter.  Now,  what  means  this 
quaint  story  ?  It  is  like  most  such — a  Solar  picture.  All  creation  loved  Balder  or 
Apollo,  but  creation  is  fitful,  and  the  mistletoe  marks  the  approach  of  winter,  and 
its  flowering  that  period  when  man  begins  to  rejoice,  be  he  Pagan  or  Christian,  for 
it  marks  the  birth  of  "the  Sun  of  Righteousness,"  as  Europe  still  calls  him,  though 
with  another  meaning.  Likes  cure  likes — serpent  bites  must  have  serpent  poles ; 
those  who  neglected  Dionysus  must  offer  to  him  his  gross  images ;  and  so  the  Kelts 
here  offer  their  white  bulls  to  him  whose  emblem  this  animal  is. 

Christian  priests  forbade  the  mistletoe  to  enter  their  churches  ;  but  yet  it  not  only 
got  in,  but  found  a  place  over  the  altars,  and  was  held  to  betoken  goodwill  to  all 
mankind.  It  is  posted  in  the  four  quarters  of  all  cities,  and  bedecks  every  good 
Christian  mansion  from  Christmas  to  "twelfth  day,"  or  Candlemas  eve,  and  with 
some  till  the  2d  of  February,  "the  purification  of  our  Lady."  The  season  has  many 
Phallic  significations.  The  mistletoe  wreath  marks  in  one  sense  Venus'  temple,  for  any 
girl  may  be  kissed  if  caught  under  its  sprays,  a  practice  though  modified  which  recalls 
to  us  that  horrid  one  mentioned  by  Herodotus,  where  all  women  were  for  once  at  least 
the  property  of  the  man  who  sought  them  in  Mylita's  temple.  In  England,  farmers  used 
to  decorate  or  give  a  sprig  of  mistletoe  to  the  first  cow  which  calves  in  the  new  year, 
for  "  she  has  first  fulfilled  Venus'  purpose  ; "  but  the  plant  is  one  of  world- wide  fame. 
Masagetse  Skythians,  and  most  ancient  Persians  called  it  "  the  Healer,"  or  "  Salvator," 
and  Virgil  calls  it  a  branch  of  gold,  whilst  Charon  was  dumb  in  presence  of  such  an 
augur  of  coming  bliss  ;  it  was  "  the  expectancy  of  all  nations — longo  post  tempore 
visum,"  as  betokening  Sol's  return  to  earth. 


The  Laurel,  or  Bay,  has  ever  been  the  victor's  crown,  the  wreath  of  Mars,  as  well  as 
of  our  "  Poet- Laureate,"  and  of  most  great  ones  whom  their  fellows  wish  to  honour. 
It  was  sacred  to  Apollo,  whose  first  temple  on  the  female  Delphic  chasm  was  built,  we 
are  told,  of  the  branches  of  the  Bay.  The  Laurel  could  preserve  the  wearer  against 

I.  L 

82  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

thunder  and  lightning,  which  has  a  double  meaning  in  regard  to  the  gods  these 
powers  represent.  Virgil's  mother,  Mais,  gave  birth  to  a  Laurel,  and  from  Virgil's 
ashes  sprang  another,  which  still  grows  over  his  tomb.  The  Bay  signifies  the  revivi 
fication  of  life,  for  the  Sun,  when  the  Bay  is  bright  and  green,  is  then  breaking  through 
the  portals  of  his  wintry  tomb,  and  the  Laurel,  like  him,  revives  from  its  own  roots 
when  thought  to  be  dead  ;  at  least,  so  it  was  said.  Whoever  chewed  its  leaves  could 
prophesy,  and  Greece  called  a  class  of  diviners  Daphnephagi,  for  did  not  loved  Daphne 
— the  daughter  of  Perseus— of  whose  suggestive  name  I  shall  have  much  to  say  here 
after,  fly  from  Apollo's  embraces,  and  calling  on  her  parent  stream  to  save  her,  the 
River  answered  her  plaint,  and  turned  her  into  a  laurel,  as  we  see  in  that  exquisite 
marble  group  now  in  Rome. 

Apollo,  as  the  vernal  Sun,  is  ushered  in  wreathed  in  the  Laurel,  and  his  birth 
like  that  of  all,  gods  and  men,  is  from  a  Cave,  or  "  garden,"  said  our  nurses.  This 
description  of  his  re-entrance  to  glory,  in  Dodd's  Callimachus,1  is  very  beautiful,  and 
gives  us  much  concerning  trees,  and  also,  probably,  the  origin  of  the  idea  of  Christ 
visiting  Hades,  or  rather  Ades,  or  the  West,  and  knocking  at  "  the  brazen  gates,"  of 
which  the  Gospel  of  Nicodemus  (so  called  Apocryphal,  but  scarcely  more  so  than  other 
canonical  ones),  gives  us  full  details. 

"  See  how  the  laurel's  hallowed  branches  wave, 
Hai'k,  sounds  tumultuous  shake  the  trembling  Cave  ! 
Far,  ye  profane,  far  off !   with  beauteous  feet 
Bright  Phebus  comes,  and  thunders  at  the  gate  ; 
See  the  glad  sign  the  Delian  palm  hath  given  j 
Sudden  it  bends  ;  and  hovering  in  the  heav'n, 
Soft  sings  the  Swan  with  melody  divine  : 
Burst  ope,  ye  bars,  ye  gates,  your  heads  decline  ; 
Decline  your  heads,  ye  sacred  doors,  expand  : 
He  comes,  the  God  of  Light,  the  God  's  at  hand  !  " 

The  Swan  is,  as  most  classical  readers  are  aware,  a  sign  of  coming  day — bright 
ness,  or  whiteness,  often  also  of  snow,  as  some  say  ;  because,  as  it  melts  away,  nature 
begins  to  live,  and  the  poet  here  seems  to  mean  this  in  saying,  "  it  sings,"  or  awakens 
melody  in  the  groves.  As  this  poem  belongs  to  the  third  "century  B.C.,  the  pious 
author  seems  to  have  been  at  one  with  Isaiah,  when  he  speaks  of  "  the  beautiful  feet  of 
him  who  brings  the  good  tidings"  (Hi.  7)  ;  with  Malachi,  where  he  says,  "Unto  you 
shall  the  Sun  of  Righteousness  arise  with  healing  in  his  wings  "  (iv.  2),  and  with  the 
writer  of  Ps.  xix.,  who  says  the  sun  cometh  "  as  a  bridegroom  out  of  his  chamber,  and 
rejoiceth  as  a  strong  man  to  run  a  race."  None  of  these  writers  had  the  faintest  con 
ception  of  the  meaning  which  the  Christian  Churches  put  on  such  passages ;  and  all 
had  alike  the  same  conception  of  "  the  Sun,"  "  the  Lord  of  Hosts,"  of  Palms,  Caves, 
and  the  portals  which-"  the  Thunderer"  was  to  open  at  his  vernal  appearing,  on  a  lost 
or  winter-stricken  earth. 

1  W.  Dodd's  Trans.,  Lond.  1755. 

Tree  Worship.  83 


We  have  still  very  prominent  stories,  and  no  little  reverence  throughout  Europe 
for  the  Holly,  or  Holy-tree  of  our  very  ancient  priests,  as  well  as  for  the  Box,  the 
white  and  coloured  Hawthorn  or  May,  for  the  Sloe  or  Black  Thorn,  and  for  Ivy. 
The  Holly  was  ever  the  prominent  token  of  joy  and  good-will,  sent  from  friend  to 
friend  during  our  still  well  known  winter  saturnalia,  or  that  festive  season  we  now  call 
Christmas.  It  typified  the  Sun,  Osiris,  or  life,  preserved  in  spite  of  Typhon  or  the 
wintry  desolation  ;  and  Holly  was  like  the  Sun,  male  and  female ;  the  prickly  Holly 
being  male,  and  the  non-prickly  female.  He  who  plucked  the  leaves  of  the  female, 
and  slept  upon  them,  got  reliable  dreams,  provided  he  maintained  strict  silence  till 
dawn.  Whichever  kind  of  Holly  first  entered  a  house  at  Christmas,  determined 
whether  the  husband  or  wife  should  dominate  that  year.  The  Holly  could  protect  the 
wearer  from  lightning  and  from  poison.  It  decked  the  house  of  the  awaking  Sun- 
god,  and  now  decks  that  of  those  who  call  him  the  "  Sun  of  Righteousness."  The 
maiden  who  seeks  to  see  her  future  husband  pins  the  Holly  to  her  night-dress  over  her 
heart,  and  goes  to  sleep  with  three  pails  of  water  in  her  room  ;  and  if  further  prophesying 
is  desired,  the  leaves  of  the  female  Holly  must,  on  Venus'  night,  Friday,  be  tied  up  in  a 
handkerchief  of  three  corners  (a  very  lOnic  symbol),  and  be  slept  upon,  and  perfect  silence 
observed  till  the  next  Saturn's-day  morn ;  all  of  which  tales  point  to  the  old,  old 
story  of  both  Solar  and  Phallic  proclivities. 


Was  always  sacred  to  Bacchus  and  to  wild  revelry ;  and,  like  the  Holly  and  Laurel, 
should  be  used  with  its  berries.  The  bride  and  bridegroom  in  Greece  used  to  get  Ivy 
wreaths  given  them,  possibly  to  signify  the  way  in  which  they  should  cling  to  one 
another,  and  so  increase  and  pass  on.  The  "  Bush  "  which  used  to  adorn  tavern  doors 
was  Ivy,  and  with  it  was  associated  Maiya's  sacred  "  bird  of  night,"  the  owl. 


Is  one  of  the  four  woods  which'  form  the  Phallic  and  now  Christian  cross, 
the  other  woods  being  the  Cedar,  Pine,  and  Cypress — all  sufficiently  suggestive. 
Northern  England  and  far  south  Turkey  alike  bring  the  box  to  the  tombs  of  their 
loved  ones.  Of  vernal  trees  peculiarly  holy,  we  hear  of  the  flowering  White  Thorn, 
and  Elm,  both  of  which  must  be  plucked  and  worn  in  May,  and  are  together  called 
"May,"  In  olden  days  persons  then  found  without  these  about  them,  ran  some  risk  of 
being  drowned,  and  in  most  parts  of  Europe  were  certain  to  be  well  ducked.  Some 
think  Christ's  thorny  crown  was  made  of  "  May,"  and  that  it  brings  bad  luck ; 
others  say  the  Black  Thorn,  or  Krishnite,  which  is  the  enemy  of  the  white  or  Sivaik, 
formed  the  crown.  Poor  little  Jewish  boys  are  severely  maltreated  in  Austria  on  May 
Day  with  the  Black  Thorn. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  English  "  May  pole,"  decked  with  coloured  rags,  tinsel,  and  serpentine 
streamers,  and  "  the  merry  morrice  dancers,"  of  whom  I  shall  speak  by-and-by,  with 
the  mysterious  and  now  nearly  defunct  personage  "  Jack  in  the  Green,"  are  all  but  the 
worn-out  remnants  of  Tree,  Phallic,  and  Serpent  worship.  These  faiths,  history  tells  us, 
were  prevalent  both  in  France  and  England,  until  forbidden  in  the  middle  ages  by 
the  ecclesiastical  councils  in  France,  and  by  Laws  of  Canute — 1020  A.c.  in  England  ; 
but  they  are  by  no  means  yet  extinct. 

From  an  article  in  Fraser  of  November  1871,  by  M.  D.  C.,  describing  his 
pilgrimage  to  the  Ammer  in  Bavaria  on  St  John's  Day,  and  the  theatrical  performances 
called  Passion-Spiel  at  Ober-Ammer-gau,  I  gather  various  traces  of  the  old  faiths  of 
Tree,  Phajlic,  and  Isis  worship ;  and  we  see  how  deftly  Christianity  has  welded  itself 
on  to  these,  without  too  rudely  breaking  down  the  dear  old  ties  of  an  ignorant  but 
very  human  and  affectionate  people.  M.  D.  C.  finds,  he  says,  strange  drawings  over 
the  Tyrolese  churches  and  house  doors — figures  of  women,  circles,  and  inscriptions — 
much  less  suggestive  of  Christian  subjects,  than  of  those  Charms  and  Runes  which 
Maunhardt  shows  to  have  been  placed  on  the  gables  of  German  houses  before  the 
introduction  of  Christianity  as  a  protection  from  demons. 

There  is  no  mistake  as  to  our  old  Tree  and  Serpent  faiths.      Each  hamlet,  says 

this  writer,  has  its  Maienbaum — a  long  pole 
100  feet  or  more  in  height  (this  is  surely 
exaggerated),  with  alternate  blue  and  white 

^\        J\    UjJ    <" ">     (r^\         stripes  coiling  round  it,  and  mark  the  de- 

"  tails  of  what  rests  upon  this  Tyrolese-phallic 
pole ;  to  make  it  clearer  I  give  a  drawing 
from  this  and  other  narrators'  descriptions. 
The  May-pole  is  intersected  by  seven,  or 
sometimes  nine  bars,  beginning  at  about 
ten  feet  from  the  ground,  and  running  to 
the  top,  which  is  adorned  with  streamers. 
On  these  bars  are  various  emblematic 
figures.  The  one  at  Murau  had  on  lower 
limb,  a  small  tree  and  a  nail  with  circular 
nob ;  on  next,  a  small  house,  a  horse  shoe 

and  wheel  on  one  side  ;  a  hammer  crossed  by  a  pair  of  pincers  on 
the  other — (as  I  here  for  clearness  separately  depict,  for  without 
drawings  we  lose  the  force  of  these  occult  symbols) — a  broom, 
perhaps  Ceres,  as  a  sheaf  of  corn  ;  below  this  was  seen  the 
Lin  gam,  with  Maya's,  symbols,  the  cup  and  cock  or  the  bird  of 
desire  sacred  to  her.  Elsewhere  we  see  a  heart,  fire,  pyramid,  Fis- 30- TOR  AND  "W«M. 
and  inverted  pyramid,  anchor  and  water  as  in  Egypt,  and  a  circle  pierced  by  a 


Tree  Worship.  85 

line,  &c.  On  upper  bar  we  observe  a  ladder,  cross,  milk  jug,  and  bee  hive,  &c. 
Can  any  Phallic  tale  be  more  complete  ?  "  We  must,"  says  the  writer,  "  be  here 
content  with  our  general  knowledge  that  the  Maienbaum  was  a  Pagan  object,  and  that 
its  decorations  were  originally  symbols  of  the  gods  and  goddesses."  Christian 
significance  is  given  to  all  these  ;  for  as  the  priest  could  not  efface  the  old  faiths,  he 
told  his  credulous  herd  that  this  hammer  is  that  which  nailed  Christ  to  the  cross,  that 
the  tree  is  the  conventional  olive  of  church  pictures,  and  that  the  cross,  the  cock,  the 
cup,  and  sacred  heart  are  all  connected  with  "the  Passion  of  Christ."  The  broom 
represents  witches,  and  the  horse  shoe  the  corona  or  Mary's  head-dress  ;  it  is  also 
Maiya's  sign,  and  is  there  as  a  charm  to  hold  witches  at  bay  like  the  Ephod  of  old. 
The  whole  may,  I  fancy,  be  taken  as  one  great  "tree  of  life."  On  May  Day,  says 
M.  D.  C.,  "  it  is  festooned  with  green  branches,  for  the  Bavarian  peasants  keep  up  in 
many  ways  the  ancient  reverence  for  sacred  trees."  When  a  house  is  finished,  it  is 
consecrated  by  having  a  birch  sapling  stuck  into  the  roof,  and  in  a  thousand  tales  the 
poor  and  ignorant  are  still  taught  to  fear  trees.  One  story  says  that  before  a  large  fir  tree, 
King  Ludwig's  horse  fell  three  times  forward  on  its  knees,  and  here  he  built  a  cele 
brated  church,  taking  care  that  the  fir  tree  should  be  in  its  very  centre  ;  read  for 
church,  ark  or  boat,  and  the  signification  and  old  faith  is  still  clearer.  "  The  most 
interesting  feature  of  the  Passion  Play  to  me,"  says  M.  D.  C.,  "  was,  that  nine  young 
birch  trees,  reaching  from  floor  to  ceiling,  had  been  set  along  the  walls  inside,  at 
intervals  of  ten  to  fifteen  feet."  That  the  sacred  tree  of  ancient  Germany,  and  even 
of  ancient  Greece,  which  has  so  long  been  held  as  a  charm  against  witches,  against 
lightning  and  other  evils,  should  be  here  overshadowing  Christian  worshippers,  was 
curious  enough.  "  The  enclosure  was  also  surrounded  by  birch  trees  regularly 
planted.  Like  our  remote  ancestors  who  worshipped  Odin,  we  sat  amidst  the  sacred 

"  There  are  some  remote  corners  of  these  mountains,  it  is  said,  where  one  who  has 
a  fever  still  goes  to  a  birch  tree,  and  shakes  it,  with  the  words,  '  Birch,  a  fever 
plagues  me,  God  grant  it  pass  from  me  to  thee.' "  If  this  be  so,  then  we  have  genuine 
worship  of  trees  this  very  century  in  the  centre  of  civilised  Europe  as  truly  as  we  find 
Christ  and  Mary  worship. 

"When  one  is  subject  to  cramp,"  says  M.  D.  C.,  "'he  takes  a  broom  made  of 
birch -switches  into  his  bed." 

The  Ammergau  play  is  traced  back  far  into  Pagan  times.  It  appears  to  have 
been  always  the  custom  to  represent  here  the  deeds  of  the  gods  and  heroes  of  the 
people  theatrically,  and  hence  we  see  the  old  signs  of  the  tree,  the  upright  pole 
streaming  with  serpents,  and  all  the  symbols  of  fecundity  still  on  the  living  scenes  of 
this  canvas.  The  Christian  priest  used  as  his  own  what  he  could  not  remove,  or  he 
was  perhaps  himself  too  ignorant  or  bigoted  towards  the  old  faiths  to  wish  to  see  them 
entirely  effaced.  "  It  is  probable,"  says  this  writer,  "  that  the  sacred  birches,  which 

86    .  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

surround  these  scenes  of  Christian  story,  once  witnessed  the  drama  of  the  life  and 
death  of  Balder,  or  that  later  still,  the  branches  of  palm  which  the  children  strew  in 
the  path  of  Christ  as  he  enters  Jerusalem,  were  once  cast  before  the  chariot  of  the  Sun- 
god,  to  symbolise  the  fresh  foliage  with  which  his  warm  beams  invested  the  earth. 
Such  dramas  were,  in  every  ancient  religion,  the  only  Bible  of  the  poor."  Need  we 
then  wonder  at  the  corruptions  which  follow  every  introduction  of  a  new  faith,  and 
that  we  find  faiths  twine  in  and  out  of  one  another  in  endless  maze ;  that  the  feats 
and  virtues  and  wise  sayings  of  a  Boodha,  crystallize  round  a  Krishna,  and  again 
encrust  the  life  of  a  Christ?  On  the  curtain  of  the  open  theatre  where  M.  D.  C. 
witnessed  the  Passion  Spiel  was  "  pictured  Jerusalem,  with  the  sacred  olive  responding 
to  our  sacred  birches.  Over  the  front  of  the  stage  was  a  fresco  representing  three 
beautiful  female  figures."  One  was  a  mother  with  a  babe,  another  held  a  book  and  a 
chalice,  the  third  was  in  a  green  robe  with  luminous  yellow  fringe,  a  fillet  around  her 
golden  hair,  and  a  rose  in  her  hand.  It  was  as  easy,  says  this  spectator,  to  recognize 
in  this  third  figure  as  in  the  first,  the  ancient  Maternal  Goddess  of  Germany — her 
Maya,  whom,  however,  she  called  her  Madonna.  It  was  she  who  had  replaced  her 
Bertha,  the  shining  one,  the  Frau  Rose ;  sometimes  she  was  dressed  in  green  to  denote 
the  earth,  and  in  gold  to  denote  the  warm  sun-shine.  The  figure  in  the  centre  recalled 
the  traditional  vesture  and  .look  of  Freyja,  goddess  of  love,  but  here  she  appeared 
"  with  book  and  chalice,  as  the  genius  of  Christianity,  uniting  the  tender  and  earthly 
womanhood  embodied  in  Bertha,  with  the  more  spiritual  idea  typified  in  the  Madonna. 
The  figures  were  seated  on  clouds,  and  surrounded  by  stars." 

"With  the  birch-trees  waving  around,"  continues  M.  D.  C.,  "and  these  old  sym 
bols  of  once  great  religions  before  me,  I  felt  thrilled  by  an  impression  of  having  reached 
a  spot  where  the  pre-historic  religion  could  be  traced  visibly  blending  with  Chris 
tianity,  and  the  blending  was  not  violent.  When  the  curtain  rose,  the  same  maternal 
principle  which  gave  birth  to  Bertha  with  her  rose,  was  exalted  in  Mary,  and  the  bird 
of  the  myth  hovered  over  one  who  fed  mankind  with  life-blood  freely  rendered  from 
his  own  breast " — the  writer  alluding  here  to  the  fabled  pelican,  which  fed  its  young 
with  its  own  blood,  and  which  was  carved  and  painted  in  the'groinings  of  the  roof. 
The  old  myth  was  perhaps  more  kind  and  paternal  than  that  of  an  angry  Father, 
requiring  the  violent  death  of  an  innocent  son  to  satisfy  wrath  or  even  offended 

This  age  has,  it  appears,  abolished  the  devil  from  this  drama.  "  Its  aim  is  to 
bring  before  the  listener,  in  one  scope  of  thought,  the  curse  of  man  and  his  'redemp 
tion,  these  being  symbolised  in  two  trees,  that  of  the  forbidden  fruit  and  the  tree  of 
the  Cross  ; "  for  tradition  says  the  Cross  is  made  out  of  the  wood  of  this  tree  of  Eden. 
It  is  Mary  and  her  joys  and  sorrows,  not  Christ,  who  excites  the  feelings  and  pious 
emotions  of  the  audience,  says  M.  D.  C.  She  enters  first  crowned  and  adorned,  sing 
ing  the  Song  of  Solomon,  and  bewailing  the  absence  of  the  Bridegroom.  She  then 

Tree  Worship.  87 

appears  as  the  lowly  peasant  mother  keeling  at  the  feet  of  her  son,  as  he  parts  from 
her  "to  go  into  Bethany."  This  touch  of  human  feeling  moistened  every  eye,  the 
spectators  were  as  the  weeping  daughters  of  Jerusalem  standing  with  bowed  heads 
around  the  kneeling  mother.  "  We  felt  then,"  says  M.  D.  C.,  "  that  the  play  was  not 
for  us  :  it  was  acted  by  peasants  for  peasants  ;  I  found  also  in  their  tears  and  radiant 
faces,  that  they  were  getting  from  their  love  of  the  Holy  Mothoi*  all  that  conception 
of  a  Divine  tenderness  throned  in  this  universe,  which  a  Channing  sought,  in  dwelling 
on  the  fatherly  relation  of  God  to  man."  M.  D.  C.  "  doubts  if  Protestantism  has  suf 
ficiently  pondered  the  fact,  that  the  religions  which  have  signally  reached  and  con 
quered  the  hearts  of  the  poor,  have  been  those  which  have  apotheosized  the  feminine 
element.  The  human  heart  must  pass  from  the  adoration  of  Isis,  Minerva,  Ceres, 
Bertha,  and  Mary,  but  the  love  principle  has  not  perished  with  the  forms  which  repre 
sented  this  or  that  phase  of  its  evolution — and  the  great  faith  which  in  the  future 
shall  unite  all  hearts,  must  reveal  in  all  fulness,  that  divine  love,  with  which  the 
Bavarian  peasant  has  invested  the  Heavenly  Woman  whom  he  adores,  far  more  than 
the  majestic  Jehovah,  or  even  the  official  and  princely  Christ.  The  Play  draws  the 
heart  to  Mary  rather  than  to  Christ.  He  is  the  Imperial  Being,  with  no  touch  of 
humanity  but  the  fleshly  form.  His  voice  has  the  monotony  of  a  clock,  ticking  through 
its  hour.  The  air  of  the  High  Priest  attends  him,  even  when  he  washes  his  disciples' 
feet,  and  with  a  tone  of  superiority  says,  '  If  I,  your  Lord  and  Master,  have  washed 
your  feet,'  &c.  Sympathy  for  him  in  his  persecutions  and  sufferings  is  even  chilled  by 
sustaining  angels  stepping  forth  to  help  him,  and  voices  from  heaven  encouraging  him. 
At  no  time  did  Jesus  cause  so  much  feeling  as  poor  Judas,  when  he  approached  the 
tree  to  hang  himself.  The  air  of  Omniscience  is  offensive  in  any  one  bearing  the 
human  form."  I  have  dwelt  at  greater  length  on  this  religious  festival,  and  in  this 
place  than  it  seems  to  merit,  but  I  desire  to  show  not  only  the  old  faiths,  but  that 
strong  feeling  of  the  human  breast  towards  the  worship  of  Maiya,  or  the  Celestial 
Mother,  whose  earliest  home  we  find  in  Vedic  races. 

I  may  note  here  that  this  writer,  M.  D.  C.,  afterwards  describes  witnessing  "  a 
St  John's  fire,"  this  last  surviving  symbol  of  Loki — god  of  all  earthly  fires,  as  his  name 
Loki  or  Leuch  indicates — but  who  has  passed  to  feed  nether  flames,  leaving  the  super 
natural  torch  to  the  prophet  of  the  wilderness. 

This  reminds  us  of  the  important  "burning  bush"  of  Exodus  iii.  2 — which,  by  the 
bye,  Josephus  tells  us  was  holy  before  the  flame  appeared  in  it.  He  says,  "because  of  its 
holy  character"  it  became  the  vehicle  of  the  burning,  fiery,  or  jealous  God  of  the  Jews. 

Fergusson  says  that  the  "Ashera,"  or  grove  worship  of  the  Hebrews,  was 
also  Tree  Worship — to  which,  of  course,  I  demur,  as  a  mixing  up  of  distinct  faiths, 
though  faiths  held  by  the  same  people,  to  which  I  cannot  quite  find  a  parallel 
in  our  present  religions.  No  doubt  Hebrews  saw  in  the  Tree  the  most  beautiful  and 
most  ancient  temple  under  which  man  found  it  easiest  to  lift  up  his  thoughts  to  God. 

88  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

It  then  became  naturally  the  spot  under  which  his  images  of  Baal,  Asher,  and  Ashera 
(Bible,  grove)  were  placed,  for  we  read  that  at  first  the  people  placed  these  "  under 
every  green  tree,"  and  afterwards  in  the  holiest  parts  of  their  temples ;  yet  this  was  no 
actual  Tree  worship,  but  I  think  an  after-development  of  that  faith.  The  sacred  groves 
of  Dodoua,  we  now  know,  were  fast  falling  into  disuse  when  the  various  writers  of  the 
Old  Testament  wero  penning  the  traditionary  story  regarding  the  creation  of  this 
world  and  of  their  :mcestors.  Fergusson  says  truly  that  "  both  Trees  and  Serpents 
were  worshipped  in  Judea  ;  "  but  T  think  I  am  right  in  showing  that  these  faiths  had 
certain  dominant  •  eras,  precisely  as  certain  doctrines  and  dogmas  have  had  in  all 
churches.  Tree  worship  was  on  the  decline  in  Syria  in  the  7th  century  B.C.,  though, 
according  to  Jeremiah,  it  was  common  in  600  B.C. 

Fergusson  says  that  he  cannot  discover  any  Tree  worship  in  Syria  after  Christ ; 
I  find  it  among  Mahomedans  up  to  the  present  time,  and  Serpent  Worship  down  to 
the  7th  century  A.C.  Indeed,  this  last  was  only  swept  away  by  that  great  purifier  of 
Idol  Worship — Mahomedanism. 

The  Mahomedan,  as  already  stated,  no  less  than  the  Christian,  will  be  found 
down  to  the  present  hour  bowing  constantly  before  his  sacred  trees — Darakt-i-Fazl. 
The  Arbre  Sec,  or  Darakht-i-Kooshk — "  the  dry  tree,"  is  a  very  holy  object,  and  said 
by  Chardin  to  be  a  thousand  years  old  :  it  still  attracts  the  crowds  of  Ispahan  into 
the  suburbs  of  that  capital.  Another,  in  a  garden  of  Sliiraz,  is  hung  with  amulets, 
rags,  and  tapers,  the  .offerings  of  the  pious,  whilst  precisely  the  same  will  be  found 
going  on  in  far-off  China.  In  Shansi  there  is  an  inscription  urging  the  holy  to  prayer 
before  a  sacred  tree,  saying,  "  If  you  pray  you  will  certainly  be  heard."  (See  on  this, 
and  the  Arbre  Sec,  Yule's  Marco  Polo,  Vol.  I.,  chap,  xxii.)  Alexander,  says  the 
legend,  ascended  a  lofty  hill  by  2500  steps  to  a  temple  of  the  Sun,  to  see  for  himself 
"the  Tree  of  the  Sun"  (the  male),  and  that  "  of  the  Moon  "  (the  female),  and  they 
prophesied  his  fortunes  and  his  death.  Firdusi  describes  in  the  "  Shah-Namah, " 
Alexander's  interview  with  this  "  speaking  tree."  Marco  Polo  came  upon  the  Arbre 
Sol  of  the  Persians,  or  Arbre  Sec  of  Christians,  in  the  high  plains  N.E.  of  Persia,  and 
Colonel  Yule  states  that  it  was  a  very  large  Chinar,  or  Oriental  plane-tree.  The  natives 
occasionally  seem  to  have  clothed  the  male  "  Chinar  "  with  male,  and  the  female,  or 
Lunar  one,  with  female  skins  of  wild .  beasts.  "  The  trees  of  the  Sun  and 
Moon  are  represented  on  several  extant  '  ancient  medals ;  e.g.  on  two  struck  at 
Perga  in  Pamphylia  in  the  time  of  Aurelius.  Eastern  story  tells  us  of  two  vast 
cypress  trees,  sacred  among  the  Magians,  which  grew  in  Korasan ;  one  in  Kash- 
meer  near  Turshiz,  and  the  other  at  Farmad  near  Tuz  ;  these  are  said  to  have 
risen  from  shoots  that  Zoroaster  brought  from  Paradise."  A  Kalif  is  said  to 
have  sacrilegiously  cut. down  one  in  the  ninth  century  A.C.,  which  was  fourteen  and 
a  half  centuries  old,  and  about  fifty  feet  in  girth.  Of  course,  the  hewer-down  came  to 
an  untimely  end,  for  the  Palm  and  the  Cypress  are  dwellers  in  the  Magian  Paradise. 

Tree  Worship.  Y  89 

Abram's  "Oak  of  Mamre"  was  known  and  long  revered  by  the  Saracens 
as  the  "  Dirpe"  and  by  the  heathen  as  "  Kuroo  Thereck,"  or  the  dry  tree.  They 
say  that  it  existed  from  the  beginning  of  the  world,  and  used  to  be  green  and  bear 
leaves  till  Christ  died,  when  it  and  all  trees  then  existing  dried  up  :  that  a  great 
Prophet  will  yet  arise  in  the  West  who  will  miraculously  cause  this  tree  to  bud 
and  blossom,  and  Saracens  and  Jews  to  embrace  Christianity  ;  of  course  we  have  such 
oracular  sayings  denied  elsewhere.  A  certain  Friar  Aiiselmo  gravely  tells  us  in  1509, 
that  "  Abram's  oak  of  Hebron  was  then  a  tree  of  dense  and  verdant  foliage,  and  has 
been  so  ever  since  Abram's  days,  i.e.  for  3500  years  ;  that  the  Saracens  hold  it  in  great 
veneration  and  offer  prayers  to  it,  and  adorn  it  with  scraps  of  writing  and  cloths  ; " 
another  Friar,  however,  writes  in  1283,  that  it  dried  up,  but  that  a  representative  has 
sprung  up  from  its  base.  Now,  though  such  is  not  after  the  manner  of  Oaks,  yet  it  is 
very  much  after  the  way  of  Priests,  not  to  let  profitable  shrines  extinguish  themselves. 
I  lately  read  in  an  "  Indian  Daily,"  that  some  priests  were  specially  admitted  by  the 
British  sentry  over  the  Alahabad  Fort  gate  one  early  murky  m  >rning,  carrying  a  large 
green  Banian  (ficus  religiosa)  bough,  and  that  shortly  after,  it  was  announced  to  the 
faithfal  that  the  sacred  underground  tree  of  Pra-Yag's  most  ancient  shrine  had  revived, 
an^  was  waiting  to  be  worshipped.  It  is  said  that  the  dry  trunk  of  Abram's  oak 
existed  up  to  the  end  of  the  seventh  century  A.C.,  under  the  roof  of  the  church  which 
Constantine  caused  to  be  built  over  it.  The  sacred  Mahominedan  city  of  Tabreez  had 
also  its  holy  tree  built  over ;  so  that  both  the  "  peoples  of  the  book  "  vied  in  offering 
adoration  to  man's  first  faith,  down  to  the  fourteenth  and  fifteenth  century  A.C.  One 
set  of  stories  tell  us  that  a  certain  holy  tree  was  the  staff  or  pole  of  Mahomed,  and 
another  that  of  Adam.  Adam  is  said  to  have  "  got  his  staff  on  Saturday  at  twilight," 
after  God  had  completed  creation  and  was  going  to  rest ;  this  was  just  after  telling 
Adam  to  "be  fruitful ;"  he  handed  it  down  to  Enoch,  and  hence  to  all  the  patriarchs, 
but  others  s^y  he  gave  it  to  Seth,  and  that  "it  was  a  branch  of  the  Tree  of  Life,"  i.e. 
of  the  tree  which  gives  life  or  generates.  It  was  doubtless  the  "  budding  rod  "  of  Moses, 
and  later  no  doubt  became  our  Glastonbury  Thorn,  which  British  Christian  legend  says 
was  the  staff  of  Joseph  of  Arimathea !  In  the  centre  of  the  city  of  Vienna  still  exists 
the  sacred  tree,  to  which  the  now  mighty  city  owes  its  site,  if  not  its  very  existence.  It  is 
said  of  the  Viennese  that  whether  about  to  travel  or  in  trouble,  they  still  go  to  record 
a  vow,  or  offer  a  prayer,  or  bit  of  tinsel  to  the  mysterious  shrine. 

Burton  and  others  tell  us  of  Tree  veneration  all  over  Africa.  It  is  death,  there, 
to  injure  holy  trees,  but  nails  may  be  driven  in  and  votive  offerings  hung  thereon. 

The  beautiful  elm  tree  of  Kc-rasan  is  proverbially  a  barren  tree,1  which  seems  to 
militate  against  the  idea  of  its  being  the  Deoian  Oak  of  Ceres,  which  the  Serpent  Deity 
Erektheus  cut  down.  (Ovid's  Met.  VIII.  760.)  Ceres'  representative  daughter  Pro 
serpine  was  called'  after  her,  Deois,  and  was  seduced,  says  Ovid,  by  Jupiter  in  the  form 

1  Schiltberger,  quoted  by  Yule. 
I.  M 

QO  Rivc^  s  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

of  a  speckled  serpent.  (Ovid's  Met.  VI.  114.)  Deo  was  Ceres,  and  we  have  in  The 
or  De  the  root  from  whence  comes  Delphos,  our  female  oracle  of  the  Kastalian  spring, 
in  which  was  erected  the  Serpent  oracle,  but  whose  Guardian  was  ever  a  woman. 
Ovid  mentions  "  the  t  ,ie  of  Pallas  "  in  connection  with  a  palm  as  causing  Latona  to 
bring  forth  twins  (Mv;t.  VI.  335),  which  I  am  induced  to  think  merely  means  the 
Lingam,  or  "  tree  of  life,'  iu  connection  with  the  Palm,  as  a  very  fruitful  and  upright 
tree  ;  we  may  read  <p  for  «•. 

I  will  here  condense  what  Fergusson  tells  us  in  his  beautiful  book  on  "  Tree  and 
Serpent  Worship/'  regarding  the  worship  of  "  the  Tree  of  Life."  Adam,  says  a  poet, 
had  three  seeds  put  into  his  mouth  (very  allegorical  poetry  indeed),  and  they  pro 
duced  a  cedar,  a  cypress,  and  a  pine,  all  trees  sacred  in  phallic  lore  :  these  three 
united  and  formed  one  tree,  which  then  possessed  the  power  of  multiplying  itself. 
Solomon  (gravely  say  these  pious  writers)  cut  it  down  to  support  his  house,  but  to  this 
it  disdained  to  confinev  its  powers,  so  he  cast  it  into  the  brook  Kedron,  in  which  the 
Queen  of  Sheba  discovered  it,  owing  to  its  many  virtues  ;  these  she  was  no  doubt  a 
competent  judge  of,  having  come  to  Solomon  to  learn  of  his  wisdom,  and  having  gone 
back,  say  the  AbysinianS,  to  give  to  them  a  race  of  stalwart  Solomons.1  This  Quoen  it 
appears  buried  the  tree  of  life  in  the  pool  of  Bethesda,  and  here  the  very  christen 
Empress  Helena  "recognised  it  owing  to  its  miraculous  powers."  She,  we  knov, 
was  then  divorced  from  her  husband  ;  but  after  her  return  with  this  "  tree  of  life  " 
(the  fourth  century  A.C.)  owing  to  a  new  and  dominant  faith,  it  turned  into  "  the 
true  cross,"  and  the  pious  Empress  was  restored  to  her  husband.  The  history  is  here, 
as  elsewhere,  rather  disconnected,  like  all  religious  tales,  but  we  learn  that  one  Chosroes 
took  the  true  cross  into  Persia,  and  one  Heraclius  brought  it  back,  when  it  appears  to 
have  got  cut  up  into  the  numerous  fragments,  which  pious  Christian  kings,  priests, 
and  laities,  fought  and  wrangled  over  for  many  centuries.  It  evidently  had  then  great 
powers  of  multiplying  itself,  though  it  does  not  seem  to  have  exercised  these  from 
Adam  to  the  time  of  the  first  Christian  Empress  ;  we  find  the  "  pious  king "  Philip 
Augustus  building  a  Sainte  Chapelle  over  one  of  its  fragments — a  temple,  to  use  Fer- 
gusson's  words,  "probably  among  the  most  beautiful  ever  erected  to  Tree  worship." 

Fergusson  thinks  Tree  worship  the  most  common  in  Asyrian  history  ;  and  adds, 
that  although  the  Serpent  was-  the  Father  oracle,  yet  Aryans,  as  a  rule,  destroyed 
Serpents  and  Serpent-worshipping  races.  In  Greece  he  sees  abundance  of  both  Tree 
and  Serpent  Faiths,  though  both  became  less  prominent  as  Grecian  civilization 
advanced.  How  could  such  stand  anidst  the  abundance  of  learning  and  plain  good 
moral  sense,  which  was  starting  up  in  the  fifth  contury  B.C.,  and  daily  increasing  in 
vigor,  till  it  probably  gave  birth  to  Christianity  ? 

*  Early  Arabian  tales  of  Islam  tell  us  that  the  Queen  of  Sheba  worshipped  the  Sun,  and  that 
Solomon  was  an  Islamite  !  and  married  her  after  her  conversion.  (See  Mrs  Godfrey  Clerk's  "  His. 
Tales  of  Early  Kalifas.") 

Tree  Worship.  91 

Pausanias,  in  133  A.C.,  tells  us  that  serpents  were  then  worshipped  in  the 
sacred  groves  of  Epidaurus ;  and  in  the  Erechtheum  at  Athens,  says  Fergusson, 
"  we  still  find  a  temple  dedicated  to  Tree  and  Serpent  worship,"  for  "  it  was  to  the 
serpent  Erekthonius  that  Minerva  handed  over  her  sacred  olive."  The  tree  under 
which  Agamemnon  was  sacrificed,  was  mounted  by  a  serpent,  whom  Zeus  turned  into 
a  stone  (query  Linga  ?)  ;  for  the  trunk  became  stone,  and  every  particle  of  it  sacred, 
like  the  "true  Cross." 

In  the  Epirus  grove  of  the  Dodona  Jove,  the  Virgins  had  to  go  naked  and  present 
food  to  the  serpent ;  if  it  received  it,  then  was  prosperity  for  the  year  insured.  This 
tree  and  serpent  shrine  flourished  600  B.C.,  and  was  then  a  voice  which  no  kings  or 
nations  could  set  aside,  and  down  even  to  the  time  of  Constantine  it  was  a  holy  place, 
and  t».  poiver  in  tfie  land.  These  tree  and  serpent  shrines  abounded  everywhere. 
Thus,  about  sixteen  miles  out  of  Rome,  Fergusson  tells  us,  was  a  deep  cave  where 
virgins  went  to  prove  their  chastity  ;  if  the  god  accepted  their  offerings,  all  people 
knew  them  to  be  pure,  and  also  that  they  would  be  fertile.  The  Serpent  here  was  in 
a  dark  and  sacred  grove  adjoining  a  temple  of  Argiva,  the  Argonian  Juno. 

In  travelling  about  amongst  aboriginal  tribes,  I  have  often  been  struck  with  the 
poSftJon  of  a  holy  tree  curiously  marked  with  a  serpent  or  quaint  creeper  on  its  trunk,  or 
on  a  stone  leaning  against  it,  and  with  two  great  stones  on  either  side  just  peering  above 
the  tun,  and  frotn  which  the  aborigines  do  their  best  to  keep  unbelievers,  although  these 
ar^  commonly  used  by  themselves  for  sacrificial  and  other  apparently  festal  purposes. 
Writings  regarding  Petrea  Ambrosia,  or  the  stones  of  the  gods,  and  Syrian  cairns  and 
sculptures  such  as  are  seen  in  my  plates  IV.  and  V.,  pages  98  and  102,  awoke  me  to  study 
the  cause  and  frequent  recurrence 
of  these  two  earth-bound  stones, 
and  the  result  of  careful  and  pro 
longed  inquiry  assured  me,  that 
where  the  testes  are  not  thought 
to  be  here  symbolised,  then  these 
side  stones  are  looked  upon  as 
half-hidden  lingams,  and  there 
fore  very  specially  sacred.  Every  /f* 
reader  of  these  subjects  knows  '/ 
what  an  important  part  "Earth- 
fast  Stones  "  play  in  the  faith  of 
the  earliest  races,  and  of  our 
own  fathers,  as  Colonel  Forbes 
Leslie's  "Early  Races"  makes 
very  clear.  The  stem  with  the  Fig- 81— A  COMMON  SNAKE  AND  LINGAM  TREE  OF  ABORIGINAI- TRIBES- 

serpent  twisted  round  it  is  a  common  form    of  Maha-Deva,   and    so  also  is  the 

92  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

notion  of  his  supporting  the  world ;  and  hence  that  the  peering  out  earth-fast  rocks 
are  his  folds,  and  thus  appearing  show  the  foundations  of  his  power  and  prolificness. 
My  sketch  shows  what  is  also  usual  under  these  trees — viz.,  the  ordinary  Linga  on  a 
platform.  The  common  Syrian  coins  in  the  Plates  are  clearly  meant  to  convey  the 
same  idea,  and,  in  addition,  that  of  Pandora's  Box,  or  Woman.  Ossian  seems  to  have 
been  cognisant  of  the  occult  lore  of  half-hidden  stones,  for  in  Hermes  Brittannicus, 
p.  70,  we  read  from  Ossian  : — 

"  A  tale  of  the  times  of  old,  the  deeds  of  the  days  of  other  years, 
The  murmur  of  thy  streams,  oh  Lora, 
Brings  back  the  memory  of  the  past ; 
Dost  thou  not  be/told  a  rock  with  its  head  of  heath  ? 
There  the  flower  of  the  mountains,  grows,  the  thistle  is  there  alone, 
Two  stones,  half  sunk  in  the  ground,  show  their  heads  of  moss  ; 
The  deer  of  the  mountain  avoids  the  place, 
For  he  beholds  the  grey  ghost  that  guards  it, 
For  the  mighty  lie  in  the  narrow  place  of  the  Rock." 

And  "  the  mighty  one,"  "  our  Rock,"  is  a  very  common  Old  Testament  phrase. 



THE  second  great  deity,  and  to  us  in  this  civilised  and  wholly  changed  state  of  exist 
ence,  strange  and  ever  horrible  deity,  is  one  still  most  prominent — the  anguis  in  herbd 
or  mysterious  "  stranger  in  the  grass,"  who  overcame  with  honied  words  the  fabled 
mother  of  us  all,  and  who,  to  the  astonished  gaze  of  the  primitive  race,  overcame  by 
god-like  power,  man,  as  well  as  the  strongest  beast  of  the  field.  That  as  a  mere 
reptile  he  was  "  subtler,"  as  the  story  says,  than  every  other  creature,  has  not  since 
appeared,  but  his  subtle  mode  of  approach,  his  daring  and  upright  dash,  was  pictured 
8f  god-like,  and  in  nearly  all  Eastern  countries  he  is  still  not  only  feared  but  worshipped 
as  "  the  God  of  our  Fathers"  and  the  symbol  of  desire  and  creative  energy. 

He  is  the  special  Phallic  symbol  which  veils  the  actual  God,  and  therefore  do  we 
find  him  the  constant  early  attendant  upon  Priapus  or  the  Lingam,  which  I  regard  as 
the  second  religion  of  the  world.  I  take  the  liberty  for  many  reasons  of  not  devoting 
a  specific  chapter  to  Phallic  faiths.  I  have  tried  on  several  occasions  to  do  so,  but 
find  that  I  shall  be  quite  as  able,  and  more  agreeably,  to  treat  of  these,  if  I  can  veil, 
like  the  priests  and  priestesses  of  its  many  mysteries,  some  of  its  grossest  parts ;  it 
enters  also  so  closely  into  union  with  all  faiths,  to  the  present  hour,  that  it  is  impossible 
to  keep  it  out  of  any  chapter. 

On  a  bed  of  serpents,  in  a  milky  sea,  Bramanic  story  tells  us,  sits  the  mighty  Vish- 
noo  or  Narayen  and  his  spouse  Lakshmee.  The  Hindoo  calls  Him,  Vishnoo,  so  seated, 
'  "The  Mighty,"  the  "  Infinite  One,"  "  The  Abode  of  Life."  He  it  is  who  manifests 
Himself  from  time  to  time  as  man,  in  the  richly  woven,  tales  of  Vedic  Avatars.1  He  is  the 
preserver  of  the  gods,  DevSs  and  of  man  on  the  earth.  He  'is  "  God  in  eternity,"  the 
many  coils  of  the  snake  .representing  Infmiteness  and  Eternity,  especially  so,  as  repre 
sented  by  Egyptians,  with  tail  in  mouth ;  or  by  Boodhists,  as  two  fish,  male  and 
female,  kissing  each  other  under  the  fleur  de  Us,  as  seen  in  fig.  6  of  my  plate  V. 

The  Pooranas  call  the  snake  four  thousand  hooded  and  four  armed — "  the  bed, 
on  which  Chaos  rested  before  creation,  and  must  again  rest  after  creation,"  and 
identify  the  serpent  with  the  great  Narayen,  sometimes  calling  it  his  Incarnation. 
There  is  no  mythology  or  ancient  sculpture  in  which  the  serpent  does  not  bear  a  part. 

1   In  Sanscrit,  Avatara,  signifies  "  Descent  of  a  deity  from  heaven." 


94  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Egypt,  nay  Mexico  in  the  Far  West,  vied  with  China  and  Japan  in  the  Far  East,  and 

from  unknown  ages,  to  do  him  honour.  They 
called  him  the  Spirit  of  the  Sun — the  holy 
Osiris — OB  or  AB,  the  FATHER  OF  ALL,  and 
surrounded  him  with  winged  glories,  and  to 
him,  say  the  Chinese  to  the  present  hour, 
do  their  mighty  dead  go.1  He  was  as  sacred 
as  fire  and  water,  in  almost  every  nation,  when  we  first  hear  of  it ;  save  with 
Zoroastrians,  the  teachers  of  the  Jewish  cosmogony,  and  they  called  him  in  their  early 
writings  the  first  creation  of  their  Satan,  Ahriman,  but  this  was,  I  suspect,  a  heresy  from 
an  older  faith  which  loved  him.  The  wildest  as  well  as  most  civilised  nations  alike 
revere  this  symbolic  reptile  ;  the  Dahomeys  of  this  day  have  a  grand  palace  for  their 
holy  serpent,  as  Egypt  had  for  Apis,  which  is  a  later  god  than  Op-is,  the  serpent 
deity  ;  he  who  kills  a  snake  in  Dahomey  can  only  be  purified  through  fire  and  water. 
The  universality  of  Serpent  Worship  has  long  been-  acknowledged  by  the 
learned,  though  rarely  of  late  in  Europe  has  the  real  cause  or  symbolism  been  under 
stood.  It  is  called  Ophiolatry,  or  Ophiolatreia,  and  thereupon  put  aside  as  quite  under 
stood,  but  "  a  mere  superstition,"  not  even  so  good  as  Mary-olatry,  and  nothing  to 
u  compare  to  Bibli-olatry,  or  Christ-olatry,  &c.  I  suspect  we  might  count  upon  our 
fingers  the  number  even  of  learned  men  who  in  Europe  see  through  the  real  meaning 
of  the  Serpent.  Even  the  Bible  story  so  familiar  to  all  Europe  regarding  woman 
bruising  its  head,  and  it  her  "  heel,"  or  rather  Akab  spy,  which  Dr  Donaldson  tells. us  "  is 
the  pudenda  muliebria,"  is  matter  which  is  quite  dark  to  Europe,  though  when  repeated 
to  an  intelligent  Sivaite  makes  him  merely  smile.  It  is  fraught  with  meaning  and 
truth,  and,  properly  viewed,  is  history.  It  is  not  all  Asiatics  who  comprehend  the 
Serpent ;  the  far  back  writer  of  mythic  Sankoniathon  failed  to  do  so,  or  else  he  satirized 
mankind,  for  he  makes  Sankoniathon  speak  as  if  both  he  and  the  Egyptian  Obelisk- 
God-King,  Toth  or  Tauthus,  did  not  see  the  significance  of  their  faith. '  In  Cory's 
Ancient  Fragments,  it  is  said  that  Sankoniathon  attributed  to  Toth  the  first  adoration 
of  the  Serpent,  and  taught  this  to  the  Egyptians,  "because  -the  Serpent  is  the  most 
inspirited  of  all  reptiles,  and  of  a  fiery  nature,  swift,  moving  without  hands,  assumes 
a  variety  of  forms,  and  darts  with  swiftness,  is  long-lived,  renews  its  youth,  and 
enlarges  its  size  and  strength."  Yet  the  writer  knew,  and  so  do  we  know,  that  man 
kind  do  not  worship  strange  creatures,  per  se,  but  only  as  bringing  before  them  god 
like  attributes  or  features,  mysterious  and  divine.  It  is  not  as  the  insignificant  though 
death-dealing  little  reptile,  that  man  has  worshipped  him,  as  we  shall  see  before  I  have 
rehearsed  even  the  little  I  know  of  his  ways  and  of  this  faith  ;  this  would  never  have 
crowned  him  the  Basileus  of  so  many  great  nations  and  made  so  many  monarchs, 

1  The  official  edict  of  this  year,  announcing  the  death  of  their  late  young  king,  says  "  he  has  gone 
to  the  great  Dragon." 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  95 

nobles,  and  priests  proud  to  wear  his  up-reared  form  on  their  brows  or  frontlets.      Let 
us  glance  somewhat  generally  at  him. 

Archeological  research,  until  within  the  last  two  generations,  showed  him 
as  a  sort  of  sporadic  superstition,  though  often  divine,  yet  ever  closely  associated 
with  trees  and  fetishes,  and  only  revered  and  occasionally  worshipped  in  the 
lowest  strata  of  civilization ;  for  it  overlooked,  that  "  as  is  our  civilization  so 
shall  our  gods  be ;"  and  that  sensual  and  warring  people,  love  "  a  god  of  battles," 
him  who  accepts  their  barbarous  sacrifices  and  neglects  not  their  passions.  The 
Serpent  was  Siva  in  all  his  creature  energies,  and  being  so,  loved  human  and  bloody 
sacrifices,  though  he  can  dwell  with  races  who  have  passed  into  a  higher  stage  than 
this.  In  Greece  as  well  as  in  India,  he  survived  human  sacrifices,  though  it  is  pro 
bable  he  would  demand  and  have  these  again  in  the  East,  were  the  British  power  with 
drawn  from  India.  In  Egypt,  we  see  the  Serpent  under  a  multitude  of  symbols  and 
connected  with  nearly  all  the  animal  kingdom,  and  often  disguised  as  an  animal  or 
bird,  as  the  hawk  for  vivacity  and  wisdom,  the  bull  for  power,  &c.  In  Asyria  he  is 
often  Nishrok,  the  "  eagle-headed-one,"  as  in  India  he  is  sometimes  Vishnoo,  the  "  eagle- 
borne  one."  We  meet  him,  says  Fergusson,  everywhere  "  in  the  wilderness  of  Sinai, 
the  groves  of  Epidaurus,  and  in  Samothracian  huts."  Yet  it  is  incorrectly  held  that 
he  sprang  from  the  land  of  the  lower  Euphrates  and  is  peculiar  to  the  Turanian  rather 
than  to  the  Aryan  or  Shemitic  races..  My  own  investigations  oblige  me  to  confess 
that  he  is  a  bold  man  who  can  fix  the  place  of  his  birth  and  death.  Lucan  in  Phars. 
lib.  ix.  727,  says  : — "  Vos  quoque  qui  cunctis  innoxia  numina  terris  Serpitis  aurato 
nitidi  fulgore  Dracones."1  Kome  says  she  got  him  from  the  outlying  parts  of  Italy, 
and  Fergusson,  following  Herodotus  and  others,  shows  us  his  habitation  nearly  every 
where.  We  know  that  he  was  accepted  into  the  bosom  of  the  Christian  Church 
amongst  comparatively  learned  Nicolaitans  and  Gnostics,  and  even  when  not 
worshipped,  was  held  by  all  Christians  as  of  vast  importance  in  Gentile  faiths.  Christ 
confessed  his  "wisdom,"  which  he  must  have  learned  from  the  traditional  story  connected 
with  the  Eden  myth,  for  of  the  reptile's  actual  wisdom  we  know  nothing  ;  yet  many  of 
Christ's  followers  treasured  Serpents,  and  called  themselves  Ophites,  and  the  reptile,  their 
Saviour's  representation  if  not  more.  Was  not  the  Serpent  "  the  healer  of  the  nations" 
of  Israel  from  the  days  of  Moses  to  Hezekiah,  occupying  the  most  prominent  spot  in 
their  holy  places  for  700  years  and  probably  much  longer.  Wandering  Arabs  or 
Edumean  outcasts  from  Egypt  were,  however,  but  an  insignificant  part  of  the 
mighty  crowds  which  followed  Python,  or  Ops,  and  called  him  incarnate  power  and 
wisdom  ;  he  was  the  power  of  the  Lawgiver's  Rod,  Banner,  or  Caduceus,  for  this  is  a 
true  Phallic  emblem,  and  one  which  in  the  case  of  Israel  "the  Jhavh"  became 
incarnate  in,  by  turning  it  into  that  "  holy  thing,"  which  Moses  was  desired  in  his 
troubles  to  hold  up  in  his  hand,  and  to  rear  up  on  a  pole  for  the  salvation  of  the 

1  Trans. — You  also  Serpents  which  creep  gleaming  in  golden  splendour,  harmless  deities  in  all  lands. 

96  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

tribes.  Then  and  there  also  was  said  of  this  deity  what  we  still  hear  said  of  him 
in  India  that  "  if  he  stings,  or  even  kills,  he  is  also  the  healer  of  all  evils." 

His  was  the  first  faith  of  man  which  produced  broadly  announced  Incarnations, 
for  those  of  my  second  Stream  of  Faith  were  veiled  in  bodily  gods,  and  came  naturally. 
Hundreds  north  and  south,  east  and  west,  have  worshipped  Serpent  incarnations, 
and  thousands  have  claimed  him  as  their  father,  and  vowed  that  they  have  been  over 
shadowed  by  him ;  and  in  true  historic  times — the  second  century  A.C.,  Lucian,  the 
Syrian  Greek,  asserts  that  he  was  born  of  a  Serpent.  The  emperor  Augustus,  a  century 
previous,  said  the  same  of  his  god-like  origin,  and  the  great  and  pious  Scipio 
Africanus,  who  daily  worshipped  the  gods  in  the  Capitol  before  beginning  the  duties 
of  the  day,  tells  us  that,  in  the  third  century  A. a,  his  young  life  was  nursed  by  a 
Serpent.  See  also  the  good  and  learned  Emperor  Hadrian,  in  the  second  century  A.C., 
sending  away  to  the  furthest  East  for  a  Serpent  to  place  in  the  temple  of  Jupitei 
Olymjnis  at  Athens.  Philip  of  Macedon  believed  that  his  wife  Olympia  (fitting 
name)  conceived  Alexander  the  Great  by  a  Serpent,  which,  says  the  historian,  "  was 
found  in  her  bed !  "  She,  if  not  her  husband,  believed  she  was  to  produce  an  incar 
nate  god,  which  had  probably  something  to  do  with  their  "initiating"  them 
selves,  and  becoming  adepts  in  the  Samothracian  mysteries.  Olympia  traversed  all 
the  wilds  of  Mount  Hemus  as  a  Bacchante,  having  attendants  garlanded  with  Serpents 
and  ivy,  and  holding  Thyrsi,  and  was  evidently  a  poor  hysterical  fanatic,  who  would 
readily  give  out  that  she  had  a  child  from  the  Lord. 

In  the  Jewish  Genesis,  written,  some  fancy,  about  1000  B.C.,  but  which,  as  will  be 
seen  by-and-by,  was,  as  we  have  it,  only  old  legends  furbished  up  by  Ezra  in  the  5th 
C.B.C.,  or  even  later,  the  Serpent  is  pictured  as  the  real  preserver  of  the  human  race,  for 
it  is  acknowledged  that  he  was  the  giver  of  wisdom  to  our  early  parents,  and  taught 
Eve,  a  form  of  himself,  that  she  was  naked,  and  the  purposes  of  woman.  Now,  it  is 
as  this  imparter  of  sexual  wisdom,  that  Easterns  and  Westerns,  not  excepting  early 
Christians,  worshipped  the  symbolic  reptile.  The  wisdom  of  Egypt  and  Kaldia  bowed 
before  him,  and  the  learned  Esculapius,  because  the  greatest  benefactor  of  his  time, 
was  likened  to  him  ;  and  a  rod  and  serpents  exhibit  his  fame  'down  even  to  our  day. 
All  nations  have  sought  him  in  their  troubles,  and  imperial  Rome  meekly  craved  that 
he  would  come,  though  but  for  a  day,  and  stay  her  pestilence.  The  sacrifices  made  to 
him  were  numerous  and  great,  but  the  most  favoured  and  that  which  high  and  low  could 
best  yield  him  and  his  votaries,  seemed  to  be  the  cock,  the  announcer  of  his  prototype  the 
sun,  and  for  other  reasons  appropriate.  I  show  here  the  popular  Hygia,  the  virgin  goddess 
of  health,  and  usually  called  the  daughter  of  Esculapius,  feeding  from  a  cup — her  own 
emblem,  the  loved  god  encircling  the  Phallic  pole  ;  the  consequence  of  such  love  and  care 
stands  by  her  side,  proclaiming  the  emblematic  deity  to  be  in  ancient  days,  as  well  as 
now,  the  great  creator,  as  well  as  the  SOTER  KOSMOU,  and  Health-giver  of  nations,  names 
of  Siva  and  the  Sun,  bestowed  by  all  who  consider  population  the  great  strength  and 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


salvation  of  a  nation.  This  picture,  held  to  represent  health  and  the  healthy  actions 
of  nature,  is  abundantly  varied  in  classic  statu 
ary  and  pictures.  In  the  Napoleonic  Museum 
of  the  Louvre  used  to  be  a  group,  of  which  the 
centre  was  an  upright  column,  on  which  stood  a 
man  with  raised  staff- — that  self-same  idea  which 
caused  the  Edumean  tribes  to  say  when  they 
warred  to  the  death  with  the  Amalekites,  that  their 
leader  must  stand  with  raised  rod,  as  the  symbol  of 
an  imperishable  people.  Round  the  Louvre  staff 
was  a  coiled  serpent,  and  at  the  base  the  Boodhist 
wheel  of  life,  or  probably  the  Sun.  Respectfully 
adoring  this  symbol  of  life,  there  stood  on  one  side 
a  winged  female  figure,  who  with  one  hand  was  presenting  her  cup  to  the  Serpent, 
who  longingly  reaches  down  its  head  towards  her  ;  in  the  other  hand  was  a  flambeau. 
On  the  opposite  side  stood  a  warrior  touching  the  snake  in  a  quaint  manner,  as  if 
urging  it  on  to  do  something. 

A  Serpent  twisted  round  the  stem  of  a  tree — in  which  case  it  is  "  the  Tree  of  Life," 
or  "Life-giving  Tree" — is  very  common.  In  the  adjoining  Plate  IV.  he  is  seen  in  Fig. 
11,  as  on  the  stem,  between  symbolic  rocks,  with  the  Ark,  the  feminine  emblem  below ; 
and  in  Fig.  10  he  is  twisted  round  what  is  usually  termed  "  the  Yule  Log" — that  is, 
the  Sun,  Hull  or  Seul  stone,  a  name  for  the  Lingam  ;  whilst  the  date-palm  symbol  of 
Adam,  stands  on  the  one  side,  and  a  common  form  of  the  konch  shell,  or  Adama,  on 
the  other.  Figure  3  of  this  plate  is  another  sort  of  pictorial  pun,  which  I  have 
elsewhere  alluded  to,  where  man  himself  forms  the  Phallic  Cross,  and  the  Serpents  the 
other  emblems  of  this  lore. 

There  are  several  highly  significant  forms  in  my  Plates  IV.  and  V.,  showing  how 
mankind  loved  to  represent  their  Serpent  king,  and  we  might  fill  dozens  of  sheets  with 
such  drawings.  In  Fig.  1,  Plate  V.,  he  is  seen  on  an  Esculapius  rod,  of  which  the  meaning 
is  made  more  unmistakable  than  usual  by  its  issuing  from  a  vaginal  sheath,  such  as 
that  of  the  crozier  of  Cashel,  which  is  seen  further  on.  I  give  here  a  drawing  of  what 
is  called  a  Tyrean  cistopharos  coin,  in  which  we  observe  two 
upreared  serpents  fighting  or  kissing  over  what  is  usually  called 
a  quiver  sheath,  in  which. are  other  serpentinish  objects.  This 
"  quiver "  is  only  so  in  Solomon's  sense  of  quivers,  for  it 
precisely  what  we  see  beside  Apollo  as  he  stands  in  Fig.  44,  page] 
127,  "passing  through  the  door  of  life,"  and  is  in  my  opinion' 
the  ark,  argo  or  womb  of  nature,  but  here  the  nest  of  the 
Serpents,  for  they  are  male  and  female.  The  one  on  the  left 
is  a  large  male,  and  still  more  clearly  indicated  as  the  male 

T.  N 

Fig.  34. — TTKFAN  COIN. 

98  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

element,  by  having,  his  Egyptian  type,  the  Apis  (Op-is),  behind  him — a  position 
quite  similar  to  that  of  the  Sivaik  Nanda  in  front  of  the  Youi.  On  the  reverse  of  the 
coin  is  generally,  the. well-known  Cista  Mystica,  half  open,  and  from  which  a  Serpent 
is  seen  issuing,  and  around  which  are  Bacchic-looking  objects,  grapes,  vine-leaves 
formed  like  Phalli,  &c.  ;  this  will  be  seen  further  on. 

The  cist  is  often  shown  below  the  other  figures,  as  in  the  coin,  Fig.  11,  Plate  IV.  ; 
sometimes  it  is  the  ark  or  the  altar,  now  altar-table  with  Christians,  but  still  the  ark 
with  our  Jewish  friends ;  the  shank  shell,  or  koncha  veneris,  represents  it  with  our 
Indian  brethren,  as  this  is  seen  in  coins  1  and  10  of  this  same  plate.  This  altar  feature 
is  very  varied,  and  always  very  holy  even  to  the  touch  ;  that  is  equally  a  holy  altar  or 
ark  on  which  the  holy  fire  is  burning,  and  from  the  base  of  which  spring  two 
Serpents,  and  that  conical-like  cist  believed  to  represent  the  Paphian  Venus,  whose 
symbol  was  ovate,  such  as  is  seen  in  Fig.  3,  Plate  V.,  which  is  taken  from  one  of 
Lajard's  drawings  of  a  bronze  coin  of  Vespasian  struck  in  Cyprus  :  Here  two  lighted 
candles  (highly  Phallic  symbols)  are  seen  burning  by  the  sides  of  this  altar  of  Love, 
and  passion  is  springing  from  the  two  altar-pillars  and  wreathing  over  the  altar  itself, 
which  here  serves  to  cover  the  scene  supposed  to  be  enacted  below,  as  in  the  case  of 
a  remarkable  Pompeian  painting  which  follows. 

In  Fig.  4,  Plate  IV.,  we  have  a  great  gem,  originally  also  from  Lajard's  Recherches 
sur  le  Culte  de  Venus,  which  embraces  more  ideas  than  most.  "  It  is  a  white  agate 
stone  shaped  like  a  cone  (therefore  Sivaic),  and  this  cutting  is  on  the  lower  face,"  so 
that  the  shape  of  the  whole  is  either  a  Lingam  or  the  Paphian  cone.  The  central 
rudder-like  column  is  highly  mystic,  and  may  represent  either  the  general  idea  of  all 
great  gods  being  bi-sexual,  or,  as  Dr  Inman  thinks,  "  the  Androgyne  deity,  as  Balaam, 
Ashtaroth,  Elohim,  Jupiter  Genitor,  or  the  bearded  Venus  Mylitta  ; " *  for  on  the  right 
we  have  a  bare  female  face,  and  on  the  left  a  bearded  face,  an  inverted  triangle,  and 
radiating  solar  corona  connecting  the  two  heads.  Feminine  symbols  preponderate  on 
the  right ;  even  the  Serpent  on  that  side  seems  to  be  denoted  as  feminine,  having  a 
large  round  head  and  very  prominent  eye,  and  Isis'  crescent  moon  over-head  and  cup 
below,  and  a  six-rayed  star  in  the  centre ;  whilst  on  the  left  we  'have  a  bearded  man, 
the  usual  pointed  serpent-head,  and  this  in  the  solar  aureol,  which  is  generally  a  male 
sign  ;  but,  on  the  other  hand,  we  have  a  Yoni  here ;  below  is  shown  a  cup  over  a 
phallic-shaped  vase,  such  as  is  still  the  favourite  form  for  all  oil  and  water  vessels  in 
Sivaic  temples  ;  over  the  whole  are  three  stars.  The  grand  embodied  idea  is  no  doubt 
passion,  or  creation.  The  Caduceus  idea  of  Fig.  1,  Plate  V.,  is  again  given  as  usually 
worn  by  men  of  authority  in  Fig.  9,  Plate  IV.,  or  else  it  is  here  to  denote  that  this 
Serpent  on  the  right  is  the  male,  a  fact  often  thus  emphasized  in  Phallic  lore. 

It  is  only,  I  think,  the  shores  of  the  Mediterranean,  about  India  and  the  banks  of 

1  Ancient  Fait/is  embodied  in  Ancient  Names,  I.      this  bold  and  earnest  writer  for  all  the  figures  in 
Descriptive  Plates,  xiii.      I  am  greatly  indebted  to      Plates  IV.  and  V.,  and  very  much  else. 

RIVERS    OF    LIFE.       PLATE    IV. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship*  99 

the  Tigris,  Euphrates,  and  Nile,  that  have  yielded  to  us  these  Serpent  coins  and 
seals,  though  it  is  agreed  on  all  hands  that  "  Serpent  worshippers  swarmed  up  the 
great  rivers  of  Europe "  also  :  In  the  dark  Teuton  forests,  the  Tree  and  the 
Grove  sufficed  the  rude  fierce  tribes,  but  even  here  we  read  of  plenty  of  Serpent 
worship  on  high  hill  tops,  in  caves  and  watery  caverns  ;  it  is  probably  only  our  want 
of  records  and  remains  which  prevents  our  tracing  more  fully  this  third  great 
faith  of  man  through  all  our  European  states  ;  for  Ophiolatry  is  abundantly  clear 
amidst  Skands  and  Kelts,  as  we  shall  by  and  by  see. 

Fergusson  says  that  in  Sarmatia  the  worship  of  both  tree  and  serpent  was 
common,  but  the  Samagitse  considered  the  serpent  to  be  the  God.  In  Lithuania  the 
veneration  for  the  serpent  was  extreme.  Prague  offered  sacrifices  arid  oblations  to 
numerous  and  much  revered  serpents,  and  Livonia  sacrificed  the  most  beautiful  captives 
of  her  wars  to  her  serpent  gods,  and  this  down  to  "  the  middle  ages."  Olus  Magnus 
writes,  that  the  Poles  worshipped  Fire,  Serpents,  and  Trees  in  deep  woods,  even  in 
1386  A.C.  when,  the  prince  and  his  brethren  having  been  won  over  to  Christianity,  the 
truculent  herd  followed. 

The  ease  with  which  real  Serpent  worshippers  embrace  Christianity,  and  all 
faiths  dealing,  like  it,  with  mysteries  and  miracles,  is  seen  in  the  Christian  success 
amidst  the  Serpent  and  Devil  worshipping  lower  classes  of  Dravidian  India ;  a  striking 
contrast  to  its  utter  want  of  success  amidst  the  Aryans  of  Upper  India,  or  any  culti 
vated  races  in  India  or  elsewhere  ;  to  this  much  attention  will  be  hereafter  given. 

Tree,  Serpent,  and  Fire  worship  existed  in  Norway  and  Wermalandia  down  to 
1555,  and  in  Esthonia  and  Finland,  down  to  the  limits  of  this  century,  so  far  as 
veneration  for  some  of  the  characteristics  of  these  old  faiths  go.  In  the  Ammergau 
Passion-play  of  a  few  years  ago,  I  have  shown  the  symbols  of  the  old  faiths  very 
unmistakably  played  out  before  great  potentates  of  Europe.  Fergusson  gives  us 
some  of  the  Te  Deum  which  was  offered  as  praise  and  prayer  to  Trees,  but  which 
litany  is  now  transferred  to  the  Virgin  and  Christ — rarely  to  God. 

The  great  route,  he  says,  by  which  these  old  faiths  passed  back  and  forward, 
is  a  line  connecting  the  north  border  of  the  Caspian  Sea  with  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula 
in  the  Baltic,  but  I  give,  by  a  wash  of  red  across  my  Plate  II. — "The  World  according 
to  Strabo,"  the  more  detailed  general  lines  by  which  all  the  great  faiths  and  heroes  of 
pre-historic  days  travelled. 

Woden,  as  the  Serpent,  may  have  come  from  the  sunny  south,  and  been  perhaps 
ol  Boodhist  offspring,  but  as  a  Serpent  Deity,  we  must  relegate  him  to  a  still 
mightier  past.  Perhaps  we  had  a  sunny  north,  with  its  own  Woden,  of  which  Boodha  was 
the  southern  type  :  Hercules  met  the  Serpent  maiden  Ekidna,  and  from  her  sprang 
the  Skythian  hordes  with  their  early  hero  Eponymos.  Here  also  we  must  not  forget 
our  Northern  Furies,  the  Amazones,  whose  institutions  and  myths  are  so  closely  mixed 
up  with  Serpent  faiths.  From  the  supposed  cradles  of  our  Caucasian  races,  the  slopes 

ioo  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

and  vales  of  the  mountain  range  which  divides  the  Caspian,  the  Euxine,  and  Sea  of 
Asoph,  these  women-warriors  passed  along  the  southern  shores  of  the  Euxine,  and 
occupied  the  ancient  and  important  province  of  Asia  Minor,  known  as  Pontus.  From 
the  bold  promontory  of  Sinope  to  the  rugged  shores  of  Iberia,  from  the  Taurus  ranges 
of  Capadocia  in  the  south  to  the  Amisus  Sinus  in  the  north,  many  a  town  long  bore 
witness  to  their  name  and  prowess.  Later  Greece  probably  drew  from  them  the  myths 
of  her  "  Furies,"  with  their  garlands  and  crowns  of  serpents,  their  flaming  torch,  serpent- 
streamer,  and  phallic  javeline,  in  throwing  which  the  Amazones  were  so  famous,  and 
cut  off,  says  legend,  the  right  breast  in  childhood  to  be  adepts  in  it.  This  extraordinary 
race,  who  reversed  the  laws  of  nature,  took  for  their  battle  cry,  fury,  vengeance,  and 
blood,  and  combined  with  the  strength  and  vigour  of  the  male  sex,  the  worst  features 
of  depraved  womanhood.  The  myth  is  rather  a  tangled  mass,  but  in  their  conquest  by 
Hercules  (manly  vigour)  and  Bellerophon,  we  probably  see  the  violence  of  woman's 
passion  for  offspring  satiated  by  the  Hercules,  and  blessed  by  fertility  in  Bellerophon 
the  Sun  God. 

In  ancient  Teutonic  mythic  story,  the  Hercules  who  destroys  the  Dragon  race  is 
Sigurd  or  Siegfried,  which  tells  us  of  early  serpent  worshipping  races,  everywhere 
giving  place  to  others.  Owing  to  the  very  early  settlement  of  Zoroastrianism  in  the 
countries  we  now  call  Persia,  it  is  not  easy  to  show  here  the  prevalence  of  serpent  wor 
ship,  and  still  less,  the  older  faith  in  holy  trees.  No  doubt  the  Ahriman  or  Fiend 
whom  Ormazd  overthrew  was  the  serpent ;  he  was  the  Rawana  of  Ceylon  and  the  Loki 
of  Skandinavia. 

Media  and  Arabia,  which  I  take  to  be  Ethiopia,  were  the  obstinate  seats  of 
serpent  worship  ;  and  sculpturings,  as  well  as  ancient  writings  assure  us,  that  Afgan- 
istan  was,  until  the  ascendancy  of  Mohamedanism,  almost  wholly  devoted  to  serpent 
worship.  Possibly  the  Median  Court  was  somewhat  cleared  of  its  proclivities  towards 
pure  Ophiolatry  by  the  sixth  century  B.C.,  or  at  all  events  before  Cyrus'  time,  but  our 
knowledge  is  far  too  scanty  to  say  this  of  the  mass  of  the  people.  That  there  was 
some  great  move  of  the  serpent  loving  races  in  the  sixth  century  B.C.  we  know  from 
the  vast  wave  which,  under  the  name  of  Tak-shooks,  swept  down  from  Media,  Aria, 
and  Bactria,  &c.,  through  the  mountain  passes  of  India — "  a  teeming  hive  of  Skythia," 
says  Marshman  in  his  "  History  of  India,"  across  the  Indus  and  down  upon  the  plains 
of  India.  Another  swarm  is  then  also  said  to  "  have  moved  on  the  north  of  Europe," 
so  we  can  understand  that  some  clearing  out  was  about  this  sixth  century  B.C.  beino- 
effected  in  Asia  Minor  and  eastward  as  far  as  Kabol.  Fergusson  thinks  we  have  "  the 
last  material  trace  of  serpent  worship  in  Persia  in  a  bas  relief  at  Nakshi  Roostem, 
near  Persepolis,"  the  capital  of  what  is  known  as  Hollo w-Persis — south  and  far  east  of 
Babylon  ;  the  very  name  "  Nak,"  suggests  that  the  city  belonged  to  serpent  worship. 
The  relief  shows  the  first  Sasanian  king  seated  on  a  horse,  which  is  trampling  under 
foot  Ardevan  the  last  of  the  hated  Parthian  or  serpent  kings,  who,  like  the  famous 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  i  o  i 

Zohak,  has  a  wreath  of  two  serpents  round  his  head.  The  great  Ormazd  is  seen 
crowning  the  new  dynasty  of  Fire- worshippers,  which  probably  then — 226  A.C., 
was  after  long  centuries  of  war  and  bloodshed,  established  in  these  wilds  >of  ancient 

The  Greeks  knew  all  ancient  Persia  for  several  centuries  before  Christ,  and  we  have 
abundant  notices  by  them  of  serpent,  Phallic,  and  Zoroastrian  faiths  as  there  existing. 
In  the  well  known  ancient  name,  called  differently  Zohak  or  Azhi-dahaka,  (the  de 
structive  serpent  of  Zend  literature,  who  was  conquered  by  the  Zoroastrian  hero  Thrae 
tona)  or  short,  Ajdaliak— pronounced  by  the  Persian  Dehak  (ten  evils),  the  Arabian 
Dechak  or  "  the  laugher,"  or  Azdehak,  him  with  a  shoulder  disease  (thought  to  be  ser 
pents  which  destroy  men),  we  can  see  much  that  points  to  a  more  ancient  faith  than  even 
archaic  Magianism.     Miiller  says,  that  "  possibly  Dehak  was  an  ancestor  of  that  Median 
dynasty  which  came  to  an  end  in  Astyages "  the  reputed  grandfather  of  Cyrus,  and 
if  so,  then  the  serpent  dynasty  probably  fell  when  Boodha  was  rising  in  India  and 
Lao-tsee  in  China.    Burnouf  makes  it  clear  that  Thraetona  was  the  Firidoon,  of  Firdusi's 
Shah-name,  and  that  Firidoon  slew  Zohak  a  King  of  Persia — "  the  biting  serpent,"  and 
this  accords  with  what  the  Avesta  says  of  Thraetona  slaying  the  serpent  Azhi-dahaka. 
The  demon  who  opposes  the  gods  of  the  Zend-Avesta  is  always  Ahi,  the  serpent,  and 
the  particular  reigning  King  of  the  serpent  worshippers  has  here  only  his  own  name 
appended  to  Ahi  or  Azh  :  Zohak,  say  most  writers,  came  from  Arabia  or  Ethiopia  of 
ancient  days,  or  even  further  S.W.  as  from  the  serpent  lands  of  Africa  where  the  Faith 
ever  nourished,   nor  has   yet   ceased   to    do   so ;   he   was   called  Bivarasp,  "  because 
always  accompanied  by  a  bodyguard  of  10,000  men,"  and  was  said  to  have  been  des 
cended  from  Tazi  or  Taj  and  to  have  been  the  son  of  a  herdsman.     He  conquered  all 
central  Asia,  and  fixed  his  own  residence  at  Babel,  and  his  dynasty  lasted  1000  years, 
so  that  if  we  place  Thraetona  or  Firidoon,  as  I  do  in  my  Chart,  about  the  time  of 
Christ,  then  Zohak's  convulsion  in  western  Asia  corresponds  with  a  similar  great  convul 
sion  which  was  being  effected  by  Rama  from  Oud  through  all  central  and  southern  India, 
also  with  the  foundation  of  the  Hindoo  capital  of  Indraprestha,  and  the  consolidation 
of  the  little  Jewish  kingdom  under  David.     We  see  in  Zohak's  faith  the  usual  accom 
paniment  of  all  Phallic  faiths  ;  every  day,  say  Mahomedan  writers,  two  young  men 
had  to  be  sacrificed  to  satisfy  the  two  snakes,  and  these  were  fed  upon  their  brains. 
The  Zendavesta  speaks  of  Zohak  having  three  snakes,  meaning  possibly  his  head  as  the 
Solar  Python  between  two  snakes.     All  Naga  women  in  the  east  are  represented  as  with 
one  snake  between  their  shoulders,  and  men  with  three,  five,  or  seven.     The  throne  of 
Kabol  long  after  Firidoon,  was  filled  by  a  descendant  of  Zohak's,  and  a  descendant  of 
the  Zoroastrian  married  Koodabeh,  the  lovely  daughter  of  this  serpent  dynasty,  and 
from  the  union  sprang  Roostum,  about  whom  cling  the  most  thrilling  romances  of  the 
east.     This  Kabol  dynasty  only  gave  way  apparently  to  Boodhism  so  easily  grafted  on 
Serpent  worship.     In  Kashmere  we  have  this  last  worship  everywhere,  and  the  records 

IO2  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

of  the  country  point  to  its  beautiful  lake  and  mountain  fastnesses  as  the  earliest  historic 
seats  which  we  have  of  the  faith.  Hweng  Sang — travelling  in  the  first  half  of  the  7th 
century  A.C.,  tells  us  of  serpent  temples  and  Naga  chiefs  all  over  Kashmeer,  as  well  as 
the  country  which  we  now  call  Afganistan.  He  says  that  fifty  years  after  the  Nirvana 
(493  B.C.,)  a  Boodhist  converted  the  Kashmeer  Naga  king,  who  quitted  "his  tank" 
or  lake  (for  serpents  live  in  water),  built  500  Monasteries,  and  invited  sages  and  saints 
to  come  and  dwell  in  them  (II.  180) ;  nevertheless  the  good  priest  was  not  well  satisfied 
with  the  then  reigning  king,  for  he  says,  he  frequented  the  temples  of  the  Kash- 
meeres  and  despised  Boodhism  ;  so  we  see  that  although  this  faith  had  prevailed  for 
1000  years  over  almost  the  whole  of  India,  yet  it  was  still  despised  by  this  small 
remote  dependency,  notwithstanding  that  its  princes  had  been  converted  to  Boodhism, 
and  that  the  people  knew  that  vast  empires  had  bent  before  the  princely  Ascetic's 
faith.  This  is  a  point  to  be  remembered  in  regard  to  other  countries  around  us  ;  thus 
although  the  sword  of  a  Clovis  or  a  Charlemagne  commanded  Europe  a  thousand  years 
ago,  to  bow  before  the  cross  of  the  holy  Nazarene,  yet,  as  I  have  elsewhere  shown,  even 
some  of  this  great  Emperor's  converts  were  at  that  very  time  likening  him  to  the 
serpent,  and  nearly  1000  years  after  he  had  passed  away,  there  are  people,  nay  tribes, 
even  in  Europe,  who,  if  they  do  not  revere  it,  fear  it  as  a  mystic  animal,  and  will  on 
no  consideration  injure  it. 

There  is  a  curious  connection  between  this  water-loving  reptile  and  rain,  and  the 
weather  generally,  which  always  crops  up  in  Aryan  story,  as  well  as  among  aboriginal 
tribes.  The  Aryan  India,  ascribed  to  Ahi — the  Vedic  Serpent  God,  power  over  the 
weather,  and  the  Jains  following  Brahmans  tell  us  that  their  23d  Tirtakara1— 
Parasva,  who  died  about  777  B.C.,  was  protected  from  the  severest  rains  by  a 
hooded  snake  when  engaged  in  earnest  prayer  and  meditation.  The  place  where  this 
good  man  sat  became  a  great  town  under  the  appropriate  name  of  Chatra,  or  the 
umbrella  or  hood.  Now,  of  course,  serpent  hoods,  however  grand  and  perfectly  put 
together,  could  afford  no  protection  from  rain,  so  we  must  look  for  symbolism  in  all 
such  tales  as  well  as  in  the  creature  itself. 

It  is  strange  how  even  the  most  learned  of  Europe,  who  have  not  studied  the 
faith  in  India,  fail  here,  as  well  as  in  Fire  and  Sun  faiths,  to  grasp  the  abstract  symbol 
ism.  A  first  class  Review,  put  into  my  hands  just  as  this  was  going  to  press  says, 
that  "  the  chief  object  of  the  worship  of  the  Ancients  "  was  a  serpent,  not  a  curved 
symbol,  but  the  living  beast,  not  as  typifying  anything  beyond  itself,  but  as  actually 
divine !  !  implying  that  the  wise  men  of  all  these  times,  and  nations,  aye,'  and  mil 
lions  of  present  worshippers,  were  not  only  very  ignorant,  but  children,  playing  with 
dolls !  So  it  is  thought  that  stones  or  "  Betyls  "  (Baituli)  were  mere  stones,  and 
fire  mere  fire  I!  Their  symbolism  as  procreative  mediums,  never  seems  to  have  occurred 
to  this  writer,  although  the  procreative  passion  is  as  strong  perhaps,  and  far  more 

1   Usually  called  "  Incarnations  ;  lit.  Pure-doer." 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  103 

violent  in  its  working  now  than  formerly.  This  reviewer,  who  is  a  type  of  a  large 
number  of  people,  says  :  "  Arnobius,  a  Christian  convert  of  the  4th  century,  relates  that 
in  Africa  where  he  resided,  he  never  before  his  conversion  saw  a  stone  upon  which  oil 
had  been  poured  without  paying  it  homage."1  Why  1  Not  surely  if  it  did  "not  typify 
something  beyond  itself."  Arnobius  would  have  answered  very  differently  :  This 
writer  can  only  fancy  that  these  stones  were  held  to  be  "  Aerolites,"  or  at  least  to  have 
come  down  from  heaven  in  some  mysterious  manner,  for  in  no  other  way  can  he 
account  for  the  otherwise  unaccountable  fact,  that  "  stones  smeared  with  oil  and  called 
Betyls  were  amongst  the  earliest  objects  of  devotion,"  that  Jacob  made  his  pillow-stone 
into  such  a  Betyl,  and  that  even  according  to  Acts  xix.  35  "  the  world-famed  temple 
of  Diana  at  Ephesus  commemorated  one  of  these  meteoric  stones,"  and  he  adds  "  the 
black  stone  of  Meka  is  such  another."  On  what  authority  however,  either  this  last 
or  the  Diana  image  is  a  meteoric  stone  I  know  not.  The  Greek  writer  in  calling  it  a 
Dio-Petes  3io-*rsrfo,  seems  only  to  have  meant  that  it  had  come  from  God  in  the 
same  manner  as  most  holy  gods  and  images  and  even  Bibles  are  said  to  have  come,  and 
this  is  very  commonly  said  of  Lingam  stones. 

It  is  here,  •  perhaps,  necessary  to  inform  my  readers  that  all  conical  or  erect 
stones,  and  all  quaint  or  rude  masses  of  Eock  usually  denote  the  male  sex,  unless  ovate 
or  well-rounded,  when  they  are  feminine  :  Thus,  great  virility  is  intended  by  the  rocks 
seen  in  figures  1  and  11  of  plate  IV.,  and  so  also  in  most  places  where  we  see  a  Hercules 
or  Apollo  leaning  against  a  rock,  more  especially  if  a  serpent  is  seen  entwined  or 
crawling  near  to  this.  It  should  not  be,  but  I  fear  it  is,  necessary  to  explain  to  mere 

English  readers  of  the  Old  Testament,  that  the  Stone  or  Rock — Tsur iw — was 

the  real  old  God  of  all  Arabs,  Jews,  and  Phenicians,  and  this  would  be  clear  to 
Christians  were  the  Jewish  writings  translated  according  to  the  first  ideas  of  the  people, 
and  Rock  used,  as  it  ought  to  be,  instead  of  "God,"  "Theos,"  "  Lord,"  &c.  being  written, 
where  Tsur  occurs.  In  Appendix  V.  to  Dr  Oort's  Worship  of  Baalam  in  Israel, 
translated,  with  Notes,  by  Bishop  Colenso,  we  are  given  no  less  than  twenty-one 
instances  in  a  few  lines,  of  addresses  to,  or  adoration  of  "  the  Rock,"  whose  "  work  is 
perfect,"  Dent,  xxxii.  4,  "  which  begat  thee  and  thou  neglectest "  (18),  of  "  the  Eock  in 
whom  they  trusted,"  of  "  Jehovah,  my  Eock,"  "my  Elohim,  my  Rock,"  &c.,  &c.,2  all 
of  which  have  been  gilded  or  slurred  over  by  the  translators,  just  as  these  were 
softened  down,  as  Dr  Smith's  Bible  Dictionary  informs  us  under  the  head  LXX.,  where 
ever  bodily  parts  and  passions  were  ascribed  to  "the  Jhavh." 

This  is  the  case  in  all  nations,  Bibles  and  Faiths :  None  have  ever  been  true  to 
one  God,  else  could  not  humanity  have  advanced.  Tsurs,  which  at  first  were  no 

xAdv.  Gent.  I.  39. 

2  A  few  texts  as  to  Rock  Gods  : — Deut.  xxxii.  Ixxviii.  35  ;  xcii.  15  ;  Is.  xxvi.  4  ;  xxx.  29  ;  xliv. 
4,  18,  30,  31,  to  37  ;  1  Sam.  ii.  2  ;  2  Sam.  xxii.  8  ;  Hab.  i.  12  ;  in  all  of  which  the  Hock  is  the 
3,  32-4;  and  xxiii.  3;  Ps.  xviii.  2,  31,46;  Ps.  name  of  Israel's  deity,  and  as  we  shall  see  by  and  by, 
cxliv.  1  ;  Ps.  xix.  14  ;  Ps.  xxviii.  1  ;  Ixii.  2,  6  ;  the  Unhewn  Rock. 

i  04  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

doubt  unhewn  stones  (Lingams),  gave  way  to  Altars  made  of  earth  without  steps, 
then  altars  on  which  "no  tool  had  been  waved,"  then  graven  or  fashioned  stones  or 
Bctyls,  or,  as  the  Greeks  said,  Baituli  or  superior  Lingams ;  then  to  built  altars, 
with  and  without  steps,  then  to  covered  ones,  as  Arks,  with  Betyls  or  Eduths  (Exod. 
xvi.  34)  inside  of  them,  and  hence  called  Beth-Els;  then  to  glorious  "Rays  of 
Light"  or  Obelisks  within  and  without  these;  and  lastly,  to  shorten  a  long  story, 
came  Cathedrals,  with  grand  spires,  pillars,  and  domes,  representing  all  the  above 
ideas,  and  a  great  many  more  which  it  could  not  enter  into  the  mind  of  Elohists  or 
Jhavhists  to  conceive  of ;  and  so  it  was  with  Tree,  Lingam,  and  Serpent  Faiths,  as  I 
trust  to  yet  make  clear. 

Kaldia  has  always  been  called  the  cradle  and  greatest  stronghold  of  Ophiolatry 
(although  I  am  unable  to  acquiesce  in  this  opinion),  yet,  even  in  the  time  of 
Herodotus,  we  gather  from  his  complete  silence  regarding  Serpent  Worship,  that  Python 
had  then — 5th  century  B.C.,  evidently  paled  before  advancing  civilisation,  principally, 
no  doubt,  owing  to  the  culture  of  Astronomy,  before  which  stronger  ideas  than  the 
Draconian  have  gone  down.  Of  course,  however,  ophiolatry  had  not  disappeared,  for  we 
know  from  Diodorus,  that  in  his  day  (1st  century  B.C.),  in  the  temple  of  Belus,  Rhea 
sat  on  a  golden  throne  with  two  lions  at  her  knees,  and  near  her  two  silver  serpents, 
whilst  the  great  image  of  Juno  had  in  its  right  hand  the  head  of  a  serpent.  A  careful 
observer  may  note  here  some  serious  elements  of  destruction,  from  which  the  gorgeous 
shrines  around  us  -now  are  not  altogether  free,  in  fact,  are  waging  an  unequal  war. 
Better  for  the  serpent  that  he  had  been  near  that  altar  on  "  which  no  tool  had  waved," 
for  the  lions,  the  gold  and  the  silver  marked  rising  Sol  and  Luna,  and  the  trappings 
denoted  an  advancing  and  new  faith,  as  fatal  to  ophiolatry  as  the  art  and  culture 
which  enshrine  the  ritualist  follies  of  England,  are  to  her  old  faith  ;  for  who  smiles  so 
much  at  these,  as  the  cultivated  minds  who  dress  out  the  pageant,  the  engraver,  the 
architect,  and  all  their  staff ;  they  are  men  devoted  to  science  and  historic  art,  and  in 
ninety-nine  cases  out  of  a  hundred  are,  of  all  men,  those  who  have  ceased  to  worship 
among  these  figments  of  the  past. 

In  reformed  Kaldia  then,  Bel  became  the  chief  deity,  though,  as  the  learned 
knew,  but  they  only,  his  name  sprang  from  the  older  faith,  Ob-el,  the  Serpent  God. 
By  and  by  he  got  such  names  as  Sar,  Sir,  and  Lord,  or  the  Bread-maker,  or  Bread- 
giver,  which  carries  back  the  memory  to  the  still  older  faith  of  Maha-Deva  or  Toth, 
him  before  whom  the  Jewish  leader  placed  the  pot  of  manna  in  thankfulness  for  the 
bread  which  had  been  rained  from  heaven.  It  was  not  unnatural  to  confuse  the 
organ  of  fertility  with  the  Source — the  Sun,  and  this  is  what  occurs  in  changing 
Ob-el  to  Bel  or  Sar,  and  then  combining  them  into  Bel-i-ar  and  Bel-i-al,  whom 
Bryant  and  others  call  the  Light  God.  It  matters  not  for  our  present  purpose  if 
Beliar  be  from  Bel,  and  Aur,  and  both  from  golden  Ob-el,  or  from  the  Hebrew  ms 
Aur,  light;  enough,  that  a  light  was  here  fatal  to  OB,  and  was  daily  waxing 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 05 

brighter,  as  in  AE,  Al,  Lai,  Laul,1  and  under  many  another  name,  and  in  every  land 
from  India  to  Armorika. 

If  Kaldiac  Astronomy  was  fatal  to  ophiolatry,  no  less  was  the  more  advanced  solar 
worship  of  Egypt  and  the  general  culture  of  art  and  literature  to  every  form  of  super 
stition  in  Greece  and  Eome.  Had  these  nations  but  educated  the  masses  with  a 
hundredth  part  of  the  learning  of  the  writers  whose  works  have  come  down  to  us, 
every  old  faith,  fable,  and  superstition  would  have  been  blotted  out,  and  even  Christi 
anity  would  have  been  impossible  to  man ;  but  it  was  not  so,  and  we  may  be  content  to 
think  that  it  would  not  have  been  good  that  it  should  be  so.  By  tracing  these  faiths  in  a 
general  way  through  all  the  nations  of  the  earth,  which  I  trust  to  do  in  this  chapter, 
we  shall  see  not  only  the  rise  of  the  Serpent  to  its  zenith  power,  but  its  gradual  decline, 
and  make  clear  a  great  number  of  points  which  will  be  stepping-stones  to  very 
important  after-results.  I  will  here,  therefore,  merely  continue  as  I  have  begun,  to 
throw  together  such  facts  or  salient  observations  as  will  help  to  develop  Ophite  history. 

In  the  early  Orphic  hymns,  Kronos — Time,  the  first  of  all  things,  was  a  Serpent, 
and  from  Time  sprang  Kaos  (Chaos),  Ether,  and  dark  Erebus,  the  Mundane  Egg  in 
the  cloud,  which  produced  Phanes,  whom  the  Greeks  called  Pan,  the  Koptics,  Phanix 
or  Light,  and  the  English  or  Kelts,  Fanny.  In  Greek,  the  serpent  child  was  Erek- 
theus,2  the  produce  of  Fire,  or  Voolkan  upon  6%  OT  Attica,  for  its  soil  was  their  world, 
and  Attica  was  the  representative  daughter  of  Kekrops,  the  representative  king.  The 
Kopts  said,  the  serpent  was  the  generator  of  all  things,  and  they  viewed  him  as  a  sort 
of  Logos  or  attendant  on  the  creator  from  the  foundation  of  the  world,  and  had  very 
many  and  solemn  festivals  in  his  honour,  at  the  same  solar  periods  as  Christians 
celebrate  theirs.  They  say  he  walked  forth  from  a  tomb  or  cave  as  winter  began  to 
break  up,  and  Eggs,  Palms,  and  Phallic -looking  objects  were  then  offered  to  him  as  to 
Venus  in  the  North,  and  Astarte  in  Southern  Europe  and  Asia  Minor ;  his  spring 
festival  was  called  Eostre  or  Easter. 

It  is  very  remarkable  to  find  all  over  Africa,  even  at  this  hour,  the  same  Trinity 
of  gods  as  flourished,  we  know  from  records,  some  forty  centuries  ago,  and  how  much 
longer  we  know  not ;  Kaldia,  Asyria,  and  the  temple  of  Erektheus,  on  the  Akropolis 
of  Athens,  honoured  and  sacrificed  to  Zeus  (the  Sun,  Hercules,  or  Phallic  idea),  the 
Serpent  and  Ocean ;  and  all  Africa  still  does  so  to  the  Tree-Stem  or  Pole,  the  Serpent, 
and  the  Sea  or  Water;  and  this  Trinity  is  one  God,  and  yet  serves  to  divide  all  gods 
into  three  classes,  of  which  these  are  types.  Whida  and  Dahomey  are  particularly 
clear  on  these  matters,  and  our  increasing  knowledge  of  other  parts  of  Africa  is  but 
showing  the  developments  of  the  same  faith,  though  as  these  are  in  the  lowest  stage  of 
such  Trinities,  they  are  interminably  mixed  up  with  charms  and  fetishes.  The  earthly 
serpent,  says  Western  Africa,  represents  "  Supreme  bliss,"  "  is  the  Supreme  god,"  and 

1  The  Serpent  was  once  called  Lai  or  Laul,  and  Hu  and  Hui,  in  Armorika  and  with  Kelts. 

2  Erek  or  Arek,  the  Ark.   Sanskrit- Arka,  "  the  Sun  "  and  Tudor  or  Torthy,  the  "  Striker  "  or  "Stinger." 

I.  0 

io6  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

"  source  of  all  goodness  and  prosperity,"  and  is  called  Dangbue.  As  the  oiled  stone, 
it  was  he  whom  the  Christian  convert  Arnobius  confessed  he  never  passed  without 
bowing  to,  in  the  fourth  century  A.C.  The  ocean  is  always  inferior  to  Dangbue,  and 
the  Tree  also  very  generally  so,  but  the  want  of  knowledge  of  real  Phallic  faiths  on  the 
part  of  many  writers  on  Africa,  precludes  us  from  as  yet  being  able  to  judge  correctly 
of  the  degrees,  or  even  properties,  of  African  gods.  I  glean  the  following  from 
Skertchley  on  Dahomey,  as  to  deities  there  observed  by  him. 

LEGBA  is  the  Dahomey  Priapus,  and  special  patron  of  all  who  desire  large  families. 

Zoo  is  the  God  of  Fire,  reminding  us  of  Zoe,  Life. 

DEMEN — He  who  presides  over  chastity,  if  not  thought  a  god,  then  a  demon. 

AKWASH — He  who  presides  over  childbirth. 

GBWEJEH — He  or  she  who  presides  over  hunting  (Diana)  1 

AJARAMA — The  tutelary  god   of  foreigners,    symbolised  by  a  white-washed  strtmp  under  a  shed, 

apparently  a   Sivaic  or   white   Lingam,  no   doubt   called   foreign,  because  Ashar  came  from 

Asyria,   and    Esir  from  the  still    older    Ethiopians.       Is  it  possible  that  this  is  the  great 

Arjoona  of  the  Indian  classics  ? 
HOHO — He  who  presides  over  twins. 
AFA  is  the  name  of  the  dual  God  of  Wisdom,  to  whom  as  to  the  Jewish  God,  must  be  offered  a 

pigeon  or  fowl. 
AIZAX  is  the  god  who  presides  over  roads,  and  travellers,  and  bad  characters,  and  can  be  seen  on  all 

roads  as  a  heap  of  clay  surmounted  by  a  round  pot,  containing  kanki,  palm  oil,  and  such  like." 

So  that  we  have  Legba,  the  pure  and  simple  Phallus  ;  Ajar-ama,  "  the  whitened 
stump,"  so  well  known  to  us  in  India  amidst  rude  aboriginal  tribes ;  and  Ai-zan,  the 
Hermes  or  Harmonic,  marking  the  ways  of  life,  and  symbolized  by  a  mound  and  "round 
pot,"  and  considering  that  this  is  the  universal  form  of  tatooing  shown  "  on  every 
female's  stomach,"— Mr  S.  says,  "  a  series  of  arches,"  the  meaning  is  clearly  the  omphi. 
Mr  Skertchley  says  that  Afa,  our  African  Androgynous  Minerva  "is  very  much  respected 
by  mothers,"  and  has  certain  days  "sacred  to  mothers,"  when  she  or  he  is  specially  con 
sulted  on  their  special  subjects,  as  well  as  on  all  matters  "  relating  to  marrying,  building 
a  house,  sowing  corn,"  and  such  like.  He  of  the  "stump"  seems  an  Androgyne  god, 
as  Ashar  and  Parvati,  for  Ama  is  her  name,  and  our  Eastern  generic  one  for  a  mother, 
whilst  Ajar  is  evidently  the  widely-known  Ashar.  We  are  told  that  Dansi,  the  snake, 
has  a  thousand  wives,  married  and  single,  and  that  prayers  must  "be  offered  continually  to 
him,  which  if  they  please  the  god,  he  will  answer  through  his  priestesses,  for  he  prefers 
women  to  men,  just  as  the  Python  of  Delphi  did.  In  Africa,  as  in  India,  young 
females  are  dedicated  from  their  birth  to  the  temples,  or,  perhaps  I  should  say,  to  "  the 
service  of  the  gods,"  and  by  this  dedication,  says  Skertchley,  both  mother  and  child 
are  considered  highly  honoured,  so  that  the  priests  here  as  in  Syria1  and  elsewhere, 
have  managed  well  for  the  gods  and  themselves,  but  still  better  in  the  following  case. 
They  teach  that  all  women  "  touched  "  by  the  African  serpent  are  "possessed"  "  bereft 
of  reason,"  are  "  unsafe  "  for  ordinary  persons,  and  "  liable  to  extraordinary  hysteria." 
They  therefore  attach  at  once,  and  for  as  long  as  they  like,  all  who  have  been  so 
1  Jehovah  exacted  thirty-two  females  for  himself  out  of  the  captives  of  Media. — NUM.  xxxi.  40. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  107 

"  touched  by  the  god,"  and  these  are  then  initiated  into  "  the  mysteries  "  of  the  Church, 
and  taught  how  to  devote  themselves  to  the  god  and  his  ministering  servants,  and 
may  be  seen  continually  dancing  and  singing  around  these,  as  we  see  in  the  case  of 
certain  temple- women  in  India.  The  Deity  is  said  to  "  mark  them  with  blue,"  which 
is  Siva's  special  colour,  and  is  the  mark  which  Augustus  received,  says  Suetonius,  in 
the  temple  of  Apollo.  Siva  is  the  Neel-a-kanta  or  Hue-throated  one,  the  cause,  idea, 
and  details  of  which  I  may  not  here  enter  upon. 

Everything  in  Africa  that  goes  wrong  in  the  sexual  way  is  ascribed,  says  Mr 
Skertchley,  to  forgetfulness  of  Legba,  and  the  childless  especially  are  "under  his 
ban."  For  him  all  youths  are  circumcised  on  coming  of  age,  so  that  Legba  is 
Jehovah.  Most  tribes  are  tatooed  with  religious  hieroglyphics,  consisting  of  "  tor 
toises,  lizards,  stars,  and  concentric  circles."  The  male  children  of  the  great  are 
distinguished  by  "  a  great  gash  across  the  forehead  from  which  the  skin  is  drawn  up  in 
a  ridge,"  reminding  us  of  the  lOni  figures  which  the  Sakties  and  some  left-handed 
sects  in  India  place  upon  their  foreheads  ;  and  here  also  we  may  be  quite  certain 
the  mark  is  a  religious  symbol.  The  heavenly  serpent  of  Africa  is  represented  by  the 
rainbow  which,  curiously  enough,  is  another  sign  of  the  Jewish  and  Christian  God,  and 
signifies  that  man  shall  not  again  be  effaced  from  the  earth,  which  all  ancients  were 
taught  could  not  be,  so  long  as  they  remembered  Python.  Burton  calls  the  Tree  the 
second  great  god  of  Africa,  and  says  that  he  is  represented  chiefly  in  the  great  Cotton 
Tree,  wThich  has  a  straight  white  stem,  and  an  enormous  spreading  root,  beginning 
to  branch  out  some  feet  above  ground  ;  also  in  the  Loco,  or  Poison  Tree,  which 
again  represents  Siva,  who  is  a  poisoning  god,  as  I  elsewhere  show.  The  Ocean,  or 
third  god,  is  Hu,  and  his  priest  Huno  is  one  of  the  highest  officials.  The  same  offer 
ings  are  made  to  the  African  Hu,  as  on  the  Indian  coast,  viz.,  cloth,  rice,  oil,  &c.,  with 
the  addition  of  a  human  being  who  is  taken  out  occasionally  and  thrown  to  the  sharks. 
In  Africa  all  the  gods  still  insist  on  human  sacrifices.  I  have  nothing  before  me  as  to 
Ophiolatry  in  the  most  southern  parts  of  Africa,  but  everywhere  we  hear  of  respect,  if 
not  worship  offered  to  serpents,  though  some  writers  aver  it  is  only  because  the  African 
fancies  his  ancestors  are  in  them.  We  know  of  the  strong  belief  all  these  races  have 
in  immortality,  and  probably  of  a  continued  state  of  transmigration. 

It  is  easy  to  see  in  all  these  wild  and  barbarous  peoples  the  genesis  of  Phallic 
faiths,  for  though  the  "  missing  link  "  may  not  have. been  found  by  our  Darwins  and 
Huxleys,  common  discernment  shows  us  how  little  many  millions  of  Africa  are 
removed  from  this  monarch  of  the  woods,  which  I  here  show  climbing  up,  stick  in 
hand,  into  his  sylvan  home  to  protect  his  offspring.  If  not  like  him  anatomically,  our 
early  man  was  most  certainly,  like  him,  a  mere  child  of  sensual  passions,  whose 
supreme  bliss  and  misery  we  can  easily  gauge,  if  we  will  but  try  to  carry  our  mind's 
eye  back  through  the  dark  vistas  of  time,  and  so  realise  the  feeble  and  comparatively 
helpless  condition  of  our  own  infant  race  in  its  primordial  stage.  In  those  early 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

days,  all  that  is  noblest  in  our  nature  lay  dormant,  and  the  creature,  a  mere  animal, 
and  not  much  removed  from  him  of  our  illustration,  roamed  naked  through  primeval 

forests,  with  no  food  save  fruits  and  roots,  no 
shelter  from  storms  and  cold,  save  rocks  and 
caves,  and  a  prey  to  all  those  fierce  animals 
which  geology  proves  then  traversed  all  earth, 
terrible  in  size,  number,  and  ferocity.  We 
may  reasonably  conceive  that  the  progenitors 
!  of  man  were  dwarfed  in  body,  as  well  as  in 
;mind,  very  inferior  beings  to  the  highly 
nurtured  civilised  men  of  these  days.  We 
find  that  as  a  rule  all  the  aboriginal  races 
of  India,  and  I  believe  throughout  the  world, 
are  still  diminutive,  generally  very  dark  and 
of  feeble  appearance,  though  often  wiry  and 

This    is   the    true    idea    of    early   man 
as  accepted    by    all  ancients,    except    where 
priestly   or   tribal    pride    led    them    to    say 
"  they  were  "descended  from  the  gods,"  and 
were   once  pure   as   their   father  El,    or  the 
solar    orb.       One   set    of   very    ancient    and 
learned   men    said   that   "before  Prometheus 
Fig.  35. -THE  GOR.LLA.  mankind  lived  like  monkeys,  naked,  needy, 

and  bestial,  in  woods  and  caves  and  trunks  of  trees,  scarcely  sustaining  themselves  on 
herbage,  acorns,  and  other  fruits,  fed  upon  by  wild  beasts,"  and  altogether  an  unpro 
tected  piteous  race.  "  Prometheus,  the  son  of  lapetus  and  Themis — Foresight  and 
Justice,  some  say  Desire  (a  common  name  for  the  serpent),  and  Destiny,  sought  out 
Pallas,  the  Goddess  of  Wisdom,  Mechanism,  and  Invention,  and  by  her  aid  ascended 
to  heaven,  held  his  reed  to  the  chariot  of  the  sun,  and  so  brought  down  fire, 
which  raised  all  humanity ;  the  bowels  of  the  earth  and  trees  of  the  forest,  and  trea 
sures  of  all  kinds  were  then  made  available,  and  animals  were  killed  or  trained  for 
man's  service.  Wisdom  grew,  for  man  learned  arts  and  modes  of  instructing  himself 
and  others  ;  thus  fire,  heat,  or  friction  produced  all  things. "  So  life  was  thought  in 
this  higher  stage  to  be  produced  by  the  sun,  and  so  it  became  a  god,  and  ever  and 
again  men  sought  it,  and  believed  they  received  from  it  divine  light,  as  well  as  actual 
Incarnations  of  the  Elohim,  and  thus  it  is  men  have  continued;to  light  their  fires  annually 
from  Sol — ay,  even  till  the  other  day  in  our  own  island,  on  Beltine  or  May-day, 
when  the  summer  sun  appears. 

In  these  early,  and  if,  without  being  accused  of  Darwinism,  on  which  this  is  not 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  109 

the  place  to  enter,  I  may  call  them  monkeyish  days,  we  may  imagine  that  in  numbers 
only,  could  the  young  wild  race  hope  to  win  their  way  amidst  all  the  terrors  of  nature, 
by  land  and  sea,  the  fierce  strife  of  the  elements  seeming  to  them  that  of  demons,  who 
took  no  thought  of  man,  but  to  destroy.  Storms  and  droughts,  scorching  heats,  and 
frozen  zones,  all  seemed  to  defy  their  efforts  to  obtain  a  footing  on  the  new  globe — 
new  at  least  to  them,  one  of  Nature's  last  and  greatest  progenies.  After  a  time,  in  the 
solitude  of  their  groves,  they  seem  to  have  felt  with  trembling  spirit  that  they  were  in 
the  presence  of  an  invisible  power,  for  whom  their  language  had  no  name,  and  regard 
ing  whom  they  feared  even  to  whisper.  Is  it  to  be  wondered  at,  then,  that  such  rude 
animal  men  cared  most  for  nature's  creative  energies,  gazing  now  with  astonishment, 
now  with  awe  and  reverence  amounting  to  worship,  at  all  her  astounding  developments  ; 
has  our  wonder  ceased  even  in  this  nineteenth  century  ?  Is  it  not  true  that  even 
scientific  research  the  most  acute  and  ingenious,  aided  by  the  microscope,  has  left  us 
in  such  occult  matters  only  to  wonder  more  ?  The  wild  man  symbolised  the  one 
organ,  and  then  the  other ;  and  although  he  had  not  yet  called  his  female  deities  by 
the  after  familiar  names  of  Mithra  or  Mylita,  Maiya,  Isis,  or  Eva ;  nor  the  male  by 
Brahma,  Siva,  El,  Ashar,  Baal,  and  Thamus  ;  yet  we  see  clearly  his  infant  thoughts, 
and  that,  lost  on  the  severe  seas  of  life,  he  bethought  him  of  the  Ark,  the  Boat,  the  fer 
tile  sea,  and  in  later  ages  gave  to  these  the  female  epithets  which  still  cling  to  them. 
In  the  old  myth  of  Noah's  ark,  unhistorical  and  impossible  as  we  now  see  the  pain 
fully  minute  story  to  be,  we  can  yet  easily  read  its  suggestive  poetry  as  the  tale  has 
come  down  to  us  ;  and  the  histories  of  other  nations  being  unfolded,  we  can  see  that  it 
is  but  a  travesty,  by  rude  and  illiterate  tribes,  of  the  higher  thoughts  of  the  older  and 
cultivated  nations  around  them,  who  thus  symbolised  by  an  ark  on  the  waters  the 
preservation  and  recreation  of  all  life.  Maya  was  she  of  the  ark-boat,  and  Isis — the 
womb  of  all  animated  nature,  no  less  than  of  the  plains  of  the  Nile,  in  whose  productive 
bosom  the  seed  must  be  buried  to  rise  again  to  fresh  life ;  Egypt  and  others  had 
spoken  of  god-men  and  great  ancestors  entering  an  ark,  and  so  passing  safely  over 
great  floods  and  troubles  ;  and  so,  repeated  the  Jews,  did  theirs  also.  Their  Elohim 
himself  implanted  in  a  veritable  box,  hermetically  sealed  apparently,  all  the  germs  of 
animal  life,  and  destroyed  all  beyond  it !  and,  say  the  ignorant  narrators,  floated  it 
into  regions  over  the  summits  of  the  highest  mountain,  that  is  of  eternal  ice,  where  no 
such  animals  could  breathe  for  an  hour,  nor  any  waters  exist,  except  in  the  intensest 
state  of  congealment ;  so  do  the  ignorant  stumble  and  fall  when  leaving  the  regions  of 
simple  verity ;  the  Jew  misunderstood  an  ancient  poetic  figure  for  a  veritable  fact. 

In  this  figure  36  from  "Ancient  Faiths,"  we  see  clearly  the  whole  idea ;  the  Rain- 
bow  as  El's  sign  "overshadows"  the  Ark — the  sign  of  Ishtar ;  and  the  Holy  Ghost,  Ruach 
or  Breath,  which  is  the  fecundating  principle  or  medium,  hovers  betwixt  Bow  and  Ark. 
The  Jewish  writings  say  that  Elohe's  Spirit  built  this  navis,  and  placed  in  it  the  Noh — 
ru,  and  all  life,  and  afterwards  closed  its  one  small  window,  and  then  rained  upon  it  for 

I  IO 

Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

forty  days  the  fertilising  waters  of  heaven.     It  contained,  we  are  told,  all  the  elements  of 
Elohirn's  creative  power,  and  in  due  time,  about  nine  months  and  three  days  from  the 

ceasing  of  the  rains,  "  Noah  re 
moved  the  covering  of  the  ark," 
and  then  came  forth  the  pent-up 
energies  of  Maiya ;  her  symbol 
the  dove,  with  the  mystic  olive 
sacred  to  her,  marshalled  the 
way,  and  pointed  to  Nature's 
first  birth — the  mountain  peaks. 
We  see  many  resemblances  here 
to  Vedic  tales.  The  top  of 
mighty  Himalaya,  called  Hima- 
chfil,  is  "the  first  born,"  and 
represents  a  race  of  gods,  from 
whom  sprang  Parvati,  great 
Fig.  SB—SEA,  ARK,  AND  JHAVEH.  Siva's  spouse,  but  of  this  more 

hereafter,  for  we  must  return  to  the  probable  growth  of  religion  among  our 
primeval  races.  They  began  to  see  in  life,  and  all  nature,  a  God,  a  Force,  a 
Spirit;  or,  I  should  rather  say,  some  nameless  thing  which  no  language  of  those 
early  days,  if  indeed  of  present,  can  describe.  They  gave  to  the  outward  creative 
organs  those  devotional  thoughts,  time,  and  praise,  which  belonged  to  the  Creator ; 
they  figured  the  living  spirit  in  the  cold  bodily  forms  of  stone  and  tree,  and  so  wor 
shipped  it.  As  we  read  in  early  Jewish  writings,  their  tribes,  like  all  other  early  races, 
bowed  before  Ashar  and  Ashera,  as  others  had  long  before  that  period  worshipped 
Belus  and  Uranus,  Orus  and  Isis,  Mahadeva,  Siva,  Sakti,  and  Parvati.  Jupiter  and 
Yuno  or  Juno,  or  rather  the  first  ideas  of  these,  must  have  arisen  in  days  long  subse 
quent  to  this.  All  such  steps  in  civilisation  are  very  slow  indeed,  and  here  they  had 
to  penetrate  the  hearts  of  millions  who  could  neither  read  nor  write,  nor  yet  follow  the 
reader  or  the  preacher;  so  centuries  would  fleet  past  over  such*  rude  infantile  popula 
tions,  acting  no  more  on  the  inert  pulpy  mass,  than  years  or  even  months  now  do ;  and 
if  this  were  so  after  they  began  to  realise  the  ideas  of  a  Bel  and  Ouranos,  how  much 
slower,  before  that  far  back  stage  was  won  ? '  Their  first  symbolisation  seems  clearly  to 
have  been  the  simple  Line,  pillar,  or  a  stroke,  as  their  male  god  ;  and  a  cup  or  circle  as 
their  female  ;  and  lo  !  the  dual  and  mystic  10  which  early  became  a  trinity,  and  has 
stood  before  the  world  from  that  unknown  time  to  this :  In  this  mystic  male  and 
female  we  have  the  first  great  androgynous  god.  Still  the  idea  was  felt  to  be  imper 
fect,  and  creation  still  impossible  ;  for  Passion,  that  holy  or  "  Heated  Spirit "  or 
"Breath,"  was  wanting  in  the  simple  10,  and  this  felt  want  was,  I  think,  the  origin  of 
various  representative  forms,  on  which  I  will  not  here  say  more,  than  that  the  serpent 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 1 1 

became  the  favourite,  and  was  termed  the  "Irritator,"  the  "Passionate  One,"  Fire,  Heat, 
&c.  To  their  male  idea  they  erected  stones,  pillars,  cones,  staffs,  or  banners,  crosses,  &c., 
and  called  these  the  Fire-God,  Brightness,  and  Light,  and  in  course  of  time  the  "  Sun- 
stone,"  or  Sun  pillar  ; — to  the  other  god  was  dedicated  the  rounded  vessel,  bowl,  ark,  and 
all  ovate  stones,  and  these  were  termed  goddesses,  and  held  to  be  seen  in  all  the  fertile 
powers  of  nature,  and  more  especially  in  the  fertile  earth,  prolific  fish,  and  in  all  water. 

Let  us  now  trace  this  third  god  in  Asia  and  eastward.  The  histories  of  the  tribes 
in  the  mountainous  portions  of  northern  India  abound  Avith  stories,  denoting  long  and 
devoted  serpent  worship.  Hweng  Sang  tells  us  of  a  Boodhist  missionary,  and  descen 
dant  of  Boodha's,  marrying  the  princess  royal  of  a  serpent  country  north  of  Peshawar  ; 
he  won  over  the  father-in-law,  but  killed  him,  and  smote  down  the  worshippers,  who 
are  pictured  as  excrescences  which  he  could  only  remove  when  the  queen  slept.  The 
first  result  was  blindness,  meaning  no  doubt  that,  although  power  smote  down  the 
nation's  faith,  yet  it  could  not  make  it  adopt  the  new  one.  The  same  author  tells  us  of 
the  still  much  revered  spring  well  and  sacred  tree  at  the  Husan  Abdal,  near  Taxila, 
which  shows  us  how  closely  connected  Boodhism  and  serpent  faiths  were  with  trees.  A 
Boodhist  priest — Bikshoo,  was  it  is  said,  here  turned  into  a  snake  and  thrown  into  this 
well  or  "  lake,"  or  perhaps  a  well  in  a  lake,  which  is  common,  because  he  killed  the 
holy  Elapa  tree.  This  Bikshoo  was  always  appealed  to  in  the  Pilgrim's  day  by 
the  people,  when  they  wished  a  change  in  the  weather  (another  instance  of  the  climatic 
properties  attributed  to  the  serpent)  ;  they  then  called  up  the  dragon  by  snapping  their 
fingers,  just  as  snake  charmers  do  to  the  present  day. 

It  appears  that  immediately  after  the  third  Boodhist  Council,  253  B.C.,  mission 
aries  went  forth  to  all  the  serpent-worshipping  principalities  in  the  Himalayas,  includ 
ing  Kashmeer,  and  all  eastward  to  Kandahar,  possibly  the  Gandhara  of  the  Maha- 
Vanso.  And  although  we  have  flourishing  accounts  of  the  numbers  added  to  the 
faith,  yet  we  have  seen  what  the  Chinese  Pilgrims,  in  the  seventh  century  A.C.,  thought 
of  the  worship  of  him-of-Kashmeer,  and  this  a  thousand  years  nearly  after  the  days 
of  the  great  Boodhist  missionary-king  Asoka.  Strabo  tells  us,  that  in  Alexander's  time, 
the  Kashmeer  king  prided  himself  on  two  extraordinarily  large  snakes,  and  another 
writer  says  that  the  king  of  Taxila,  whose  rule  extended  •almost  to  Delhi,  showed 
Alexander  an  enormous  serpent  which  he  nourished  and  worshipped  as  the  symbol  of 
the  god  Dionysus  ;  which  Greek  remark  may  perhaps  assure  the  sceptic,  that  there  is 
no  mistake  here  as  to  the  meaning  of  the  serpent  as  a  symbol,  for  Dionysus'  symbol 
was  the  Phallus.  In  Akbar's  time — last  half  of  the  sixteenth  century — a  census  of  the 
faiths  of  Kashmeer  showed  temples  to  Siva  45,  to  Vishnoo  64,  to  Brahma  3,  to 
Doorga  22  (Siva's  snaky  consort),  but  to  the  serpent,  pure  and  simple,  700  shrines, 
which  does  not  say  much  for  Hindoo  or  Boodhist  propagandism  for  the  previous 
twenty-two  centuries!  The  sanctuary  of  a  serpent  temple  is  usually  void.  In  Kashmeer, 
says  Fergusson,  "  the  architecture  of  the  valley,  with  very  few  exceptions,"  shows  that 

I  12 

Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Fig.  37 

all  the  ancient  temples  were  for  serpent  worship.  The  temples  stand  in  square  courts, 
capable  of  being  flooded,  and  are  crossed  by  light  bridges  of  stone.  Almost  all  can  be 
flooded,  and  many  can  only  now  be  reached  by  wading  ;  the  architecture  is  of  the 
simplest  description,  generally  very  small,  and  somewhat  like  this.  It  seems  as  if  the 

early  race  had  simply  tried  to  build  a  plain 
box  or  home  for  their  symbolic  god  to  live 
in,  secure  from  the  enemies  which  his  pre 
sent  fleshly  tenement  exposed  him  to.  He 
was  a  real  living  god,  and  required  to  be 
left  very  much  to  his  own  devices,  and  until 
they  got  another  symbol,  architects  must 
have  been  sorely  puzzled  by  his  aqueous,  or 
rather  sub-  and  super-terraqueous  ways. 

Under  the  head  Boodhism,  and  the  sup 
posed  great  serpent  temple  of  Kambodia,  I  have  stated  that  I  believe  its  architecture 
to  be  the  offspring  of  a  later  faith,  grafting  itself  on  serpent- worshipping  races,  who 
I  think,  must  have  been  the  builders  of  the  magnificent  shrine  which  Fergusson,  follow 
ing  Dr  Bastian  and  Mr  Thomson,  calls  Nak-non-vat,  a  name  which  seems  to  denote 
its  serpent  origin.1  Look  at  the  character  of  the  ornamentations  :  We  are  told  that 
every  angle  of  every  roof  is  adorned  with  a  grim  seven-headed  serpent  having  a  mag 
nificent  crest ;  every  cornice,  entablature  ;  every  balustrade  and  every  ridge  has  con 
tinuous  rows  of  seven-headed  snakes,  yet  there  is  no  image  in  the  sanctuary,  no 
worship  on  the  walls,  but  every  court  contains  a  tank  for  water.  Nevertheless, 
seeing  that  no  such  shrine  has,  so  far  as  I  know,  been  erected  in  the  East  to  this  faith, 
I  must  think  that  Boodhists  planned,  and  carried  out  all,  save  perhaps  the  serpent  orna 
ments  and  tanks,  which,  when  they  were  expelled  in  turn,  the  aborigines  completed  in 
their  own  way  ;  but  we  must  all  speak,  like  Fergusson,  very  diffidently  regarding  this 
fine  temple-palace.  It  was  visited  in  1860  by  the  French  naturalist,  M.  Henrie 
Monhot,  and  later  by  Mr  J.  Thomson,  to  whom  we  owe  some  splendid  photos  of  it. 
He  took  a  month  to  travel  from  Bankok  to  the  Kambodian  frontier,  and  found  what  is 
believed  to  be  the  ancient  capital  of  Kambodia,  enveloped  in  a  dense  forest.  The  site 
is  called  Angkor,  and  is  situated  on  the  lake  Touli  or  Tali — Indian  for  a  lake,  near  its 
head.  "  The  principal  ruins  embrace  a  circle  of  fifty  miles  in  diameter  "  around  lake 
Tali,  and  are  mostly  in  Siam- Kambodia — not  in  that  part  which  was  made  inde 
pendent  under  the  French  treaty  with  Siam  of  1863  :  "  Within  this  fifty-mile  circle 
there  are  larger  walled  cities,  and  temples  more  curious  and  extensive  than  those  of 
Central  America."  Fergusson  says,  that  nothing,  since  the  Asyrian  discoveries,  has 
been  more  startling  in  architecture,  than  these  cities  :  So  here  we  have  a  great  capital- 
city,  with  palaces,  temples,  and  cathedrals  or  basilicas  devoted  to  our  third  faith. 
There  are  writings  on  the  ruins,  in  characters  resembling  Pali  or  Sanskrit,  which 

1  Sanskrit  Naga-natha-Vaut  =  "  Having  a  Serpent  protector." 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 1 3 

have  yet  to  be  read.  Dr  Bastian  calls  a  city  here  lutha  para  pan',  or  Nakon-  Thorn,1 
and  says  it  was  founded  in  957  A.C.,  which  it  would  appear  is  a  date  twice  given  of 
the  accession  of  its  founder-king  Patliuma  suri  vong  of  tenth  century,  who  one 
tradition  states  was  a  stranger  who  revered  trees.  It  is  believed  that  the  cities 
were  ruined  and  deserted  during  the  war  with  Siam,  which  began  in  1351,  and  ended 
by  the  subjugation  of  Kambodia  in  1374  ;  and  Fergusson  thinks  that  this  was 
Boodhism  finally  driving  out  serpent  worship.  I  believe  that  Boodhism  permeated 
all  these  parts  during  its  reign  in  India,  as  I  show  in  my  historical  sketch  of  the 
violent  propagandism  of  the  energetic  Magadoo  empire  ;  of  course  the  faith  would  not 
be  so  pure  a  Boodhism,  as  Siam  would  be  able  to  give  to  Kambodia  in  the  fifteenth 
century  A. a  I  have  shown,  in  the  case  of  Kashmeer  and  adjacent  states,  that  the 
king  was  only  nominally  a  Boodhist,  even  in  Hweng  Tsang's  time,  and  that  eight 
centuries  after  him,  Akbar's  census  showed  that  Hindooism  was  to  serpent  worship 
something  like  1  to  7,  and  Boodhism  "  nowhere." 

The  early  legends  of  Kambodia  present  two  striking  features.  First,  A  HOLY 
TREE,  which  the  kingly  race,  who  came  to  this  serpent  country,  reposed  under,  or 
descended  from  heaven  by ;  secondly,  that  this  tree-loving  race  are  captivated  by  the 
dragon  princess  of  the  land.  It  is  the  serpent  king,  however,  who  builds  the  city  of 
Nakon-Thom  for  his  daughter  and  her  stranger  husband,  which  may  or  may  not  mean 
the  serpent  palaces  or  temples. 

The  husband  was  no  doubt  of  some  superior  race,  or  he  could  not  have  gained 
access  to  the  king  and  won  his  daughter.  As  such  he  would  guide  the  builders, 
though  he  could  not  constrain  them  to  neglect  their  Dragons  on  their  grandest  national 
building  ;  and  so  we  find  to  this  day  in  China  the  Boodhist  temples  are  most  profusely 
adorned  with  Dragons  and  hideous  monsters,  yet  none  would  say  that  these  Chinese 
temples  are  serpent  shrines.  In  reality  "  the  Serpent  is  there,"  say  Boodhists,  "  to 
frighten  sceptics,"  as  some  British  pietists  try  to  do  by  preaching  of  devils,  hell,  and 
its  horrors. 

One  legend  says  that  the  stranger  of  Kambodia  was  a  banished  prince  called 
Phra-thon,  and  that  in  time  he  won  over  the  people  of  the  city  which  his  father-in-law 
built  for  him — so  much  so,  that  his  subjects  complained  of  his,  their  king's,  presence,  and 
finally  got  rid  of  the  king  by  placing  an  image  of  four  faces  (which  is  Brahma)  over  the 
city  gates.  This  RAJA  NAGA,  or  Serpent-King-Father,  was  a  Sabbatarian,  or  Sabean, 
and  a  very  pious  one  ;  he  every  seventh  day  went  forth  from  his  palace,  and,  ascending 
a  lofty  .mountain,  "poured  forth  his  soul  in  ardent  devotion." — (Fergusson  quoting 
Colonel  Low.)  The  four-faced  god  was  evidently  to  him  a  horror— so  much  so,  that 
at  last  he  yielded  up  his  kingdom.  One  legend  says  that  Indra,  or  Hindooism,  finding 
himself  lonely  in  this  Serpent  land,  married  the  Dragon's  daughter,  and  had  a  son, 
Ketumalia,  who  was  father  of  the  founder  of  the  city,  Pathuma- Suri-  Vong.  The 

1  Naga  Tumb  in  Sanskrit  signifies  "  The  Invisible  Serpent." 
I.  P 

1 14  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

result  of  this  seems  to  be  that  either  Hindooism  or  Boodhism,  though  both  very 
corrupt,  thus  founded  a  city  here.  The  wonderful  character  of  the  temple's  structure 
points  to  Grecian  or  Koman  models ;  the  architecture,  says  Fergusson,  is  a  sort  of 
Roman  Doric,  the  ornaments  (bassi-relievi)  are  borrowed  from  the  Ramayana  and 
Mahabharata,  and  fade  into  Hindoo  myths,  The  people  are  Indian,  and  the  abori 
gines  are  an  abject  race.  Dr  Bastian  says  that  local  tradition  "  makes  their  ancestors 
come  from  MYAN-ROM,  or  RoMA-ViSEi,  not  far  from  TAK-CASILA,"  which  Fergusson 
thinks  may  be  TAXILA,  the  first  Aryan  capital  of  Northern  India,  and  about  which  Alex 
ander  and  his  hosts  long  hung.  Taxila,  as  already  shown,  was  a  Naga  capital  for  ages  ; 
and  Fergusson,  quoting  Wilford,  says  that  the  ancient  people  of  Taxila  came  from  a 
country  called  Kamboja ;  their  capital  was  Indra-prastha  (Inthapata-poori)  and  Siain 
became  their  Ayoodhia,  or  Ayoodthya,  or  Oud.  Kashmeer  Hindoo -Naga  temples, 
were  of  Grecian  Doric  ;  and  here,  in  far  East  Kambodia,  we  see  the  later  Roman  Doric. 
The  rectangular  walled  enclosure  of  Ndkon-Vat  is  3240  feet  by  3300  feet,  and  beyond 
this  is  a  "moat"  said  to  be  690  feet  wide,  so  that  we  have  here  a  temple  covering  about 
a  mile  of  ground.  The  western  moat  is  crossed  by  a  causeway  having  pillars  all  along 
the  sides,  and  it  leads  up  to  a  gateway  with  a  fagade  of  600  feet,  and  five  stories  high. 
Neither  Kaldian  nor  Babylon,  with  their  rude  sun-dried  materials,  can  compare  with  this. 

The  second  causeway  is  1110  feet  long,  leading  straight  up  to  the  temple  plat 
form,  of  which  the  outer  enclosure  is  1950  feet  by  1710  feet ;  and  within  this  are  two 
other  enclosures,  one  15  and  the  other  20  feet  higher.  Each  face  has  three  portals  with 
double  open  verandas  or  peri-styles,  each  10  feet  wide.  The  pillars  of  these  peri-styles 
have  elegant  capitals,  but  no  base.  There  are  400  to  500  pillars  in  the  outer  enclosure 
alone,  and  the  walls  of  this  colonnade  are  sculptured  from  top  to  bottom  for  some 
2000  feet  in  length.  The  men  and  animals  here  represented  are  probably  20,000. 
On  the  pilasters  there  are  numerous  female,  but  no  male  statues.  The  pillars  are 
correctly  proportioned  with  architrave,  and  frieze,  and  cornice — the  ornament  here  in 
most  cases  being  the  SEVEN-HEADED  Serpent.  A  colossal  statue  of  a  lion,  lies  close  half 
buried  in  sand,  so  that  our  artists  must  have  seen  these  in  Cingalese  temples  in  Western 
India,  as  no  lions  have,  so  far  as  we  know,  ever  existed  in  these  parts.  The  stone  blocks 
are  enormous,  and  exquisitely  fitted  and  carved,  and  come  from  mountains  some  forty 
miles  distant.  Older  temples  are  said  to  be  all  around,  so  we  have  much  yet  to  learn  from 
this  sacred  spot.  Many  battle-pieces  on  the  walls  are,  as  I  have  said,  believed  to  be  from 
the  Mahabharata,  which  possibly  reached  these  parts  in  its  present  form  in  the  4th  and 
5th  centuries  A.C.,  but  may  have  done  so  in  an  older  form  a  thousand  years  sooner. 

In  some  places  a  sage,  supposed  to  be  Boodha,  is  seen  adorning  the  Serpent,  so 
we  may  be  sure  the  workmen  were  Serpent-worshippers.  There  are  war-chariots,  such 
as  the  Epic  speaks  of.  and  the  pillar  ornaments  like  those  of  Rome.  Now,  turning 
to  my  Chart,  and  remembering  that  Fetish-worship  was  the  Jirst  worship,  and  to 
a  great  extent  is  still  the  real  faith  of  the  great  mass  of  the  ignorant,  especially  about 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  115 

these  parts;  that  after  it  came  Tree,  Phallic,  Serpent- worship,  &c.,  we  may,  I  think,  say 
that  this  great  building  marks  a  transition  of  faith  as  from  Serpent  to  Brahmanism  or  to 
Boodhism,  or  perhaps  Boodhism  conquered  for  a  time  by  Serpent-worshippers.  Thus 
we  find  in  the 

3d  Century  B.C.  Boodhist  missionaries  to  China. 

2d  and  3d      „        „  Chinese  armies  to  Oxus — Yoonan  annexed. 

C  Bactrian  kingdom  overthrown  by  Skythians,  and  Naga  races  trying 

9 1  I  for  dominance. 

"        "      |  China -Dragon -worshippers,    try   to  reach  India    from   the    south, 

L  but  fail. 

1st  „        „  China  embracing  Boodhisra. 

2d  „      A.C.      (166.)  Marcus  Aurelius  sends  embassy  to  China. 

3d  „        ,.        (227.)  Rome  sends  embassy  to  Cochin-China,  and  to  all  these  parts. 

,  (  (386.)  Boodhagosa  establishing  Boodhism  in  Ceylon  and  Barma. 

"        "      (       ,,       Amravati  and  Afgan  Topes  built. 

{Tatars,  Turanians,  and  Skythians  becoming  Boodhists,  but  Brah 
manism  re-asserting  itself  in  India. 
Chinese  vessels  numerous  in  all  eastern  parts,  and  to  the  Persian  Gulf. 

Thus  our  Boodhist-Chinese  missionaries  of  the  3d  century  B.C.  most  probably 
preached  their  faith  then  in  Kambodia,  and  five  or  six  centuries  later,  Roman  or  Greek 
artists,  aided  the  Boodhists  to  build  these  shrines  or  monasteries,  which  a  reaction  to 
the  old  faiths  caused  to  be  adorned  with  Serpent  symbols.  In  China,  Boodhism 
closely  allied  itself  with  the  ancient  Serpent  faith,  and  I  incline,  therefore,  to  think 
that  Ncikon-  Vat  was  a  Boodha-serpent  temple. 

We  saw  that  the  pious  Kambodian  Raj  a-Naga,  worshipped  his  "deity  on  high  places," 
as  did  Israel  his  "  Grove"  and  Baal ;  and  we  find  "  high  places" — the  summit  of  lofty 
or  curiously-shaped  hills — the  abode  of  Chinese  temples  to  Dragons,  as  well  as  to  the 
philosophers  Confucius  and  Boodha,  and  to  Christ  and  Mohamed,  just  as  these  were 
chosen  for  the  worship  of  Lingam,  Serpent,  Fire  and  Sun.  A  Jesuit  father,  quoted  by 
Fergusson,  writes  that  "  the  Chinese  delight  in  mountains  and  high  places,  because 
there  lives  the  Dragon,  the  father  of  happiness  (for  no  childless  man,  says  the 
barbarian,  is  happy),  on  whom  their  good  fortune  depends.  To  this  Dragon  they 
erect  temples  shaded  with  groves." 

The  Rev.  S.  Beal,  a  Chinese  scholar,  unearths  from  the  imperial  collection  of  Bood 
hist  standard  works  printed  under  the  auspices  of  Keen-Lung  in  1783  A. a,  a  writing 
which  he  supposes  to  be  an  address  of  Boodha  "  in  the  great  Cloud  Circle- Hall  of  the 
Naga  Rajah,  in  which  Boodha  told  the  Dragons  (i.e.,  the  worshippers  of  Serpents)  how 
to  pray  for  rain."  In  a  plate  in  this  book  we  have  a  Snake-temple,  which  in  its 
arrangement  very  closely  resembles  the  Jewish  tabernacle.  The  shrine  is  like  a  tent 
standing  in  a  rectangular  enclosure.  There  is  an  altar  with  four  lighted  candles  • 
seven  tables  of  cakes,  and  seven  of  fruits,  and  seven  lamps,  and  on  the  four  sides  four 
woodcuts  representing  the  deities,  of  which  Fergusson  gives  one  (T.  and  S.,  page  53)  very 
much  to  the  purpose,  and  showing  in  unmistakable  language  that  a  greater  and  older  even 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

than  Boodha  is  here.  This  is  unmistakably,  Maiya,  Queen  of  Heaven,  surrounded  by 
Serpents,  the  symbols  of  fairy  seraphs  of  passion,  as  Moses  is  said  to  have  called  the 
biting  Serpents  of  the  desert ;  her  sea  teems  with  seraphic  life,  and  two  Serpent- 
princesses,  with  Serpent-wreaths  like  her  own,  though  smaller,  stand  by  adoring  this 

Fig.  38. 

queen-mother  of  all  mankind.  Mark,  however,  the  prominent  feature  of-  the  picture  ; 
she  herself  is  engrossed  in  worship,  and  apparently  between  her  two  uplifted  hands  is 
a  cone,  column,  or  Lingam.  The  Fecundatrix  herself  has  the  body  of  a  fish  from  the 
waist  downwards,  and  from  the  sea  of  fecundity  in  which  she  sits  rises  on  one  side  the 
too  symbolic  TORTOISE,  and  on  the  other  SIVA'S  HANDS,  both  in  evident  adoration. 
Fergusson  thinks  that  this  picture  is  only  of  the  13th  century  A.C.,  and  adds  in  regard 
to  the  Chinese  pictures  in  this  work — which  are  shown  as  having  three,  five,  seven,  and 
nine  Serpent-hoods,  that  in  India,  from  the  3d  to  the  13th  century  A.C.,  it  .was  usual 
to  have  three,  five,  and  seven,  but  never  till  the  13th  century  A.C.  to  have  a  Serpent 
terminus  to  the  human  body.  The  pictures  or  sculptures  of  such  may,  indeed,  be  of 
only  the  13th  century  A.C.,  but  the  original  idea  must  go  very  far  back  into 
pre-historic  times,  say- to  4000  B.C.  at  least,  when  woman,  fish,  and  Serpent,  were 
continually  associated  together,  and  indeed  are  identical,  as  they  still  often  are 
so.  I  am  not  prepared  to  dispute  the  correctness  of  the  number  of  hoods  to 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 1 7 

form  a  wreath,  as  this  like  the  folds  of  the  Serpent,  the  stars,  or  yoni  dots  011 
Indra's  robe  (PL  v.,  5),  or  a  priest's  garment  seem  to  have  followed  certain  knowledge  of 
the  times  and  the  mandates  of  leaders  in  religion,  astronomy  and  art.  As  a  rule, 
they  are  purely  of  solar  significance,  but  in  regard  to  the  terminus  in  a  Serpent  body, 
my  own  studies  do  not  admit  of  my  acquiescing  in  any  post-Christian  era.  The 
fish  and  serpent  terminus  was,  in  many  lands,  a  favourite  idea,  and  drawings  and 
sculptures  of  such  abound,  and  if  not  to  be  found  in  India  in  the  centuries  named,  this 
could  only  arise  from  a  temporary  feeling  on  the  part  of  the  people  or  their  rulers,  of 
which  we  have  numerous  instances  in  all  faiths.  Thus  at  Sanchi,  in  the  1st 
Century  A.C.,  it  is  thought  that  Boodhism  had  purged  itself  both  of  Tree  and  Serpent 
Faiths,  at  least,  nearly  so ;  yet  Mr  Fergusson  shows  us  that  at  Amravati,  in  the  4th 
Century  A.C.,  the  pendulum  had  swung  back  again  ;  for  here  we  find  not  only  the 
Dagoba,  or  Womb  with  its  Pandora's  box  of  relics,  but  our  oldest  friend,  the  Holy 
Tree,  the  Chakra  or  Wheel,  or  Sun  of  Life  and  Eternity ;  and  once  again  the 
persistent  Naga,  but  this  time  as  Boodha's  co-equal,  just  as  the  Nicolaitans  said  he 
was  Christ's,  some  seven  centuries  after  Jesus  is  supposed  to  have  lived ;  for  in  the  case 
of  Sanchi  and  Boodha,  seven  centuries  had  here  also  intervened  since  the  pious 
man  had  died,  and  become  deified.  Fergusson  calls  the  Sanchi  remains  "  the  Boodhist 
Illustrated  Bible  of  the  Hinayana  period,"  and  considers  it  to  be  500  years  prior 
to  the  writing  of  any  Boodhist  book  which  we  possess.  This  opinion,  I  suspect,  is  now 
very  much  modified.  The  Amravati  ruin  is  the  pictorial  illustration  of  the  Maha- 
yana,  three  centuries  after  its  promulgation. 

On  the  great  bas-relief  cut  in  the  well-known  Rock,  crowned  with  seven  Pagodas, 
at  Maha-Vilepoor,  South  of  Madras,  we  have  Siva  embracing  a  Serpent  Queen,  who  is 
human  from  the  waist,  and  this  too  is  placed  by  Fergusson,  as  belonging  to  the  13th 
Century  A.C.,  although  we  are  assured  on  all  hands  that  Hindooism  here  succeeded 
Ophiolatry.  No  doubt  Sankar-Acharya  did  ask  his  countrymen  to  go  back  to  Lingam 
Worship,  pure  and  simple,  and  so  we  may  say,  to  rise  above  its  symbol  the  Serpent,  in 
the  8th  Century  A.C.,  just  as  Mahomed  then  also  asked  Jews  and  Christians  to  adopt 
the  undivided  worship  of  the  real  "  All-Father  ; "  but  this  practice  of  peoples  does  not, 
in  any  way,  detract  from  the  statement  that  pure  Phallic  Worship  was  the  second  if  not 
the  first  of  man's  faiths,  and  that  the  Serpent  terminus  in  question,  if  not  as  yet, 
found  by  us  as  sculptured  before  the  13th  Century  A.C.,  did  then  occur  in  such  places, 
only  in  resuscitation  of  what  long  ages  before  had  been  well  known  to  mankind. 
Although  Sivaism  may  not  be  clear  to  us  in  the  unwritten  pre-vedic  ages,  and  dimly  so 
only,  in  the  Vedic  Eoodra,  yet  I  have  no  doubt  the  masses  were  then,  and  long  ere  that, 
bowing  down  to  their  genital  gods,  far  more  fervently  than  they  are  even  now  doing. 

I  may  mention  the  following  as  an  instance  of  how  little  we  observe  the  practice 
and  dogmas  of  the  faiths  which  surround  us,  unless  our  attention,  nay  studies,  are 
directed  thereto,  and  it  happened  the  very  evening  of  the  day  on  which  I  wrote  the 

1 1 8  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

foregoing,  and  was  such  a  scene  as  I  had  not  noticed  for  some  dozen  or  more  years  back. 
I  witnessed  the  roads  crowded  with  earnest,  pious  souls  who,  with  fatigued,  and  in 
many  cases,  lacerated  bodies,  were  gradually  nearing  one  of  Maha  Deva's  shrines,  by 
measuring  every  inch  of  the  weary  way,  from  their  far  distant  homes,  by  the  length  of 
their  bodies  stretched  on  the  dry,  scorching,,  and  dusty  way.  Affectionate  relatives  or 
friends  were  kindly  watching  the  devoted  pilgrims,  some  of  whom  seemed  half  dead 
with  fatigue  and  excitement  of  mind  and  body,  whilst  pious  strangers  were  also  cheer 
ing  them  on  their  way,  and  pouring  water  into  their  parched  mouths  as  they  rolled 
along  in  the  dust  and  heat.  When  coming  across  the  devotees  we  were  taking  our 
usual  evening  drive,  in  the  European  portion  of  one  of  the  largest  cities  in  Hindoostan, 
and  some  of  the  company,  though  ten  years  in  the  East,  gazed  in  astonishment  at  the 
road-side  scene,  as  what  they  had  never  before  witnessed !  So  apt  are  the  daily 
occurrences,  of  even,  as  in  this  case,  the  most  fervid  faith,  to  escape  those  who  live 
in  its  midst,  ay,  and  have  carefully  thought  of  all  around  them  all  that  time. 

Fergusson  seems  to  think  that  Lingam  Worship  may  be  new,  because  he  does  not 
find  it  so  early  and  as  distinctly  as  Serpent  Worship  ;  but  he  should  remember  what 
he  himself  says  of  this  great  faith  of  China  (T.  and  S.,  52) — "  If  this  be  so,  that  the 
Serpent  is  the  Chinaman's  great  god  of  happiness,"  why  has  not  everybody  seen  it  and 
told  us  of  it  ?  Yea,  why  ? .  Things  strike  different  people  differently,  and  some  walk 
about  with  eyes  and  ears  closed.  If  we  read  only  the  works  of  our  great  writers  or 
philosophers,  whether  Sokrates  or  Aristotle,  Demosthenes  or  Cicero,  we  would  scarcely 
evolve  the  gross  faiths  which  we  now  know  to  have  existed  in  their  midst.  Do  we 
indeed  realise  those  in  our  midst  in  England  or  even  in  London  ?  When  we  read  the 
treasures  which  have  been  poured  into  our  laps  from  all  the  mighty  minds  that  have 
blessed  the  world  during  the  last  two  hundred  years,  ending  in  the  Revelations  of  our 
still  living  philosophers,  can  we  imagine  that  the  great  mass  of  our  thoughtful  ones,  and 
many  thousands  of  learned  men,  still  look  upon  such  rude  Syrian  Sheks  as  Abram  and 
Moses  as  demi-gods,  not  to  say  such  weak  and  immoral  characters  as  a  Jacob,  Samuel, 
David,  and  Solomon  ?  ay,  and  who  worship  as  gods,  a  Jewish  matron  and  her  babe, 
and  consider  as  special  supernatural  acts  of  the  great  and  immutable  ruler  of  the 
universe,  all  those  writings,  miracles,  prodigies,  and  myths  which  have  come  down  to 
us  unverified  by  a  particle  of  extraneous  evidence  that  would  bear  a  moment's  cross- 
questioning  or  sifting  in  any  court  of  law  in  our  land.  These  are  times  when  we  must 
speak  out,  and  I  here  only  speak,  though  slightingly,  yet  seriously  and  solemnly, 
of  those  characters  and  tales  which  Europe  holds  sacred,  as  Europeans  speak,  and  as  I 
shall  by-and-by  also  mention  the  sacred  characters  and  writings  of  all  other  nations  ; 
with  what  measure  we  mete,  let  it  be  meted  to  us  again. 

Brahmanism,  no  doubt,  at  times  disliked  the  Serpent,  and  drove  it,  as  a  veritable 
Snake,  though  "  never  as  a  symbol,  out  from  the  midst  of  her  more  civilised  parts 
towards  the  northern  mountains,  or,  at  least,  to  the  ophite  cradle  of  Taxila,  and  to  its 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 19 

Dravidian  strongholds  in  the  south  :  Brahmanism  did  not,  as  a  cultivated  faith,  favour 
more  than  the  symbolism,  although  even  near  its  headquarter  shrines,  were  to  be  found 
by  those  who  sought,  the  actual  living  reptile  ;  yet  ignorant  fanatics  abundantly  kept 
and  regularly  worshipped  the  god,  both  real  and  symbolically.  Numerous  stories  reach 
us  of  how  the  King  of  Manipoor  used  to  worship  a  great  Raj-naga,  called  Pak-ang-ba,1 
from  whom  he  considered  he  was  directly  descended.  This  Snake  had  Priestesses  to 
attend  upon  it,  who  daily  sat  in  the  temple  watching  its  every  move,  and  ministering 
carefully  to  its  wants.  In  Central  India,  near  Sambalpore,  there  are  races  who  say 
they  worship  a  great  snake,  which  "  has  here  resided  in  a  cave  ever  since  the  world 
began."  It  reverses  the  Sabbatarian  doctrine  and  sleeps  six  days,  and  on  the  seventh 
comes  forth  from  its  house ;  and  for  a  very  good  reason  too ;  as  it  is  then  regaled  on  a 
whole  goat,  when,  after  a  plunge  into  a  canal,  cut  for  its  recreations  around  its 
dwelling,  it  retires  to  its  weekly  slumbers.  A  Mr  Mott  saw  this  monster  in  1766,  and 
says  "it  was  some  2  feet  in  diameter ;" 2  and  Major  Kittoe  confirms  this  when  he  saw  it 
seventy  years  later,  in  1836  ;  this  officer  says  he  has  no  doubt  that  many  such  exist, 
and  could  be  found  if  we  set  about  properly  to  look  for  them. 

Especially  has  the  Serpent  had  a  most  enduring  and  happy  lot  in  that  gem  of  the 
ocean — Ceylon  ;  he  is  there  still,  no  scotched  faith,  although  many  a  faith  and 
sect  has  swept  tumultuously  over  this  isle's  impenetrable  woods  and  mountain 
fastnesses.  It  is  2100  years  since  Boodhism  claimed  the  island  as  her  own  special 
paradise,  and  this  it  has  been  ever  since,  if  not  so  always  in  the  eyes  of  its  immediate 
rulers,  yet  always  so  in  those  of  distant  Boodhists  ;  these,  for  at  least  1800  years,  have 
ever  looked  upon  the  island  with  filial  love  and  reverence ;  yet,  to  this  hour,  the 
Serpent  is,  with  the  great  mass  of  the  lower  class,  an  object  of  much  more  real  adora 
tion  than  Boodha  himself. 

Many  Eastern  potentates  have  claimed  direct  descent  from  the  Serpent,  and 
curiously  enough  he  seems  more  in  favour  with  the  Vishnoo  sects  than  Sivaites,  and  is 
more  abundantly  sculptured  on  Vishnoova  shrines  than  on  the  other,  though  he  has 
nothing  in  common  with  the  softer  emotions  of  love  which  Yishnoovas  affect  above 
that  of  their  brethren.  As  devoted  to  the  feminine  energy,  and  often  putting  aside 
the  Lingam  with  abhorrence,  of  course  the  Vishnooite  can  plead  that  the  Serpent  more 
particularly  belongs  to  him,  because  to  Luna,  Isis,  Eva,  or  the  Yoni ;  and  indeed 
mankind  will  be  generally  on  his  side  in  this  respect,  rather  than  on  that  of  the 
professedly  severe  and  ascetic  Sivaite.  Wherever  we  look  we  find  this  symbol  of 
Passion,  the  most  loved,  or  at  all  events,  the  most  prominent  object  in  the  world  of 
old  faiths.  I  believe  he  ought  to  be  shown  in  broader  and  more  intense  colours  in  this 
chart,  but  I  have  endeavoured  in  these  points  to  rather  understate  the  facts,  and  never 
anywhere  to  press  doubtful  evidence. 

1   Tak,  Pak,  Hak,  hence  Hag,   &c.,  are  all  terms  applied  to  the  Serpent  from  China  to  Armorika 
and  Scotland.  2  More  probably  "  circumference" 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  Vishnoovas  undoubtedly  show  a  greater  attention  to  the  decorations,  or  if  I 
may  say  so,  the  amenities  of  the  faith,  and  make  more  of  the  Tree  element  and  of  all 
the  softer  emotions  than  Sivaites.  Fig  trees,  Toolsi,  and  floral  decoration  are  more 
prominent  with  them,  but  their  festivals  display  a  more  sexual  element,  although  there 
is  not  much  to  choose  between  them  and  other  religions  during  the  chief  solar  phases ; 
or  the  festivals  corresponding  to  our  Christmas  and  Easter.  Several  great 
Serpent  dynasties  of  ancient  India  called  themselves  Serpents  or  Nagas.  Their  "  holy 
scriptures  "  say  they  were  a  race  of  demi-gods  who  lived  in  the  realms  below,  and  who 
at  will  assumed .  man's  form  and  came  on  earth,  but  always  retained  the  serpent's 
tail.  Nagas  are  to  be  distinguished  from  the  Sarpas  or  true  snake,  who  according  to 
the  Pooranas  never  act  or  speak  as  men,  and  are  never  worshipped  by  Brahmans. 
The  Sarpas  is  not  therefore  our  early  Eden  demi-god — the  instructor  of  youthful  Eve. 
All  coiling  roots  and  fantastic  shrubs  represent  the  serpent,  and  are  recognised 
as  such  all  over  India.  In  Bengal  we  find  at  the  present  day  the  fantastically  grow 
ing  Euphorbia  Antiquorum  regularly  worshipped,  as  the  representative  of  the  Serpent 
God.  The  sacred  thread  worn  alike  by  Hindoo  and  Zoroastrian,  is  the  symbol  of  that 
old  faith ;  the  Brahman  twines  it  round  his  body  and  occasionally  around  the  neck  of 
the  sacred  bull,  the  Lingam,  and  its  altar  :  The  serpent  dances  with  Pentecostal  tongue 
of  fire,  in  and  about  the  Argha,  or  that  "  boat  of  Life  "  in  which  the  Argha-Nat  (Esh- 
wara)  stands.  (See  Fig.  42.)  With  the  orthodox,  the  serpent  thread  should  reach  down  to 
its  closely  allied  faith,  although  this  Ophite  thread  idea  is  now  no  more  known  to  Hindoos 
than  the  origin  of  arks,  altars,  candles,  spires,  and  our  Church  fleur-de-lis  is  to  Jews 
and  Christians.  I  give  here  an  ordinary  Maha  Deva  or  Lingam-in-  Yoni  stone,  such 

as  we  meet  with  every  day  in  Indian 
temples,  but  which  I  take,  by  Dr 
Inman's  kindness,  from  his  2d  vol.  at 
p.  220.  Here  the  symbolic  God  lies 
resting  in  the  fiery  circle  of  Eternity, 
and  I  suspect  also  is  the  band  which 
we  see  round  "  the  column  of  Life," 
or  Lingam ;  and  that  it  is  the 
Pythic  head  which  reaches  up  and 
kisses  the  Lotus  or  Fertility  on  the 
crown.  I  have  often  so  seen  the 
Maha  Deva  (Lingam)  adorned.  The 
heads  embrace  the  whole  world 
of  man  as  Truth  or  Keligion,  Matter 
and  Passion.  Taurus  or  the  Bull  (called  here  Nanda)  kneeling  at  the  entrance  of  the  door 
of  life  is  intensified  passion,  power,  and  fertility,  just  as  are  Aries  and  Taurus,  the  young 
Ram,  and  the  Bull  of  the  vernal  equinox.  I  beg  my  readers  will  remember  here, 

Fijr.  39  — J 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  \  2  r 

what  Orientalists  have  so  often  said  in  regard  to  the  full  significance  of  every  line 
or  even  dot  in  these  great  national  religious  figures.  Here  every  line  and  curve  and 
dot  has  a  name  and  a  distinct  meaning,  all  of  which  are  recorded  in  countless  holy  writ 
ings,  and  not  the  least  is  the  kneeling  attitude  of  the  Nanda,  a  position  not  common 
to  bulls,  and  which  for  a  long  time  I  could  not  discover  and  cannot  here  speak  of. 

In  the  drawing  of  "  the  Asyrian  Tree  of  Life,"  page  73,  Fig.  25,  which  some  4000 
years  ago  was  sculptured  on  A  Syria's  buried  palaces,  we  have  the  same  idea.  The 
Asyrian  Ark  is  shut,  and  the  Bull  stands  erect  with  the  reptile  encircling  his  neck, 
as  we  occasionally  still  see  in  India.  A  veritable  "  budding  rod,"  or  tree  of  the  High 
Priest,  separates  him  from  the  door  of  the  fire  ark,  which  he  k  seen  approaching  with 
fruit  and  knife.  All  these  sculpturings,  however,  betoken  a  time  far  in  advance 
of  that  which  aboriginal  tribes  have  even  now  attained  to,  or  to  which  Romans 
reached  till  about  the  third  century  B.C.,  for  statuary  was  slow  in  appearing  in 
Europe.  The  more  usual  Eastern  Maha  Deva  takes  the  form  of  a  simple  "  conical 
stone  on  a  mound  of  earth,"  such  as  we  see  the  African  calls  his  Legba;  or  the 
"  whitened  tree  stump "  which  he  denominates  Ajar-ama,  and  quaintly  considers  a 
fit  representative  of  the  white  foreigner.  The  ordinary  Maha  Deva  of  Northern  India  is, 
however,  this  very'simple  but  complete  arrangement  in  which  we  see  what  was,  I  suspect, 
the  first  Delphic  Tripod  supporting  a  vase  of  water  over  the  Linga-in-Yoni.  Such  may 
be  counted  by  scores,  in  a  day's  march  over  Northern  India,  and  especially  at  ghats  or 
river  ferries,  or  crossings  of  any  streams,  or  roads  ;  for  are  they  not  Hermae  ?  The  vessel 
of  water  is  pierced  at  foot,  and  into  the  little  holes  straws  are  thrust  so  as  to  direct  a 
constant  trickle  of  water  on  to  the  symbol.  It  is  a  pious  act  to  constantly  renew  this 
water  from  the  most  holy  springs,  or  better  from  the  Ganges. 
It  is  not  necessary  to  have  a  carved  Argha  and  polished  Maha 
Deva  ;  the  poor  can  equally  please  the  Creator  by  clearing 
a  little  spot  under  any  holy  tree,  or  if  none  holy  enough 
exist,  by  planting  a  slip  from  a  holy  one  ;  or  if  this  even  is 
not  possible,  by  merely  setting  up  a  stone  of  almost  any  un 
hewn  shape,  describing  a  circle  round  it,  and  then  cleaning 
and  keeping  tidy  all  about  it  ;  for  the  great  Creator  loves 
as  much  the  widow's  mite  as  the  magnificent  shrine  and 
priestly  rites  which  the  rich  establish  in  his  name. 

Probably  no  religion  is  more  persistent  than  all  forms  of  Phallic  faith  in  again 
and  again  repeating  every  hidden  meaning  in  its  symbolism.  This  is  so  by  design,  in 
order  to  impress  these  thoroughly  on  the  mind  of  the  most  illiterate.  •  Thus  the  aid  of 
the  architect,  the  sculptor,  and  the  painter,  are  all  brought  to  bear  'on  the  eye  and  feel 
ing.  Hindoo  temples,  therefore,  as  a  whole,  as  well  as  in  every  part,  must  depict  the 
Deity  in  all  his  forms  or  ideas,  and  this  is  variously  accomplished,  sometimes  in  orna 
mentation,  wild,  extravagant,  and  profuse  ;  and  elsewhere  only  conspicuous  by  its 

i.  Q 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

absence.  Generally,  however,  the  features  or  ideas  of  the  cult  are  fully  and  gravely 
depicted,  and  without  as  well  as  within  ;  for  the  vessels  of  the  inner  sanctuary — the 
lights,  the  lavers,  the  spoons,  &c.,  &c.,  must  be  all  constructed  with  a  view  to  the  sym 
bolism,  as  well  as  the  gilt  spires,  poles,  and  trappings  of  the  outer  tabernacle.  In  many 
temples  the  actual  public  emblem  of  the  Deity  is  only  an  emblem  of  an  emblem  ;  the 
real  "  God  "  being  secreted  deep  away  down  in  the  foundations  of  the  vast  structure,  in  a 
crypt  or  cave  (see  p.  39,  Fig.  4)  where  only  the  most  devoted  of  initiated  worshippers  may 
occasionally  see  him.  His  presence  there  is  to  signify  that  he  is  the  centre  strong  foun 
dations  of  the  world,  and  its  navel  also,  as  was  Delphi.  All'  faiths  have  more  or  less 
acted  thus  :  Priests  in  constructing  their  shrines,  whether  temple,  cathedral,  or  rnosk, 
have  aimed  also  at  elaborating  the  ideas  of  their  god  or  gods,  and  their  sacred  books 
and  lore  ;  thus  most  Christians  insist  on  a  church  which  is  cruciform  in  plan,  a  spire 
"  reaching  into  the  heavens,"  a  navis  or  Ark,  and  a  risen  or  dying  Saviour  in  the 
eastern  window ;  so  the  Moslem  must  have  his  vast  dome  or  globe  borrowed  from  the 
older  solar  fable,  and  with  Luna's  crescent  over  all,  and  Minarets  or  Phallic-looking 
candlesticks,  such  as  the  Christian  puts  on  his  altar  :  Of  course,  both  deny  the  sym 
bolism  which  we  impute  to  them. 

I  give  here  a  simple  little  Maha  Deva  which  embraces  in  itself  many  of  these 
features  I  am  endeavouring  to  describe.  It  is  a  drawing  of  a  copperplate  which  I 
discovered  very  many  years  ago  deep  under  ground,  when  engaged  in  an  engineer 
ing  operation  in  southern  India  :  The  natives  were  so  enthusiastic  about  it,  saying  that 
it  was  so  ineffably  holy  by  reason  of  its  long  interment  in  mother  earth,  and  assembled 

in  such  numbers  from  all  the  neighbouring  country, 
that  I  was  compelled,  in  face  of  the  multitudes,  and 
in  case  of  an  assault  upon  my  small  camp  of  work 
men,  to  give  it  up  ;  and  I  heard  a  few  years  afterwards, 
that  a  fine  temple  had  been  built  for  this  object  and 
others  which  we  had  disinterred.  The  Brahmans  in 
formed  me  that  the  object  I  -  here  illustrate,  was  a 
very  peculiar  Lingam,  "in  whole  as  well  as  in  part," 
and  in  much  else  besides,  and  that  there  should  have 
been  an  'Argha  as  I  here  show  by  dotted  lines  ;  but 
although  we  searched  diligently  for  this,  we  never 
discovered  it.  We  found,  however,  many  other  images 
which  had  led  the  priests  to  consider,  that  it  had  been  in 
a  temple  dedicated  to  Siva,  under  the  form  of  the  god  Agni  who  is  here  entering  "  the 
door  of  Life  "  holding  two  writhing  Cobras,  whose  heads  like  Agni's,  are  emitting  sparks 
of  fire ;  so  that  here  we  have  an  Apollo  with  his  bow  and  arrows  passing  the  portal  of 
creation,  an  exactly  similar  idea  to  that  which  the  artistic  Greek  gives  us  in  my 
illustration,  Fig.  44,  p.  127.  The  porch  itself  irradiates  Fire  as  we  see  in  the  Asyrian 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  123 

Arks  and  Jewish  "  Groves,"  whilst  by  the  large-headed  snakes  on  each  side  of  the  god, 
I  suspect  we  are  to  understand  a  double  entendre,  always  so  common  in  Hindooism. 
As  Passion,  Heat,  Fire,  Air,  and  Water  are  held  to  irritate  into  action  the  energies  of 
animal  and  vegetable  life,  so  the  serpent  was  anciently  made  to  figure  universally  as 
this  irritator  or  irritant ;  and,  says  Kercher,  to  represent  in  Egypt  these  Elements 
themselves.  Thus  the  Earth  or  Soil,  because  animated  by  the  igneous  power  of  Oph 
was  shown  by  a  two-horned  snake  lying  prostrate  ;  Water  is  shown  as  an  undulat 
ing  snake  ;  Air,  an  erect  hissing  snake  ;  Zeuta  or  Toth,  being  Fire,  was  shown  by  the 
Asp  standing  on  his  tail  with  a  globe  on  his  head,  as  we  see  in  many  Egyptian  figures^ 
of  which  more  hereafter.  Toth  was  also  Passion,  as  "  Aurei  Simplicis  Ignis  " — the  reptile 
bisecting  the  circle,  as  in  Theta,  and  this  was  the  bisector's  sign,  (Toth's),  the  symbol 
of  life  and  death,  which  Eusebius  called  "  character  Mundi :  "  it  was  "  the  vis  ignea 
emblem  and  allotted  particularly  to  Cneph,  the  Agatho-demon,  and  Egyptian  Demi 
urge."  (Deane,  p.  129). 

Thus  we  must  remember  always  that  we  see  in  Pytho  the  "  Heated  Air  "  (Holy 
Spirit)  though  often  also  the  unholy,  and  so  we  find  him  far  more  diligently  worshipped 
and  revered  by  women  than  men,  and  feted  generally  on  separate  days,  so  that  the 
sexes  may  think  the  faith  out  by  themselves.  At  the  Benares  Serpent  Festival,  the 
first  day  is  thronged  by  women,  and  the  second 
by  men  ;  and  on  a  floor  adjoining  the  god's  well, 
is  Maha  Deva's  symbol  in  stone,  with  a  Ser 
pent  as  Passion  crawling  over  it.  The  idea  and 
form  are  common,  and  such  as  we  meet  with 
daily  in  and  about  most  villages :  This  Fig.  42,  is 
a  Maha  Deva  which  I  sketched  one  morning  in  a 
perfectly  new  Sivaik  temple  adjoining  a  large 
missionary  establishment  which  had  been  teach 
ing  and  preaching  on  the  spot  for  one  or  more 
generations.  Here  we  see  the  Snake  as  sup 
porter  of  the  world — Creator  and  Creatrix,  but 
especially  of  the  Argha  or  Yoni,  within  which 
play  several  other  Serpents  as  wreathing  tongues 
of  fire.  All  this  may  seem  coarse  to  us  in  these 
days  of  education  and  refinement,  but  ancient 
people. knew  not  of  any  such  fancies — what  was 
natural  was  considered  presentable — nor  were  the  Fig'  42'~A  LWGA-IN-TONI- 

promptings  of  nature  to  be  always  hidden.  In  this  mankind  were  also  too  like  monkeys, 
and  even  inferior  to  some  animals,  inasmuch  as  the  wisest  amongst  them  often  hide  sexual 
matters  from  the  broad  light  of  day,  and  from  the  gaze  of  their  fellows  :  Many  exhibit 
shame  and  modesty  when  discovered,  yet  I  am  sorry  to  say  there  are  races  in  the  East,  if 

1 24  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

not  communities  or  persons  not  in  the  East,  who  have  not  always  so  acted.   "Honour  and 
TV/  tec  "  have  indeed  been  properly  raised  into  qualities  which  we  have  been  taught  to 

aspire  to,  however  powerfully  our  passions  may  assert 
themselves  ;  and  temples  have 'been  raised  and  coins  struck 
in  commemoration  of  these  high  qualities  :  Here  is  one 
which  will  be  found  in  our  ordinary  school  books,  and 
which  we  learn  from  Smith's  classical  Dictionary  was  struck 
by  Rome  in  the  days  of  Galba — 1st  C.A.C.  and  of  which  the 
best  we  can  say  is,  that  Egypt  had  many  figures  of  a  similar 
character.  If  this  was  then  the  perfection  of  "  Virtue  and 
Honour,"  it  staggers  our  belief  of  the  possibility  of  refined 
feeling  in  an  age  which  could  stamp  such  a  coin  of  the 
Fip.  43.-HOKOUB  A»  ran*,  empire.  If  schoolmasters  were  better  instructed  they  would 
not  give  to  our  youths  any  representations  of  the  female  cornucopia  and  male  baton. 

From  India  and  Kambodia  we  naturally  look  across  to  the  immense  island  of 
Soomatra,  long  thought  to  be  inhabited  by  cannibals,  and  of  course  expect  to  find  in 
it  a  Nakon  (-vat)  as  in  the  adjoining  continent,  and  as  a  matter  of  fact  we  do  find  the 
same  idea,  for  we  find  a  Serpent  God  called  Naga  Padhoa,1  which  supports  the  world, 
and  who  is  therefore  another  Soter  Kosmou,  and,  curiously  enough,  with  horns  like  Isis, 
Apollo,  and  Moses.  Horns  reveal  to  us,  as  a  rule,  a  mixed  solar  faith,  telling  us  that 
the  Serpent  is  here  Apollyon,  or  one  touched  by  solar  fires  :  Naga  Padhoa  is  therefore 
not  our  very  early  Ob  or  Aub,  but  0-Bel,  but  I  cannot  say  that  this  idea  is  confirmed 
when  we  go  further  into  the  matter.  Oaths  generally  show  us  the  objects  most  revered 
by  a  people,  and  here  I  can  only  find  phallic  objects  in  use.  The  most  holy  oath 
with  the  Balaks  of  Soomatra  is  taken  on  the  figure  of  a  man  made  of  wood  or  stone, 
which,  as  the  people  are  able  to  carve  this  into  something  less  indecent  than  a  Lingam, 
shows  us  that  they  have  risen  a  stage  or  two  higher  than  a  Jacob  or  Lafcan,  which  is 
not  saying  too  much  for  them,  or  that  their  faith  has  passed  beyond  the  Pytho-phallic. 
I  would  like  much  to  step  across  to  that  grand  continent  still  further  south,  and  tell 
what  its  people  know  of  all  these  matters  ;  but  records  fail  me"  here,  as  I  fear  they  fail 
most.  We  have  however  heard,  that  it  is  the  belief  of  the  Australian  Bushman,  that 
the  Serpent  created,  and  ever  continues  to  excite  all  the  world.  The  class  of  Euro 
peans  who  have  hitherto  devoted  attention' to  the  Bushman,  has  apparently  never  been 
able  to  fathom,  and  some  say  has  never  been  able  even  to  see,  the  awful  rites  and  cere 
monies  with  which  his  snaky  majesty  is  there  worshipped.  I  can  imagine  these  rites 
from  what  I  have  seen  of  many  equally  wild  aborigines,  for  we  have  still  some  in  India 
who  fly  on  the  approach  of  the  European,  and  can  only  be  persuaded  to  accept  a  gaudy 
kerchief  or  other  gewgaw  by  our  laying  it  down  on  the  road  and  retiring.  Still  travel 
ling  East,  we  find  the  Fijian  owning  as  his  principal  deity  the  great  Serpent-Digci.  He  is 
1  In  Sansk.  Naga-pataya  =  "The  surrounding  Serpent." 

Serpent  and  Phallic  H'orsliip.  125 

"  soft  in  the  head  and  upper  portion  " — the  savage  quaintly  says,  but  below  "  hard  like 
a  petrified  stone,"  and,  like  all  civilised  Greek,  Indian,  or  Egyptian  Serpents,  he  lives 
in  a  cave  on  Mount  Nava-ta,  a  suspicious  sound  like  unto  navis,  nabhi  or  arglia. 

Let  us  now  return  to  better  known  lands.  In  many  Grecian  and  Egyptian 
stories  I  have  always  felt  a  confusion  in  the  relative  positions  of  our  Eastern  idea  of  the 
Serpent  as  Passion,  and  the  Egyptian  one  of  the  dog  Cerberus,  which  is  frequently 
painted  as  the  three-headed  dog  of  Passion.  It  was  the  dog  of  the  Egyptian  tombs,  and 
held  to  be  the  guardian  of  their  loved  dead  ;  but  it  appears  from  Ovid's  "  Met.  "  vii. 
(Bolm's  Ed.,  Riley's  Trans.,  p.  246),  that  this  was  the  positive  and  special  duty  of 
the  guardian  Serpent,  which  Cerberus,  says  Ovid,  robbed  of  his  birthright,  or  place  at 
the  cave's  mouth.  Now  the  Yoni  was  the  cave's  mouth  which  the  Serpent  specially 
guarded  (see  figs.  39,  42)  and  this  also  was  theNanda's,  and  a  Herculean  position ;  and 
the  dog  of  three  heads  is  shown  as  this  strong  man's  companion,  and  Herakles  is  said  by 
some  to  be  Ileera  Kola  (Siva) ;  so  the  myth  is  deep,  and  looks  very  phallic,  and  as  if  the 
dead  had  also  the  signification  of  a  new  life.  Mr  Eiley's  commentator  says  that  the 
Serpent  guarded  the  cavern  of  Tenants  in  Laconia,  one  of  the  avenues  to  the  kingdom 
of  Fire  or  Pluto,  through  a  temple  of  Neptune,  from  which  issued  nauseous  vapours. 
He  was  "  a  devourer  of  flesh  "  and  of  poisoned  herbs  (again  Sivaik),  which  grow  about 
Thessaly.  Women  used  these  herbs,  and  became  witches,  and  could  call  down  the 
moon  to  earth,  whom  at  night  they  invoked  with  their  enchantments  ;  all  this  is  clear, 
and  sufficiently  suggestive  !  None  before  this,  however,  says  Pausanias,  ever  called 
this  guardian  Serpent  a  dog. 

Dr  Smith's  classical  dictionary  gives  under  the  head  "  Peleus,"  a  very  graphic 
phallic  sculpturing,  showing  what  the  Greeks  understood  in  delineations  of  serpents  and 
dogs.  Thetis  is  there  seen  overburdened  with  serpents  which  are  biting  her  too  ardent 
lover  Peleus,  and  upon  whom  a  dog  also  springs  from  under  her  garments  ;  but  we  must 
remember  what  kind  of  creature  poor  Thetis  is  here  painted,  with  her  dog  and  serpent. 
Cupid  is  seen  gaily  following  up  the.  lovers,  and  the  result  is  the  birth  of  the  mighty 
Achilles  !  Eris,  the  goddess  of  strife  was,  we  are  told,  the  one  deity  who  gladdened  not 
this  marriage  rite  with  her  presence;  yet  the  offspring  had  strife  enough  in  his  day. 

Python  is  destroyed  by  Apollo,  who  then  becomes  the  oracle,  yet  the  Virgin  remains 
the  deliverer  of  that  oracle,  ever  sitting  on  or  under  the  Drake's  tripod;  Drako  being  the 
Greek  word  used  for  a  large  serpent  in  distinction  to  Python,  applied  to  a  small  one. 
Kadmus  is  said  "  to  have  slain  the  Drako  which  devoured  his  men,"  as  passion  still 
does  our  people,  at  all  events  our  armies  ;  but  from  this  dragon's  teeth,  says  the  old 
myth,  arose  abler  warriors.  The  Trinitarian  idea  descended  from  the  Phallic  to  the 
Serpent  faith.  Thus  we  see  the  Trinity  in  Unity  in  the  triple  Serpent  of  Constanti 
nople,  and  so  also  in  the  three-headed  Serpent  of  Agamemnon's  shield.  Babylon 
seems  to  have  been  content  with  two  Serpents,  though  Sir  H.  Eawlinson  puts  Hca, 
as  "the  head  of  the  Trinity;"  and  we  know  from  the  writing  Bel  and  the  Dragon 

126  Rivers  of  Life ',  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

(which  Protestant  Christians — but  they  only — call  apocryphal,  though  it  is  not  clear 
why  it  is  so  any  more  than  the  other  Jewish  sacred  writings),  how  enraged  the  people 
were  at  the  destruction  of  their  deity.  Fergusson  says,  "  in  the  Serpents  of  Metcle 
we  see  the  Serpents  of  Babylon  ; "  and  Diodorus  states  that  in  Belus'  temple,  Rhea  is 
accompanied  by  two  enormous  Serpents,  and  that  she — Queen  of  Heaven — stands  leaning 
with  her  right  hand  on  a  Serpent's  head,  a  very  graphic  and  important  confirmation  of  the 
faith  and  its  true  signification.  India  says,  Bali-Rahoo,  the  Dragon  causes  Eclipses. 

All  Western  Asiatics  were  from  the  earliest  ages  known  as  peculiarly  and  sincerely 
devoted  to  serpent  worship.  The  most  ancient  Greeks  nick-named  all  who  went  to 
the  coasts  of  Asia  Minor  as  "  Serpents,"  their  own  faith  at  that  time  being  more  purely 
Phallic  :  Thus  classic  tale  gravely  asserts  that  poor  Kadmus  and  his  wife  were  meta 
morphosed  into  serpents  as  soon  as  they  touched  10's  land  ;  and  Mr  Riley,  with  refer 
ence  to  this  strange  miracle,  says  in  his  notes  to  Ovid's  "Met.  "  iv.  603,  that  Kadmus 
became  a  serpent  on  reaching  Illyria,  because  all  Phenicians  were  anciently  called 
Akivi,  which  signifies  serpent.  We  may  remember  that  the  Hebrew  word  mn,  chavah, 
is  a  serpent,  also  Eve  (Gen.  iii.  20)  ;  mn,  Havah  and  Hauah,  is  to  breathe,  also 
burn  with  passion ;  mn,  chucAa,  is  a  thorn  or  piercing  object ;  mn,  chavacA,  a  cleft  or 
fissure ;  and  as  n  and  n  are  interchangeable,  we  have  Havah  for  Eve  or  Eva,  the  Yoni, 
or  Mystic  Mother,  of  which  we  have  abundant  sculptures  and  drawings  in  all  countries, 
evidencing  the  direct  worship  of  this  Evic-serpent.  See  a  well  known  sample  of  this 
in  Layard's  "Nineveh  and  Babylon,"  p.  156,  which  I  give  further  on;  he  copies  it  from 
an  Egyptian  seal.  The  worshipper  is  Bacchus,  though  called  "  the  silent  deity " 
Harpokrates,  sitting  on  the  lotus  as  fertility ;  that  Harpokrates  is  Bacchus,  I  will  hereafter 
show.  The  words  used  for  male  and  female  in  Gen.  i.  27  are  only  a  little  more  gross 
than  the  Adam  and  Eve  of  the  Hebrews,  being  13T,  Zakar,  and  napa,  Nikeba :  The 
signification  of  desire  in  Gen.  iii.  16  is  the  serpent  as  emblem  of  desire  ;  see  "Ancient 
Faiths,"  i.  497. 

The  Pythic  god  is  by  no  means  yet  dead  in  Western  Asia,  nor  even  in  Asia 
Minor,  although  the  faith  suffered  an  undoubted  and  severe  blow  from  the  education 
and  enlightenment  which  the  philosophers  of  Greece  and  Rome  brought  in,  and  espe 
cially  the  latter,  whose  Pro-consuls  were  sources  of  light  through  which  her  stoicism, 
arts,  and  learning,  were  brought  home  to  the  very  doors  of  all  her  most  distant  pro 
vinces.  Christianity  was  for  a  time  a  damper  to  this  progress,  for  she  believed  in  a 
coming  millennium,  and  in  all  the  miracles  and  superstitious  of  the  day ;  at  least  ninety - 
nine  Christians  in  every  hundred  did  so,  where  these  did  not  set  at  nought  her  own. 
The  first  Christian  churches — says  Fergusson,  quoting  Pindar — Ephesus,  Smyrna,  &c., 
were  notorious  for  their  old  serpent  worship,  and  this  he  states  in  support  of  his 
theory,  that  Turanian  races  are  generally  serpent  worshippers,  and  therefore  more  sus 
ceptible  of  Christianity  than  Aryans,  which  is  equivalent  to  saying  that  Christianity  is 
mostly  suitable  for  the  lower  stages  of  our  growth. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  127 

A  small  brochure  by  the  Earl  of  Carnarvon  shows  us,  that  neither  the  serpent  nor 
his  usually  accompanying  deity — Fire,  is  yet  dead  in  these  old  seats  of  empire;  both,  he 
states,  are  considered  necessary  to  give  light  and  beauty,  and  were  thought  to  inspire 
awe  and  veneration  for  the  holy  dead.  The  Earl  visited  in  1860  the  very  holy  shrine 
of  Sliek-Adi  Ayezide  of  Mesopatamia,  about  25  miles  from  Mosul  on  the  spurs  of  the 
Nestorian  Mountains,  overlooking  the  plains  of  Nineveh,  and  speaks  thus  of  his 
approach  to  it  through  wooded  gorges  : — "  Its  most  marked  features  were  conical 

spires,  fashioned  in  the  form  of  a  wavy  and  pointed  flame, marking  the  old 

fire  worship  which  is  more  truly,  if  not  more  openly  professed  amongst  the  Yezidis,  than 
any  other  nation  west  of  mount  Elbruz,"  the  holy  Hermon  of  the  Caucasians.  He  found 
the  serpent  "  prominently  sculptured  on  the  side  posts  of  the  inner  sanctuary,"  for  it 
is  the  commonest  emblem  of  these  parts,  not  only  internally  but  externally,  and  on  all 
churches,  monasteries,  and  convents  ;  so  much  so,  that  taken  in  connection  with  the 
October  Saturnalia,  and  the  water  ducts  and  water  appliances  to  all  these  shrines,  we  are 
thus  assured  that  they  have  always  been  more  or  less  serpent  temples  :  Perhaps  on 
this  account  the  old  Shek  selected  this  Pytho-Fire  shrine  as  his  final  resting-place. 
The  lamps  and  all  the  appurtenances,  says  the  Earl,  were  too  sacred  to  be  defiled  by 
an  unbeliever's  touch,  and  the  fire  was  never  permitted  to  go  out  in  the  adytum,  or 
holy  of  holies. 

Let  us  now  glance  briefly  at  some  of  the  most  highly  esteemed  specimens  of  Grecian 
art,  and  remove  if  possible  some  of  the  gloss  and  pretty  painting  with  which  the  poet 
and  artist  have  draped  their  figures  ;  for,  as  I  have  long  ago  urged,  they  have  but 
worked  up  the  cold  harsh  outlines  and  ideas,  into  lovely  forms  and  enchanting  pictures, 
which  we,  going  to  the  root  of  matters,  must  try  to  dissipate.  Given  a  Christ- 
like  idea,  it  is  easy  to  enshroud  the  babe  in  swaddling  bands  and  lay  him  romantic 
ally  in  a  manger  and  bring  the  star  and  wise  men  from  the  East  to  do  homage  at  the 
shrine ;  to  kill  all  the  babes  in  Judea,  and  stir  up  the  anxious,  nervous  minds,  of  con 
querors  and  conquered,  and  bring  statesmen  and  monarchs  to  the  foot  of  a  cross  ;  but  we 
-must  be  here  real,  and  neither  accept  Boodha  of  the  grove  of  Lubina,  Christ  of  Beth 
lehem,  nor  the  Prophet  of  the  Desert,  without  sifting  all. 

As  man  learned  to  sculpture  freely,  the  representation  of 
male  and  female  took  the  most  beautiful  forms  of  man  and  woman, 
and  when  Poetry  and  Music  became  arts,  common  and  appreciated, 
these  two  were  personified  by  the  sexes;  Music  became  Woman  and 
Love ;  and  Apollo  and  others  played  upon  such  lyres  to  enraptured 
nature  ;  and  it  is  here,  as  with  the  lyre,  that  he  is  shown  to  us 
as  passing  through  the  Door  of  Life.  He  is  in  the  state  which 
Solomon  calls  blessed,  because  his  quiver  is  shown  full  of  arrows,  and 
his  bow  is  ever  with  him,  or  he  is  supposed  to  be  holding  his  bow 
after  shooting  forth  his  arrow.  At  other  times  he  is  found  sculp- 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

tared  as  a  Hercules  or  representation  of  manly  vigour,  in  which   his  uprightness  is 
meant  to  be  a  speeial  characteristic.     The  pillar  or  column  on    which  he  sometimes 

leans  is  Phallic,  and  especially  so  when 
the  serpent  is  entwined  round  it  as  here. 
Sometimes  the  whole  figure  is  Phallic, 
and  in  this  case  is  usually  ornamented  with 
bunches  of  grapes  and  clinging  ivy,  as 
emblems  of  Dionysus,  whose  symbol  is  the 
Phallus,  and  whose  attendants  are  Bac 
chantes  wreathed  in  ivy.  At  other  times 
Apollo  stands  as  here  usually  sculptured, 
the  symbol  of  manly  power  and  vigour, 
and  With  his  quiver  full  of  arrows,  from 
which  one  has  just  issued.  Mark  here  that 
the  Lingam  column  around  which  the  Ser 
pent  twines,  is  the  highly  emblematic  tree 
stem,  and  that  in  this  case  he  is  known  as 
the  Pythian-Apollo,  Darter,  or  Sun,  for 
the  Oak  Stem  is  Jove  or  Jehovah.  I 
should  perhaps  state  that  it  is  very  often 
only  by  studying  this  support  or  accom 
paniment  to  a  god,  that  we  can  discern  the 
full  meaning  and  characteristics  of  the 
god-idea  and  tale,  thus  pictorially  meant 
to  be  told  us.  If  not  told  in  the  accom 
paniment,  we  can  generally  discern  it  in 
the  garments  and  ornaments  of  the  figure  itself,  but  when  this  is  nude,  we  learn 
that  the  painters  or  sculptors  meant  us  to  fall  back  on  the  surroundings,  and 
so  we  discover  (as  Erasmo  Pistoiesi  tells  us  in  his  beautiful  work  on  "The 
Antiquities  of  Herculaneum  and  Pompeii,")  in  the  case  of  Bacchus,  first,  from  his 
Nebride,  tiger's  or  lion's  or  ram's  skin,  and,  secondly  and  thirdly,  from  his  side 
"  column  entwined  with  the  vine  and  serpent  (love  or  passion),  the  three  characteristic 
symbols  of  the  worship  of  Bacchus."  Soj  in  the  case  of  the  clothed  Minerva,  we 
understand  the  meaning  she  represents  by  observing  wreaths  of  serpents  around  her 
neck  and  bosom,  and  a  gorgon's  or  child's  head  in  the  centre  of  the  breast,  and  we 
naturally  exclaim  ;  "  Passion  and  the  bewilderment  of  disordered  passion,  and  love  for 
offspring,"  more  especially  if  she  stands  with  a  globe,  or  child,  or  both  in  hand.  Now 
in  the  case  of  this  last  Apollo  the  side  column  is  often  much  higher  than  here,  and  the 
snake  larger  and  more  prominent,  and  shown  as  looking  upward  with  head  erect,  and 
reaching  nearly  to  the  Apollo's  chest,  and  folded  about  his  arm  ;  the  column  is  also 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 29 

often  shaped  snake-like  in  graceful  curves,  and  surmounted  with  a  bunch  of  grapes  or 
seed.  See  a  figure  in  the  valuable  German  drawings  entitled  Denkmaler  der  Alten 
Kunst,  by  C.  0.  Miiller.  The  fellow  to  this  Apollo  would  be  the  beautiful  Venus  de 
Medici,  who  leans  (see  figure  224  of  same  work)  against  her  representative,  the  fish, 
here  a  dolphin,  on  and  about  which  young  cupids  are  seen  riding  and  gambolling. 
The  same  idea,  but  softer  and  more  matronly,  is  portrayed  in  the  Ephesian  Artemis, 
with  arms  open,  displaying  her  multitude  of  full  breasts,  whilst  clothed  in  an  armour 
of  passion,  see  figure  further  on. 

The  Bilder  Atlas  (Leipzic  1860)  is  full  of  fine  illustrations  showing  similar  and 
other  strange  ideas  of  Phallo-Solar  Faiths.  The  Dolphin  may  be  often  seen  heading 
the  phallic  pole,  as  in  plate  viii.,  where  stands  beside  it  a  representative  man  as 
Neptune,  who  holds  the  fish  by  the  tail,  probably  to  restrain  its  energies. 

One  sculpture  (fig.  1 5)  shows  Man  flying  over  the  earth,  bearing  aloft  the  Concha 
Veneris,  and  a  figure  representing  Woman  is  seen  pouring  from  her  vase  all  that 
earth  counts  blessings.  Elsewhere  we  see  Satyrs  kneeling  before  a  woman,  and  filling 
the  vase  she  holds  out  in  her  hand — the  meaning  being  the  same.  Seeing  I  have  already 
had  so  often  to  mention  the  Concha  or  Shank  of  the  East,  I  think  I  had  better  pause  to 
give  my  European  readers  a  sketch  of  this  most  important  symbol,  for  we  shall  never 
get  on  well  unless  we  thoroughly  comprehend  these  objects,  and  the  details  to  which 
Orientalists  attach  so  much  importance. 

I  give  here  from  among  the  ornaments  of  the  highest  deities,  and  from  the  most 
learned  of  bygone  Orientalists,  at  least  in  these  details,  the  Concha,  as  seen  in 
the  hands  of  Vishnoo  and  his  consort.  (Plate  vi.  of  Moore's 
Hindoo  Pantheon).  The  god  holds  the  larger  shell  in  one  hand, 
and  in  the  other,  opposite  to  it  (not  shewn  here),  the  great  orb 
of  day.  In  Moore's  picture,  also,  Vishnoo  is  seen  to  be  stand 
ing  in  the  very  symbolic  arched  doorway,  like  Apollo  in  my  fig, 
44,  and  adorned  with  a  gorgeous  head-dress  of  serpents,  whilst 
overhead  is  a  Baldakeno  of  hooded  snakes ;  the  down  left  hand 
is  reversed,  betokening  that  he  here  holds  virginity  on  this  side  FIG.  46.-SHELLS. 

as  well  as  his  goddess,  whilst  the  down  right  hand  is  turned  "boldly  to  the  front.  The 
reader  will  not  fail  to  mark  the  prominence  of  the  diamond  form  in  the  centre  of  the 
god's  hand,  which,  when  open,  is  always  the  symbol  of  the  Creator,  Siva,  and  that 
the  finger  points  markedly  to  the  centre  of  the  diamond.  See  also  that  the  shell 
emblem  is  oval,  and  winged  like  the  Osirian  hat,  and  has  a  conical  or  phallic  top, 
such  as  most  women  in  Egypt  have  on  their  heads  when  engaged  in  worship,  or  fully 
dressed. — See  Wilkinsons  Anc.  Egyp.  L,  318.  Of  course  the  god  has  four  hands  in 
Moore's  illustrations,  as  all  solar  deities  have. 

The  smaller  shell  is  in  the  goddess's  hand,  for  she  presides  over  the  wombs  of  all 
females  as  the  mother  of  all  mothers.  It  is  possible  that  the  Osirian  head-dress  sprang 
from  this  very  old  Eastern  Shell-idea,  for  this  shell  was  the  first  Priestly  Bell,  or 

130  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

music  of  the  gods  ;  it  can  frighten  away  all  evil  demons  and  sceptics,  and  therefore  was 
an  article  very  early  and  very  persistently  used  as  well  for  sacerdotal  garments  as  church 
ornation ;  and  from  it,  combined  with  other  causes,  did  all  bell-like  plants,  flowers,  and 
fruits,  as  pomegranates  &c.,  become  the  favourites  of  ecclesiastics. 

The  Concha  or  Shank  is  still  the  Hindoo  Church  bell,  though  gongs  and  trumpets 
are  likewise  used  ;  it  is  however,  still  the  principal  bell  with  the  strictly  orthodox,  and 
at  some  very  solemn  rites  is  as  indispensable  as  the .  Christian  Church  bell,  of  which  it 
is  the  prototype.  What  good  Christian's  marriage  or  death  would  be  complete  without 
the  church  bell  ?  The  Shank  is  more  especially  blown  when  the  Sivaik  priest  goes 
through  his  genuflexions  before  the  Lingam  and  anoints  it,  which  corresponds  to  the 
act  of  the  Catholic  priest  elevating  the  symbolic  wafer — "the  victim" — emblem  of 
the  "  God  of  Bethlehem."  Then,  too,  in  addition  to  the  blasts  of  the  Shank,  which 
uniquely  correspond  to  the  Jewish  trumpetings,  the  inner  small  bell  of  the  Sivaik 
temple  boldly  clangs,  as  does  the  altar  bell  of  the  Roman  Catholics  meekly  tinkle  ;  only 
the  ideas  in  these  rites  have  changed,  not  so  the  customs  and  forms,  for  with  the 
ignorant  masses  these  are  not  so  easily  moved.  The  emblem  in  the  left  hand  is  also 
the  common  mark  or  Nishdn,  which  we  almost  always  see  on  the  foreheads  of  every 
goddess  of  the  Hindoo  Pantheon,  as  a  glance  at  Moore's  plates  shews ;  it  is,  in  fact, 
the  orifice  of  the  shell. 

The  Concha  is  not  the  same  shape  in  all  countries,  and  is  represented  in  Southern 
Europe  by  the  Buccina,  called  in  Greece  the  Bukani,  which  was  there  also  blown  at  great 
fetes.  The  Greek  word  is  y^yyji  Ko?zgrke.  I  give  in  figure  47,  a  Greek  drawing  of  the  ordinary 
Indian  shaped  Bukana,  where  we  see  the  unmistakeable  phallic 
figure  of  a  Deity  blowing  through  the  shell,  which  English 
schoolboys  are  ignorantly  taught  to  call  "  a  Triton  sound- 
ing  his  buccina."  Smith's  Dictionary  of  Antiquities  unwit 
tingly  but  appropriately  shews  the  Bukani  under  the  head 
of  Navis,  for  it  is  Maya's  boat,  and  the  Concha  her  emblem ; 
yet  a  male  in  connection  with  it  is  far  too  prononce  an 
ornament  even  for  our  school-books,  and  the  editor 

Fig.  47.— THE  PHALLIC  GOD  AND  .  ,     .  p  ,  -  . 

SHANK.  has    given    this    figure    as    the  outer    gold    stamp    of   his 

most  valuable  and  popular  "  Dictionary  of  Antiquities!  "  The  shell  is  also  seen  among 
my  other  figures,  and  always  in  Indian  pictures  beside  the  other  sexual  energies.  The 
Triton,  or  man  in  this  position,  is  a  sort  of  pictorial  pun  for  the  phallus;  and  he  carries 
witli  him  his  rudder,  or  consort,  for  the  rudder  as  well  as  the  stern  of  every  vessel  usually 
denotes  woman  as  the  great  carrier,  and  hence  ships  as  carriers  have  the  feminine  affix. 
Unintentionally  the  learned  gentleman  who  writes  the  article  "  Navis"  in  Smith's  Diet, 
of  Antiquities,  gives  us  two  very  rudder  like  and  feminine  cuts  below  the  phallic  Buccina. 
Of  the  one  he  says  the  rudder,  "helm,  or  tiller  is  crossed  by  a  cornucopia;"  and  in  regard 
to  the  other,  that  "  Venus  leans  with  her  left  arm  on  the  rudder  to  indicate  her  origin 
from  -the  sea."  This  is  not  of  course  correct;  according  to  Oriental  phallic  lore 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  131 

the  winged  arrow  is  the  male,  and  carries  &fleur  de  Us  head  with,  I  suspect,  the  heel 
wings  of  that  "old  thief"  Mercury,  so  that  the  piercing  of  the  rudder  is  highly 
emblematic.  I  give  the  two  gems  seen  in  the 
Dictionary  article  for  facility  of  reference,  also  a 
rudder  and  shield,  regarding  which  I  must  say  a 
few  words  more. 

In  the  celebrated  Irish  Tdra  brooch,  which  Mr 
Waring  gives  us  in  plate  92  of  his  handsome 
volume,1  the  serpent  is  the  cross-pin  of  the  femi 
nine  emblem,  as  the  arrow  here  is  of  the  rudder, 
yet  we  should  have  fancied  that  the  Irish  brooch- 
maker  would,  for  the  circular  parts  of  his  work, 
have  preferred  the  serpent  from  its  curling  coil 
ing  propensities,  and  had  the  javelin  or  spear 
— equally  symbolical — for  the  pin  of  the  jewel ; 
yet  it  is  not  so,  shewing  us  that  for  this  crown  jewel,  the  Irish  people  preferred 
Python  male  to  Python  female.  We  see  what  importance  the  sensual  monarch  of 
the  Jews  attached  to  shields  by  his  making  no  less  than  three  hundred,  and  of  pure  gold, 
and  hanging  them  up  in  his  amatory  palace  of  Lebanon  (1  Kings  x.  17)  ;  of  which  the 
value,  we  are  gravely  asked  to  believe,  was  something  like  a  quarter  million  sterling. 

David  captured  similar  "  shields  of  gold  "  on  the  servants  of  a  king  of  Arabia- 
Deserta  (2  Sam.  viii.),  and  also  dedicated  them,  like  Great  Cesar,  to  his  gods.  Such 
shields  we  find  were  either  sacred  to  the  sun,  as  Turner  and  others  tell  us  the  shield 
of  Pallas  was,  or  to  the  Genetrix,  and  may  be  classed  with  the  Eoman  ancilia,  keys, 
rudders,  and  such  sexual  simulacra.  The  serpent  was  the  steersman  who  guided  the 
arks  or  boats  of  this  faith,  see  Fig.  73,  page  191,  and  Pallas- Athena,  Ceres,  and  other 
Saktis  often  had  such  emblems  as  these.  Feathers  or  wings  attached  to  gods  or  god 
desses,  I  have  elsewhere  shewn,  had  always  some  sexual  signification,  and  this  feather- 
.  ing  of  the  rudder,  so  precisely  like  that  attached  to  the  Phallic  cap  of  the  gods,  is 
suspicious.  Ceres  had  usually  a  cross  at  the  head  of  her  shaft,  which  completes  the 
symbolism  ;  the  shields  had  serpents  and  such  like,  with  a  centre  boss.  Jehovah,  who 
was  once  a  female  god,  called  himself  the  shield  of  Abram  on  the  occasion  of  his 
asking  for  offspring  (Gen.  xv.  1).  The  Romans  preserved  with  great  religious  care 
and  reverence  twelve  ancilia  in  the  temple  of  Mars  on  the  hill  of  Pallas,  for  which 
there  were  regular  priests,  called  the  Salii  Palatini.  In  connection  with  them  also 
were  sacred  cups — Patera,  Patella,  or  Patina,  which  in  Sivaik  temples  are  called 
Arghas  ;  these  appear  also  in  Grecian  rites,  and  in  the  sacramental  chalice  of  Christi 
anity.  The  arghas  are  occasionally  used  for  incense,  and  the  distinction  between  them 
and  the  cups  and  the  censer  of  Christian  churches  is  very  fine.  All  have  been  in  use 
from  unknown  times,  for  as  Dryden  says, — 

"  The  Salii  sing  and  cense  their  altars  round 
With  Sabine  smoke." 

1   Monuments  and  Ornaments,  &c.,  by  J.  B.  Waiing.     J.  Day  &  Co.,  London,  1870. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  goddess  of  the  Concha  or  Vase  is  shewn  in  a  very  striking  way  in  Plate  vii. 
fig.  20,  of  the  Bilder  Atlas,  as  rising  vigorously  out  of  the  ocean,  riding  the  vernal  bull ; 
it  has  a  fish's  tail,  in  the  folds  of  which  children  are  gambolling,  whilst  winged  cherubim 
are  urging  the  bull  upwards  in  his  fiery  path,  in  a  way  which  reminds  us  of  that 
whipping  of  the  altar  of  Apollo  by  impetuous  creation  ;  the  riding  deity  here  repre 
senting  woman.  Elsewhere  may  be  seen  the  same  goddess  riding  a  fiery  horse,  which 
has  a  fish's  tail  but  no  legs ;  it  carries  with  it  a  picture  of  all  animate  creation,  shew 
ing  us  that  the  worship  is  intensely  solo-phallic,  and  that  these  phases  of  faith  must 
never  be  entirely,  separated  if  we  would  understand  aright  the  ideas  of  the  Greeks 
and  Romans,  even  up  to  the  last  century  or  so. 

Where  could  we  find  a  fitter  queen  of  these  faiths  than  she,  Sophia,  Wisdom  and 
Power,  portrayed  in  that  magnificent  statue  of  the 
Akropolis,the  Athena-Parthenos,  Athena,  Minerva,  Pallas- 
Athena,  or  Athena-Polias  ?  for  all  of  which  grand  titles 
my  eastern  friends  would  be  inclined  to  substitute  Sri- 
linga-Jce,  Addma,  or  Yeva,  according  as  they  were 
expressing  themselves  from  a  Hindoo  or  Mahomedan 
point  of  view.  She  was  no  doubt  Palla  or  Phalla  the 
great  father,  and  Athena  the  great  mother,  an  androgy 
nous  deity,  such  as  Zeus  and  Wisdom  always  were.  Pallas 
Athena  commonly  bore  the  shaft  of  Zeus,  the  trident  of 
Neptune,  or  the  Tri-Sool  of  India — the  three-thorned 
"  Enlivener"  of  Ge  in  the  one  hand,  a  globe  in  the  other,  on 
which  a  new  world  arises,  and  so  on  ad  infinitum. 

The  wild  and  impetuous  passions  of  the  goddess 
are    usually   indicated    by   writhing    snakes    over    her 
head    and    breasts,    and    issuing    from    her    garments 
at   foot,    here   only   partially   shown.       Sometimes  she 
Kg.  49. -PALLAS-ATHENA,  OK  WISDOM  AXD  POWER.  geems    io   pjgg    Q^Q^Q    passion    and   trample    it  under 

foot,  as  we  observe  in  an  illustration  of  the  Denkmcder  der  Alien  Kunst 
collection ;  whilst  elsewhere  she  is  the  patroness  of  passion,  herself  unmoved,  but 
moving  all  creation,  as  in  the  Bilder  Atlas  (Leipsic,  1860), 
where  she  leans  against  her  representation  the  shield  (not 
the  rudder  here),  at  the  foot  of  which  is  coiled  a  serpent 
looking  up  to  her,  and  a  winged  lioness  with  very  full 
breasts,  as  if  imploring  her  to  exercise  her  potent  energies. 
In  Latona's  story  we  have  a  similar  idea;  and  in  this 
sculpture  of  her,  where,  we  see  a  serpent  tempting  a  coy  or 
backward  woman,  we  have  also  a  sort  of  pictorial  pun  in 
the  upright  column  which  she  and  her  young  ones  are  made 
to  form  between  two  rocks  or  cliffs — always  male  symbols. 

Fig.  60.       LATONA. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 33 

This  drawing  is  one  of  a  class  common  on  vases.  Latona,  the  mother  of  Apollo  and 
Artemis,  and  Queen  of  Delos,  is  here  flying  from  the  serpent — Jupiter,  with  some 
amount  of  fear,  but  neither  in  anger  nor  altogether  willingly,  whilst  her  children  seek 
to  cling  to  the  pursuer.  The  idea,  I  fancy,  is  both  phallic  and  solar  as  connected  with 
Zeus  ;  the  very  name  of  the  goddess,  ?.^0»j — Latin,  lateo,  seems  to  tell  us  of  hidden  powers 
of  fecundity,  which  Zeus  the  Sun  developed ;  so  that  the  flight,  if  from  the  god,  repre 
sents  the  seasons,  similar  to  the  diurnal  idea  of  Daphne  or  Aurora. 

Our  Serpent-god  plays  a  similar  part  with  Hercules  and  the  Hesperides,  in  that 
"  garden  of  apples  " — a  fruit  which  signifies  more  than  I 
dare  here  explain  (see  Anct.  Faiths. — Apples).  Hera 
got  the  apples  from  mother  Ge,  and  when  they  had 
served  her  purpose,  entrusted  them  to  the  Hesperides, 
daughters  of  Night,  or  of  Atlas  and  Hesperis,  or  Zeus 
and  Themis  ;  a  very  imprudent  act,  which  was  scarcely 
to  be  expected  from  such  a  discreet  and  well-informed 
person  as  Juno  ;  but  the  story  is  Phallo- Solar.  The 
Hesperides  were  those  who  dwelt  far  away  beyond  the 
Borean  wind,  or — as  this  was  afterwards  localized,  in 
Hyperborean  lands,  then  thought  to  be  beyond  mother 
Ge's  domains.  Juno,  after  fertilizing  her  own  lands,  is 
in  this  tale  represented  as  then  giving  these  maids 
the  means  of  fertilizing  their  sterile  ground,  so  that  in 
all  this  wonderful  tale  of  searching  out  and  capturing 
apples,  or  fruit  hidden  away  by  Hesperides,  and  guarded  by  a  great  serpent,  we 
no  doubt  (although  I  suspect  a  very  gross  Phallic  tale  is  the  root  of  the  myth)  arc- 
now  merely  asked  to  see  the  idea  of  the  sun  searching  out  and  bringing  to  life  latent 
powers  of  fecundity,  as  in  the  tale  of  Latona  and  Delos,  which  also  was  a  very  barren 
though  sunny  place,  like  what  Hyperborea  was  believed  to  be. 

We  must  bear  in  mind,  that  as  Apollo  or  the  Sun  is  Python,  so  the  Pillar, 
Mudhir,  or  Sun- Stone,  as  they  called  it  in  ancient  Ireland, 
is  also  the  Toth,  the  Solar  Serpent  or  obelisk,  which  last — 
"  Grimm's  laws"  notwithstanding,  if  such  must  be — I  hold 
to  be  resolvable  into  Ob  .and  Palos,  or  Ob-bdos,  the  Ser 
pent  shaft  or  sun,  which  Bryant  and  Hoi  well  support  me 
in  saying.  In  historic  ages  the  worship  of  the  Pillar  and 
Phallus  was  general  at  all  Solar  phases,  and  whether  in  Asia 
Minor  or  on  the  Campus  Martins  of  Rome — around  that 
fine  monument,  but  very  coarse  idea  of  Mars — we  see  why 
the  annual  games  of  the  people,  .Delphic,  or  Pythic, 
were  so  held,  and  in  presence,  of  such  gods.  Before 
this  Mars,  the  youth  of  Rome  were  annually  assembled 

134  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

to  contend  in  tournaments  and  manly  exercises  for  the  maidens  whom  they  loved, 
and  the  exploits  of  the  gods  were  held  up  as  examples  to  all.  My  illustration  is  from 
one  of  a  group  in  the  Museum  Pio  Clementinum,  and  represents,  I  believe,  not  only 
the  great  Phallic  god  of  war,  but  the  sun  of  the  vernal  Equinox,  who  has 
to  resuscitate  the  injured  powers  of  nature,  and  is  therefore  the  personification  of  manly 
vigor,  and  the  favorite  of  Venus.  The  pyramid  is  the  Fire-tower,  and  hence  is 
shewn  the  small  but  everlasting  flame  proceeding  from  it,  as  all  obelisks  should  shew 
this — otherwise  they  are  devoid  of  half  their  meaning. 

Rome,  from,  the  days  of  her  mythic  Romulus  of  Etruscan  origin,  to  that  of  her 
emasculation  under  false  Christian  ideas,  was  a  firm  and  consistent  adherent  of  all 
forms  of  Phallic  faiths,  which  she  boldly  depicted  aloft  on  her  standards.  Let  us 
glance  at  the  most  prominent. 

In  the  first  here  we  have  first  a  Serpent  pole,  such  as  Moses  is  held  to  have 
set  up,  and  his  tribes  worshipped  for  some  seven  hundred 
years;  then  one  surmounted  by  Siva's  special  "Emblem 
of  Almighty  power" — the  open  hand,  along  with  Solar, 
Lunar,  and  Arkite  ideas  sacred  to  that  faith;  and 
thirdly,  we  have  one  headed  by  an  Eagle,  who  is  Vislmoo 
or  the  Sun,  ubiquity  and  power,  religion  and  truth ; 
and  below  it,  various  very  IGnic-looking  emblems  as 
ovals,  circles,  goads  or  thorns,  &c.  It  was  natural 
that  the  followers  of  such  "  Banners  "  should  revere 
all  the  legends  of  Phallic  and  Solar  lore,  and  that 
their  greatest  leader  (Cesar)  should  send  to  the  great 
GENETPJX  of  his  capitol,  on  the  occasion  of  his  greatest 
conquests,  her  emblematic  shields  embossed  with 

pearls- — highly  symbolic  jewels,  and  in-wrought  by  Alban  maids  with  ifche  finest  of 
British  gold.  This  subject  of  Banners  is  extensive,  and  capable  of  almost  indefinite 
expansion,  because  all  ancient  peoples  often  proclaimed  their  faith  to  the  minutest 
details  on  such  Banners  or  Poles  as  they  bore  before  them  in  processions  or  armed 
array,  and  it  is  difficult  within  my  allotted  space  to  do  it  full  justice.  The  Roman 
standards  had  also  the  cross  and  circle  of  Venus,  see  Fig.  99  Jf  p.  228,  which  Constantino, 
the  so-called  Christian  Emperor,  to  please  the  Christians  whose  faith  the  coarse  and 
ignorant  Pagan  (for  he  only  became  a  Christian  in  name)  saw  to  be  in  the  ascendant, 
modified,  by  removing  it  from  the  top  of  the  spear  to  the  side,  which  really  only 
changed  the  Kaldian  symbol  into  the  staff  and  crook  of  Osiris,  and  into  that  ever 
highly  Phallic  letter — the  Greek  R.  As  Pindar  had  said  that  Venus  brought  her  sign 
down  from  Olympus  with  her  sacred  bird  crucified  upon  it,  so  the  Christians  (probably 
the  often  untruthful  Eusebius)  thought  it  advisable  to  say  they  too  got  their  cross 
from  their  heavens,  or  had  seen  it  in  that  portion  of  atmosphere  which  was  over  Con- 
stantipople  for  a  fraction  of  a  second  in  the  year  311  A.C.  Plato  and  Justin  Martyr 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


only  knew  of  a  Greek  "  Kki  or  Khiasm"  which  in  Eusebius'  day  was  called  of  Khiasmos. 
So  he  gives  Rho  as  his  emperor's  monogram  of  "Khristos,"  explaining  xiafaevov  TOU  p  *ar& 
ro  fiseairarov,  "  the  letter  Rho  passing  exactly  through  the  middle  of  the  letter  Khi."1  This 
sign  was  then  also,  like  that  of  Phallic  crosses,  called  "the  cross  of  salvation,"  or  of  life.'2 
The  Romans  are  believed  to  have  got  their  first  standard, — a  phallus  or  pole — 
with  a  spear  transversely  to  it,  from  the  Samothracians,  Dacians,  and  such  people;  that 

is,  from  the  Ugric  Etruscans  of  Asiatic  extraction.  This  transverse  object  was  usually 
put  in  motion  by  strings  as  "a  wagtail  "  at  all  festivals,  as  at  the  Phallophoria,  Thesmo- 
phoria,  &c.,  just  as  I  have  seen  this  done  very  frequently  in  India.  When  the  Linga  is 
'in  agitation,  all  the  beholders  pray  to  it,  the  ceremony  thus  corresponding  to  the  raising 
of  the  Hostia,  or  supposed  "  sacrifice  of  the  victim."  The  Boodhists  also  keep  up  a 
similar  waving  in  the  pulling  of  the  serpentine  streamers  on  their  temple  poles,  which  may 
only  be  done  by  young  virgins  and  lads  ;  the  sacred  Henza  or  Goose,  and  Phallic 
portion  of  the  pole  is  thus  made  to  bow  and  quiver,  when  all  the  people  fall  on  their 
knees  and  worship.  I  give  here  a  sketch  of  these  poles  and  ornaments,  taken  by  me 
above  a  "dozen  years  ago,  as  they  then  existed  around  the  base  of  the  great  Shooe  Dagony 
Pagoda  of  Rangoon.  A  corner  of  the  base  of  this  great  and  most  holy  shrine  is  seen 
adjoining  the  figures  of  the  demons,  who  sit  here  to  warn  off  sceptics,  the  great  enemies  of 
priests.  Wisdom  and  complacency  also  sit  there,  urging  good  men  to  follow  their  ways, 
and  to  try  and  pass  quietly  and  tranquilly  through  life.  There  are  tables  for  offerings 
before  the  figures,  and  indeed  all  about  the  platform  of  the  great  temple,  which  plateau 

1  Life  of  Const.,  I.  30.  2  Eccles.  Hist.  Euseb.,  III.  20. 

136  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Alan  in  all  Lauds. 

the  British  Government  have  now.  made  into  a  fortified  citadel,  and  to  a  great  extent 
cleared.  These  tables  are  for  voluntary  offerings  towards  the  support  of  the  temple,  its 
priests  and  schools,  which  last  are,  or  were,  very  extensive  and  very  excellent ;  for 
Boodha,  like  Confucius,  was  a  warm  supporter  of  education  such  as  is  not  known  to 
Western  prophets,  nor  until  a  century  or  so;  to  Christian  churches,  except  in  the  way 
of  teaching  matters  connected  with  their  own  interests.  "  Wisdom  and  learning"  with 
churches,  signified  only  that  which  proved  their  own  faith  and  doctrines  to  be  correct 
— all  else  was  but  folly  and  ignorance,  nay  worse,  wickedness.  The  various  buildings 
seen  in  this  illustration  are  covered  with  leaf-gold  from  base  to  summit.  There  are  open 
sheds  about  for  prayer  and  shelter,  in  some  of  which  are  sacred  bells,  the  requisite  of 
every  faith,  and  the  symbolism  of  which .  I  have  elsewhere  tried  to  make  clear.  All 
Boodhist  countries  have  shewn  us  much  Drakonic  sculpturing  and  pictures,  and  I  see 
here  also  the  Serpent  at  his  old  ways  ;  it  is  he  who  moves  these  "  Henzas,"  who  moved 
Brahma,  the  creator.  The  Henza  was  sent  to  him  for  this  purpose  by  Vishnoo,  and  is  there 
fore  his  Incarnation,  though  Boodhists  will  dissent.  The  word  Dragon  has  come  down  to 
our  own  day  in  many  ways,  and  I  suspect  even  in  the  corrupted  word  Dragoman  or 
Spokesman,  for  the  Drako  was  the  special  Speaker,  the  Word,  and  the  Oracle ;  so 
Targem  a:nn  "  to  explain,"  pjnin  Turgeman  "  a  translator,"  and  our  Indian  Tarjama 
"  a  translation,"  seem  to  have  originally  sprung  from  Draka  or  Trako.  To  ophiolatry 
we  also  owe  the  name  of  the  body-guards  of  our  sovereign — Dragoons  ;  a  word 
which,  though  coming  to  us  from  Gaul,  was  borrowed  from  Imperial  Rome,  whose 
choicest  troops  were  those  fighting  under  the  Dragon's  standard  carried  by  select  men — 
Draconarii ;  the  standard  was  quite  "  au  natural" — a  bond  fide  serpent  on  a  pole. 
From  the  very  earliest  pre -historic  times  all  the  people  of  the  Roman  Campania  were 
Pitdns,  as  we  would  say  in  India,  and  Pitanatce  or  Ophitce  here ;  and  their  earliest 
kings  had  on  their  standard  this  genuine  figure  of  a  Serpent. 

The  Hebrew  who  carried  the  same  God  called  him  also  jna  Peten,  so  that  this  term 
we  may  say  ruled  from  Italy  to  India.  Hesychius  says  that  the  Greeks  called  their 
infantry  brigades  vir&v&rai,  Pitanatai.  Even  in  the  days  of  Marcus  Aurelius  every 
cohort  of  the  Roman  army  had  the  actual  image  of  a  serpent  on  a  standard,  and  there 
fore  every  legion  had  ten  serpents.  And  these  also  were  real  and  not  pictures, 
painted,  worked,  or  woven  into  cloth ;.  and  we  may  therefore  be  sure  that  neither 
would  the  "  Jehovah  Nissi "  nor  "  the  Lord  my  Banner  "  be  a  flag  or  picture,  but  a  real 
pole  or  standard,  bearing  the  symbol  of  the  tribes,  that  is  a  club,  baton,  oi\pillar,  for 
they  had  not  risen  above  our  second  faith  until  they  got  their  serpent-pole,  and, 
therefore,  up  to  that  time  would  have  a  genuine  baton,  or  Lingam.  It  would  be 
easy  to  give,  abundant  instances  of  serpent  or  dragon  standards  as  still  existing. 
Our -own  kings,  the  Danes,  Livonians,  and  Normans  had  all  along  fought  under,  and 
worshipped  such  standards.  We  hear  of  Skythians  in  desolating  hordes  sweeping 
from  frozen  to  torrid,  zones,  and  back  and  forward  through  every  land,  and 
always  under  their  sacred  dragon  insignia  ;  their  cradle,  we  may  say,  was  a  serpent — 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 37 

the  great  loved  river,  OBI,  which  was  held  through  untold  ages  by  hardy  fathers  and 
irrepressible  children,  rejoicing  in  the  name  of  Ostiakes,  and  worshipping  real  serpents 
and  serpent  images. 

As  all  peoples  have  been  more  or  less  led  and  nurtured  under  Pythic  standards,  so 
have  they,  their  demi-gods,  kings,  and  chiefs,  called  themselves  after  serpent  names. 
In  our  own  island,  not  only  does  Draig  in  the  old  languages  mean  dragon,  but  "  a  fiery 
serpent  and  THE  SUPREME  GOD  ; "  the  capitals  and  italics  are  not  mine,  but  those  of  the 
pious  and  orthodox  clergyman,  J.  Bathurst  Deane,  in  his  volume  on  Serpent  Worship. 
Though  the  Eoman  power  seems  to  have  overthrown  all  ancient  English  standards,  yet 
the  dragon  remained  the  rallying  sign  and  war-cry  of  the  Welsh  and  Anglo-Saxons  for 
long  centuries  ;  and  in  1195,  Eichard  Cceur-de-Lion  bore  the  dragon-standard  as  the 
representative  of  northern  Christianity1  when  warring  with  the  iconoclastic 
Mahomed,  who  similarly  sinned,  but  on  the  female  side,  with  fair  Astarte,  the  pretty 
Pythoness  ;  he  bore  her  emblem,  the  crescent  Luna,  as  do  all  the  armies  of  Islam 
to  this  hour.  A  hundred  years  after  our  Richard,  the  dragon-standard  of  England 
under  Henry  III.  became  a  terror  in  the  land  ;  that  king  proclaimed  that  when  unfurled 
against  his  enemies,  it  meant  "no  quarter,"  giving  out  then  as  his  motto,  "the  dragon 
knows  not  how  to  spare."  The  "standard  was  planted  in  the  front  of  the  king's 
pavilion,  to  the  right  of  the  other  ensigns,  and  was  kept  unfurled  day  and  night" 

Three  hundred  years  after  this,  or  in  1500,  we  find  the  wise  and  good  king, 
Henry  VII.,  he  who  united  the  rival  houses  of  York  and  Lancaster,  introducing  the 
dragon  into  the  royal  arms  of  England,  where  it  remained  till  the  union  with  Scotland, 
when  the  nondescript  animal,  with  one  horn  in  front — a  sort  of  travesty  on  Siva  and 
Jove,  who  had  a  central  eye  in  the  forehead,  took  Draco's  place.2  The  same  high  and 
heavenly  reason  is  given  for  the  introduction  of  the  dragon  into  the  imperial  arms  of 
Britain,  as  we  have  in  the  case  of  the  cross  of  Constantine.  The  heir-apparent  of  the 
British  throne  beheld  a  "  fiery  meteor,  in  the  form  of  a  dragon,  illumine  the  heavens 
with  portentous  glare,"  which  "  astrologers  unanimously  expounded  "  as  meaning  that 
•he  who  saw  this  would  one  day  rule,  which  he  did  on  the  death  of  his  brother  Aurelius, 
when  he  at  once  fabricated  two  dragons  in  gold,  one  of  which  he  placed  in  Winchester 
Cathedral,  and  the  other  he  carried  before  him  as  the  standard  of  England.  Our  heir- 
apparent  is,  it  has  been  said,  still  bound  to  use  this  standard  or  insignia  when  trans 
acting  official  formalities  in  connection  with  his  "  Kymri."3  Nor  were  the  Christian 
churches  here  free  from  their  old  sin  of  inconsistency :  they  did  in  Rome  as  Romans 
did.  Du  Fresne,  quoted  by  the  reverend  writer  of  Serpent  Worship,  says  that  "  in  the 
ecclesiastical  processions  of  the  Church  of  Rome  an  effigy  of  a  dragon  is  wont  to  be 
carried,"  with  holy  and  everlasting  fire  in  his  mouth.  "  On  Palm  Sunday  there  are 

1  Serpent  Worship,  p.  256.     The  Bible  of  1579  has  a  scaly  Dragon  on  dexterside  of  the  Eoyal  Arms. 

2  I  suspect  the  horn  is  the  Serpent — drawn  straight — as  he  would  appear  in  a  front  elevation. 

3  Serpent  Worship,  Deane,  268-70,  quoting  authorities.     The  Winged  red  Dragon  represents  Wales. 

I.  S 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 


two  processions  in  which  the  standard  and  the  dragon  precede.  Holy  water  and  a  censer 
without  fire,  a  cross  and  dragon  on  a  pole,  are  borne  in  procession.  One  of  the  boys 
carries  a  lighted  candle  in  a  lantern  that  fire  may  be  at  hand  in  case  the  light  which 
is  in  the  dragon's  mouth  should  be  extinguished."  Truly  does  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Deanc 

add  :  "The  whole  ceremony  may  be  con 
sidered  as  a  lively  representation  of  an 
ophite  procession  as  it  advanced  through 
the  sinuous  paralleleiths  of  Karnak  "  (p. 
288).  So  that  no  wonder  the  illiterate 
races  were  deceived  into  thinking  that 
,__  there  was  no  harm  in  calling  themselves 
Christians,  for  all  their  dear  old  faiths 
are  here — fire,  arks,  poles,  and  fire  in  an 
ark.  My  readers  will  see  from  this  illustration  of  the  above, description,  that  nothing 
is  awanting  in  the  Sivaite  procession  ;  there  is  a  Phallic  pole  and  Phallic  cross,  two 
cists  or  female  emblems,  one  of  water  and  one  of  fire,  and  then  the  male  within  the 
ark  vessel.  We  Europeans  are  very  apt  to  read  the  details  of  such  matters  without 
ever  realising  the  significance  which  my  Sivaite  friends  would  readily  apprehend ;  and  I 
require,  therefore,  to  be  lavish  in  illustration,  though  at  a  cost  I  should  have  wished  to 
restrain.  Note,  that  one  of  the  feminine  emblems  here  is  Fire,  though  the  Church 
probably  dare  not  now  put  the  god  in  his  place ;  another  is  Salacia  or  Water,  that 
is  Fire-  Water.  All  seems  uncommonly  like  the  Jewish  Phallic  Faith  of  the  days  of 
Moses — the  Fiery  Serpent  on  the  Phallus — the  pot  of  manna,  the  feminine  casket  of 
incense  which  the  "  Jav  Nissi "  delighted  in,  the  Tau  or  holy  symbol  with  which 
he  had  peculiarly  marked  all  his  males,  and  the  symbol  of  himself  as  the  ever 
burning  fire  in  the  ark  of  his  own  choice. 

It  is  difficult  to  guess  the  land  and  age  to  which  we  should  assign -the  origin  of 
Serpent- Standards  or  "Banners."  These  waved  triumphantly  over  the  whole  world 
of  man,  from  the  remotest  pre-historic  times  to  the  dark  ages  of  Christianity,  and 
only  then,  in  our  own  little  continent,  did  they  begin  to  fall  into  disuse.  Ethiopia  or 
the  Phenician  tribes  of  most  ancient  Arabia  (even  in  the  widest  sense  in  which  Mr 
Baldwin1  would  ask  us  to  accord  the  sway  of  this  people),  all  the  eastern  and 
western  empires,  Skythians  and  Bactrians  of  every  hue  and  kind,  most  ancient 
Teutons,  Saci,  and  Saxons,  the  most  primitive  and  most  modern  of  the .  hordes  of 
China  and  all  insular  peoples  in  every  corner  of  the  earth — the  Nomads  of  the  Ural  and 
Central  Asian  steppes,  and  wandering  tribes  of  Jews  and  other  Arabs  of  Arabian 
deserts — all  and  each  boldly  claimed  and  proudly  bore  aloft  their  BASILEUS  as  a  king 
and  god,  or  demi-god,  and  meekly  bowed  before  him  as  the  symbol  of  health  and 
generative  power.  I  shall  by-and-bye  shew  that  this  Greek  term  Basileus  is  no  empty 

1  Baldwin's  Pre-historic  Nations. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  139 

one  in  regard  to  him,  who  in  all  these  lands  was  a  king,  and  whose  figure  on  banner, 
shield,  helmet,  or  forehead,  denoted  royalty  or  the  bluest  of  "  blue  blood :"  Blue  was  his 
colour,  and  perhaps  we  owe  to  Phallic  royalty  this  very  term  of  purity  in  lineage ;  for 
Siva's  name  was  Neel-Kanta,  or  the  blue-throated  one,  as  well  as  Esh-Wara,  the  Lord 
of  Love  and  King  of  the  Gods  ;  for  in  Esli,  we  have  Es,  Hessus,  or  Esus,  near  relatives 
of  Ash  and  Ashur,  Eshar  and  Ish-tar,  where  Ur,  may  be  Light  and  Ar,  the  Sun. 

The  Emperor  Aurelian  mentions  capturing  from  Zenobia  the  Persici  Dracones,1 
who  were  allies  of  the  Persians  of  those  days ;  and  Eusebius  says  that  Persians  "  all 
worshipped  First  principles  under  the  form  of  Serpents,  having  dedicated  to  them 
temples  in  which  they  performed  sacrifices,  and  held  festivals  and  orgies,  esteeming 
them  THE  GREATEST  OF  GODS  and  the  governors  of  the  universe."2  The  "first  principles" 
were  typified  by  two  upreared  Serpents  on  each  side  of  an  egg,  as  in  my  Fig.  34,  and 
Plate  IV.,  3  and  9,  which  became  afterwards  spiritualised  into  "good  and  evil  striving 
for  mastery"  over  the  world — which  spiritualisation,  however,  seems  rather  too 
advanced  for  the  primitive  artists.  It  is  more  likely  that  the  symbolism  in  figure  34 
was  the  very  natural  one  of  the  male  and  female  guarding  their  joint  result,  and  that 
any  "  contention  "  over  the  egg  is  no  more  than  that  we  so  commonly  see  in  nature  of 
the  mother's  anxiety  for  her  young,  and  doubt  on  her  part  as  to  the  male's  doings  in 
regard  to  them  ;  for  males  are  not  always  to  be  trusted  in  rearing  their  offspring. 

Mithras  is  often  seen  with  a  human  body,  a  lion's  head,  and  round  him  a  large 
coiled  snake,  and  with  such  inscription  as  "  Deo  Invicto  Mithir,  secundinus  dat ; "  his 
usual  sign  is  a  youthful  countenance  with  "  Invictus  "  written  below  ;  he  is  Azon,  or 
the  god  Zon  with  the  zone  or  belt ;  and  from  his  winged  forms,  no  doubt,  the  Hebrew 
seer  Malachi  got  his  idea  of  "  the  Sun  of  Righteousness."  The  Greeks,  although  calling 
the  Serpent  Daimon  or  Demon,  yet  for  the  sake  of  brevity  in  writing,  says  Seldon, 
they  made  the  hieroglyphic  I  give  on  page  228,  Fig.  99,  VI.  2,  and  of  which  VI.  3-4,  and 
VIII.  1,  are  but  variants,  thereby  shewing  that  they  considered  the  Serpent  as  the  active 
power  of  the  Sun,  the  male  in  that  ring  through  which  man  is  usually  seen  appearing. 
•  Curiously  enough,  as  the  reverend  writer  of  Serpent  Worship — who  reminds  me  of 
some  of  the  above — says,  this  is  almost  exactly  the  plan  of  the  Abury  remains ;  and 
if  Britons  will  still  persist  in  cutting  out  huge  men  and  animals  on  the  turf  of  their 
hill-sides,  there  is  nothing  strange  that  in  ancient  days  they  should  have  indelibly,  as 
they  thought,  marked  out  with  sacred  upright  stones,,  which  no  ancient  peoples  would 
on  any  consideration  remove,  this  sacred  Solo-Serpent-sigri  of  bfapuv.  The  Serpent  coil, 
in  most  old  Asyrio-Kaldiac  and  Persian  figures,  runs  through  the  circle,  as  in  the  two 
figures,  99  IV.  3-4,  in  the  first  of  which  we  see  our  heir-apparent 's  symbol  or  its  origin. 
Wings  or  feathers  denote,  as  elsewhere  shown,  virile  power  and  ubiquity ;  also  swiftness. 
In  the  days  of  universal  Serpent-worship,  Ops,  who  is  also  Rhea,  was  by  Greeks 
called  Op-Is,  and  by  the  Egyptians  Apis — always  a  very  Ophitish  name,  and  one 
1  Deane,  47,  quoting  Vopiscus  Hist.  Aug.  Script.,  218.  2  Praep.  Evang.  I.  42. 

140  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

conferred  on  many  gods,  as  well  as  goddesses.  Even  Ool-Kan,  "  the  Lord  of  Fire  " 
(Vulcan)  was,  says  Cicero,  called  Ops,  and  the  offspring  of  Ops  and  Terra ;  Diana  and 
Vesta  shared  this  proud  name  with  Rhea,  Cybele,  and  Juno.  As,  from  a  literary 
point  of  view  he  was  "Passion,"  emblematically  the  Serpent  really  represented  nearly 
every  god  and  goddess ;  and  in  nearly  every. land,  from  the  sacred  cone  of  Japan  in 
the  East,  to  the  oceanic  base  of  the  Andes  in  the  West,  he  was  the  king  of  hills  as 
well  as  king  of  men.  In  the  eyes  of  the  ancients,  his  sacred  figure  made  every  object 
on  which  it  was  traced,  whether  a  temple,  wall,  pillar,  or  rude  stone,  at  once  most 
holy ;  and  the  starry  sphere,  as  well  as  earthly  ball,  seemed  full  of  him ;  he  was  all 
wisdom,  and  opened  the  eyes  of  the  blind  as  well  as  the  dark  gates  of  futurity  ;  nay,  he 
inspired  men  to  unfold  the  darkness  of  the  past,  and  to  reveal  the  cosmogony  which 
the  gods  had  veiled;  he  healed  the  sick,  comforted  the  afflicted,  gave  joy  and  offspring 
to  those  who  longed  for  such,  and  prosperity  and  power  to  nations.  These  may  rise 
and  fall,  nay,  all  be  submerged  in  a  universal  cataclysm,  and  buried  under  the  waters 
of  the  ocean  for  many  months  ;  yet  he — Pytho — rises  to  shine  out  again  as  powerfully 
as  ever  in  the  so-called  new  world.  He  was  more  powerful  than  Jehovah,  or  Jhavh, 
or  Jahve-Elohim,  for  he  it  was  who  at  once  spoilt,  say  Jews  and  Christians,  all  the  "very 
good  "  that  was  said  to  have  been  created  and  who  therefore  forced  Jehovah  to  wipe 
out  his  great  creation  after  he  had  done  his  best  to  improve  it  for  over  two  thousand 
years.  The  new  creation,  at  once  and  universally,  again  acknowledged  Pytho's  sway, 
and  has,  and  ever  must  hold  empire,  unbounded  and  invulnerable,  against  all  assaults, 
save  those  directed  by  scientific  and  rational  mental  culture. 

All  persons,  especially  ascetics  and  those  who  for  private  reasons  eschewed 
carnal  desires,  shunned  the  Serpent,  calling  it  Woman,  and  a  burning  fire,  whose  very 
touch  all  were  to  beware  of,  so  that  we  find  our  god  female  as  well  as  male.  In  the 
Greek  mythic  tale  of  creation,  Pandora  was  woman,  on  whom  the  gods  had  lavished 
all  the  treasures  of  their  beneficence,  mental,  moral,  and  personal,  and .  whom  Jove 
sent  to  corrupt  man — the  new  creation  of  Prometheus,  so  that  Pandora  is  here  the 
Serpent.  But  so  was  Zeus,  as  well  as  the  Sun,  Fire,  and  Water,  for  all  these  terms  and 
attributes  are  applied  to  him  at  times  by  the  Greeks  and  the  Asyrians.  The  Serpent, 
or  Fire,  was  the  first  god  of  the  Trinity  of  Nineveh — great  Hea-Hiya  or  Hoa — without 
whom  there  could  be  no  creation  or  life,  and  whose  godhead  embraced  also  the  female 
element  water.  Hea,  as  the  Serpent,  was  the  "  Ruler  of  the  Abyss,"  the  nin  chavach, 
cleft  or  cave,  and  "  King  of  the  Rivers," T  as  well  as  the  Eve  of  the  Jewish  Genesis. 

"  The  enmity  "  between  this  Eve  and  the  Serpent  (Nakash)  is  not  comprehended 
by  Christians  ;  for,  as  Dr  Donaldson  and  other  Hebraists  have  pointed  out,  the  transla 
tion  here  is  incorrect,  or  at  least  the  meaning  of  her — woman — "  bruising  the  Serpent's 
head,"  and  it  "  bruising  her  AKAB,"  is  obscured  ;  and  necessarily  so,  as  it  is  too  gross 
to  put  before  the  ordinary  reading  public.  Dr  Donaldson  further  assures  us,  as  the 

1  Ancient  Faiths,  I.  86. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 4 1 

result  of  very  extensive  learning,  we  may  lay  it  down  as  a  rule,  that  the  Serpent 
always  has  a  Phallic  signification — a  remark  very  gratifying  to  me,  as  it  exactly 
accords  with  my  own  experience  founded  simply  upon  close  observation  in  Eastern 
lands,  and  conclusions  drawn  by  myself,  unaided  by  books  or  teachers,  from  thousands 
of  stories  and  conversations  with  Eastern  priests  and  peoples.  Jacob,  or  IAKAB,  is  a 
very  important  word,  regarding  which  I  beg  the  reader  will  consult  Dr  Inman's 
learned  work  (Ancient  Faiths),  especially  about  page  602  of  his  first  volume. 
The  quarrel  between  the  mythic  brothers — so  important  here  to  those  who  build 
on  this  feeble  foundation  the  genealogy  of  their  Christ — seems  to  have  been  merely 
what  we  in  India  so  well  understand,  a  quarrel  between  the  Lingaites  and  Yonites, 
"the  right  and  left  hands" — the  gods  and  Titans  or  Devas  and  Dasyas.  lakab 
apjN,  Yakab,  or  Jacob,  was,  we  know,  a  persistent  worshipper  of  pillars,  erect 
stiles,  rav»  or  sun-stones,  which  Rebekah  was  also  ;  and  no  more  devoted  followers  of 
Lingam- worship  exist  in  India  than  women.  Jacob  1  is  a  female  name,  and  hence  the 
change  to  Israel — a  male  name,  that  the  people  might  be  shewn  not  to  be  descended 
from  a  woman. 

Of  course  all  my  readers — except  Revelationists  who  have  not  been  accustomed 
to  exercise  independent  thought  and  investigation  on  writings  they  hold  to  be 
"  revealed  " — are  aware,  that  the  Hebrew  tales  of  Yakob  and  Esau  are  myths,  although 
we  may  freely  acknowledge  them  to  be  most  valuable  myths,  which  teem  ivith  history 
of  a  kind,  if  we  can  only  divide  the  wheat  from  the  chaff.  So  also  in  the  story  of 
the  creation  in  Genesis,  we  have  a  very  valuable  myth,  though  a  purely  Phallic  tale, 
such  as  my  Indian  brethren,  and  perhaps  they  only,  can  thoroughly  comprehend. 
And  here  I  would  pause  for  a  moment  to  state  distinctly,  that  I  am  not  one  who 
would  in  any  way  seek  to  detract  from  the  great  value  of  myths  ;  for  besides  their 
own  intrinsic  worth,  these  stories  also  exhibit  to  us  many  phases  of  ancient  life  and 
thought.  I  would  never  venture,  therefore,  to  contemn  them,  far  less  to  call  them 
forgeries  and  false.  Mythus  I  consider  but  history  which  we  have  not  yet  been  able 
to  read  ;  and  especially  \vould  I  beg  my  readers  never  to  misunderstand  me  when  I 
discard  as  untrue  or  unhistorical  any  tale,  biblical  or  other,  as  implying  that  it  is  false 
and  unworthy  of  consideration  ;  on  the  contrary,  I  hold  that  we  cannot  too  earnestly 
and  patiently  ponder  over  every  ancient  tale,  legend,  or  myth,  which  all  have  some 
foundation  and  instructive  lesson. 

.  Mr  Pococke  states  truly,  that  "  the  great  mythi  of  antiquity  are  not  feelings 
embodied  to  relieve  the  mind  ;  still  less  are  they  concrete  images,  fictions,  and  in 
ventions.  Whenever  an  important  mythos  has  existed,  an  important  fact  has  been  its 
basis.  Great  principles  do  not  arise  from  idealities  ;  a  national  myth  cannot  be  gene 
rated  without  a  national  cause,  and  a  national  cause  implies  agency  not  invention ; 

1  See  Origin  of  Legends  about  Abram,  Isaac,  and  Jacob ;  by  A.  Bernstein,  an  important  paper  of 
Mr  Thomas  Scott's  Series. 

142  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

but  a  theory  based  upon  the  evidence  of  feeling  is  as  mythological  as  a  myth  itself."  l 
Grote  says  on  this  subject,  that  "  the  curtain  which  he,  writing  purely  as  an  historian, 
depicts,  is  all  the  picture  he  has  to  show,  but  nevertheless  the  true  picture  is  there,  if 
we  but  contrive  to  lift  the  curtain."  Zeuses  and  los,  Europas  and  Hellens,  Titans, 
Toths,  and  gods,  are  all  history  in  process  of  incubation :  we  must  unravel  the  skein 
and  see  the  real  actors,  their  acts,  principles,  and  faiths. 

This  being  so,  it  is  necessary  to  proceed  very  cautiously  if  not  suspiciously  with 
all  mythi,  and  especially  to  watch  over  changes,  however  slight,  in  the  names  of  gods, 
temples,  mountains,  and  rivers,  as  these  usually  denote  changes  of  ideas  if  not  of 
faiths.  This  has  been  entirely  lost  sight  of  .by  Christians  till  quite  lately,  and  nowhere 
is  this  care  more  necessary  than  in  dealing  with  Hebrew  writings,  and  especially  with 
such  roots  or  words  as  El,  Ja,  Elohe,  Yahve,  Yac/^ave,  Adonai,  Shadai ;  and  AR,  AD, 
AL,  OB,  AB,  ABA,  or  ABADDON,  he  whom  the  Christo- Jewish  writer  of  Eev.  ix.  1 1  and 
xx.,  mentions  as  the  then  hated,  though  long  loved  Apollyon ;  Abaddon,  thus  spoken 
of,  marks  a  change  from  Python  to  a  purer  Solar  worship,  at  least  on  the  part  of  the 
writer.  Clement  of  Alexandria 2  tells  us,  that  the  great  symbol  of  Bacchic  orgies  "  is 
the  consecrated  serpent,"  and  that  when  the  Bacchanals  have  butchered  their  victims 
and  feasted,  like  the  Jews,  on  raw  flesh,3  they  crown  themselves  with  snakes,  and  rush 
about  shrieking  "Eve,  Eva,  lievia,  Havvale — the  female  serpent."  Hevia  is  equiva 
lent  to  Zoe,  life,  from- Greek  "  to  live;"  thus  what  is  called  "  the  fall,"  ascribed  to  Eva, 
or  Hevia  the  female,  and  Adam  the  male,  becomes  in  reality  the  acts  connected  with 
germination,  conception,  and  production,  and  the  destruction  of  virginity — regarding 
which  the  Jews  had  very  unhallowed  ideas.  Everything  sexual  was  held  by  the  pious 
as  irreligious,  and  indulgence  was  "listening  to  the  voice  of  the  charmer."  Adam  "fell" 
from  listening  to  Eve,  and  she  from  the  serpent  tempting  her — details  which  merely 
assure  us,  that  we  have  procreative  acts  signified  in  all  stories  regarding  Hawa  (in 
Hindostani,  Wind,  Lust,  Air — Juno),  and  Chavah  or  Eve,  or  as  the  Arabs  called  it 
Hayyat,  life  or  "  creation."  "  Eating  forbidden  fruit  was  simply  a  figurative  mode  of 
expressing  the  performance  of  the  act  necessary  for  the  perpetuation  of  the  human 
race,  an  act  which  in  its  origin  was  thought  to  be  the  source  of  all  evil." 4  In  the 
myth  of  Pandora,  the  gods  are  represented  as  enraged  at  the  creative  act  of  Prome 
theus  ;  and  so  even  yet,  as  in  all  past  times,  a  large  and  influential  class  of  religionists 
have  preached  against  the  legitimate  and  healthy  acts  of  marital  intercourse,  as  tending 
to  lower  and  defile  the  spiritual  nature  of  both  man  and  woman.  In  all  such 
ideas  it  would  seem  as  if  the  Zoroastrians  had  been  the  leaders,  at  least  in  Western 

The  Aryan  writers- of  the  Zoroastrian  faith  undoubtedly  held  that  the  procreative 

1  India  in  Greece.  2  "  Anti-Nicene  Library/'  iv.  p.  27. 

3  Ex.  xxxii.,  which  describes  a  veritable  Saturnalia  ;  also  Anc.  Faiths,  .1.,  565. 

4  "Anthropological  Journal,"  July  1870,  p.  102.     Hawa  is  also  Eve  in  Hindostani. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 43 

act,  was  a  "fall,"  or  grievous  if  not  mortal  sin.  The  Bound-de-hesch  says  (9th  Yakna 
v.  27),  that  Meschi  A,  and  Meschi  A ne,  that  is  A  and  A ne,  were  seduced  by  Ahriman 
in  the  form  of  a  serpent,  although  the  wise  writers  possibly  only  meant  that  A  or  Ar, 
the  Sun,  caused  warmth  which  produced  fertility,  and  did  not  mean  their  allegory  to 
be  crystallized  into  a  hard  and  fast  story,  as  the  illiterate  dwellers  in  Syria  did,  and 
after  them  Europe.  All  Asiatics  looked  on  Sun  and  Serpent  as  at  times  almost  inter 
changeable  terms,  but  it  remained  for  Jews  and  Christians  to  show  the  Sun,  or  Jhavh, 
as  the  worst  Deity  of  the  two,  the  bestower  of  curses  and  of  death,  and  of  a  blessing — 
labour,  though  he  gave  it  also  to  us  as  a  curse.  The  Serpent  remained  in  the  memory 
and  affections  of  most  early  people  as  wisdom,  life,  goodness,  and  the  source  of  know 
ledge  and  science,  under  various  names  such  as  Toth,  Hermes,  Themis,  the  Kneph  or 
Sophia  of  Egyptians  and  Gnostics,  and  Set,  Shet,  or  Shem  of  the  Jews.  Even  the  Mexican 
tells  us  that  he,  the  Serpent,  is  the  Sun,  Tonakatl-Koatl,  who  ever  accompanied  their 
"  first  woman  " — the  woman  "  of  our  flesh  ;"  their  "  primitive  mother  they  said  was 
Kiliua-Kolmatl,  which  signifies  a  serpent." 1  So  that  the  serpent  here  was  represented 
as  both  Adam  and  Adama ;  and  their  Eden,  as  in  the  Jewish  story,  was  "  a  garden  of 
love  "  or  "  pleasure."  Truly,  writes  Mr  Stanisland  Wake,  a  director  of  the  Anthropo 
logical  Society  of  London,  "  the  fundamental  basis  of  Christianity  is  more  purely 
Phallic  than  that  of  any  other  religion  now  existing,  and  its  emotional  nature  .  .  . 
shows  how  intimately  it  was  related  to  the  older  faiths  which  liad  a  Phallic  basis" 2 
The  italics  are  mine. 

Quite  in  keeping  with  the  Jewish  idea  of  man  and  woman  becoming  debased  on 
"  knowing  "  each  other,  or  "  their  nakedness,"  is  that  habit — still  prevalent  in  many 
lands — of  self -mutilation  "for  the  kingdom  of  heaven's  sake"  (Matt.  xix.  12) ;  a  doctrine 
which  Christianity  has  probably  carried  to  a  more  injurious  extent  than  any  other 
faith.  Asiatics  have  rather  yielded  to  the  vice  as  a  provision  for  life,  equivalent  to 
a  caste  or  profession,  or  because  they  were  in  youth  dedicated  to  a  goddess  as  the  Dea 
Syria,  or  Phrygian  Kubele,  than  for  conscience  or  religion's  sake.  Fathers  of  the 
Church,  as  Origen,  Valentine,  and  a  host  of  followers,  set  the  fell  example  which  in  time 
emasculated  and  enervated  the  power  of  the  great  eastern  and  western  empires,  until 
the  once  invincible  legions  of  Rome  were  no  longer  a  terror  to  any  nation— a  matter 
which  I  will  hereafter  consider  when  speaking  of  the  degrading  asceticism  introduced 
by  Christianity.  Thousands  more  than  we  can  number,  women  as  well  as  men  it 
appears,  and  fervid  Christians,  still  follow  out  this  frenzy !  In  the  Russian  SJcoptsi 
sect  (from  Skopet  to  castrate),  we  are  told  that  many  hundreds  thus  annually 
butcher  themselves,  and  all  for  that  wretched  text  which  not  one  of  the  poor  souls,  ^nor 
indeed  anyone  else,  knows  who  wrote  or  when.  These  Christian  fanatics  teach  that 

1  "  Serpent  Symbol  in  America,"  by  E.  G.  Squier,  M.A.,  as  quoted  in  "  Anthropological  Journal." 
July  1870. 

2  "  Anthropological  Journal,"  July  1870,  p.  226. 

144  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

"  the  millennium  will  be  when  all  are  mutilated  I  " — a  doctrine  somewhat  similar  to  that 
of  the  ascetic  Sivaite,  who  stands  on  a  leg  or  an  arm,  or  in  one  position  till  he  dies,  and 
preaches  that  heaven  or  Meroo  will  be  attained  by  all,  when  every  bodily  feeling  is  thus 
destroyed.  It  appears  that  notwithstanding  the  severity  of  the  initiatory  ceremony, 
and  the  rigour  with  which  the  Russian  Government  tries  to  put  down  the  Skoptsi,  yet 
scores  of  converts  are  "  added  daily  to  the  faith,"  an  astonishing  fact  in  the  records  of 
religions.  Such  a  sect,  as  we  may  suppose,  despise  parents,  whom  they  even  call 
fornicators,  as  well  as  the  saints  of  the  Christian  calendar  and  the  civil  power ;  they 
have  initiatory  ceremonies  to  teach  this,  say  Drs  Kopernicl^y  and  Dennis  writing  on 
them.1  The  Skoptsi  "  Sacrifice  "  is  made  at  secret  nocturnal  meetings,  amidst  songs 
and  great  dancing,  which  is  often  carried  on  till  they  drop  from  exhaustion.  The 
act  is  called  the  sign  and  seal  of  God,  which  marks  they  say,  the  "  Lord's  people,"  as 
in  Rev.  vi.  The  emperor,  Peter  the  Third,  as  a  eunuch,  and  a  sort  of  mythical  "  queen 
of  heaven  "  called  Akoulina,  are  worshipped  by  this  sect,  and  by  the  Shaloputs,  a 
variant  of  them.  We  may,  perhaps,  look  upon  these  poor  people  as  exhibiting  that  re 
bellion  which,  at  times,  springs  up  in  our  hearts  when  we  find  any  acts  or  worship  carried 
to  excess.  As  surely  as  we  have  seen  an  abundant  crop  of  Atheism  spring  up  to  check 
the  superstitions  of  the  dark  ages,  or,  indeed,  of  our  own  (and  even  Atheism  has  many 
good  aspects,  and  is  probably  a  proof  of  the  love  of  the  race  for  a  purer  faith) ;  so  in 
the  Skoptsi,  and  Ascetics  of  Egypt,  Asyria,  India,  Greece,  and,  no  doubt,  Mexico,  do 
we  but  see  that  revulsion  of  feeling  from  a  too  voluptuous  worship  of  Khem,  Vool, 
Siva,  Priapus,  or  the  Mexican  generator,  Triazoltenti.  That  which  is  good  in  itself,  and 
which  the  Polynesians  called  their  "  great  sacrifice  " — the  sight  of  which  horrified  even 
the  sailors  of  Cook — is  like  all  the  emotional  part  of  our  nature,  correct  in  itself,  but 
most  dangerous  in  excess  and  ever  prone  to  take  the  bit  in  its  mouth  and  run  away 
with  poor  weak  man  and  woman,  plunging  them  into  every  folly  and  extravagance. 
Yet  listen  to  what  Mr  Wake  says,  "  the  Phallic  is  the  only  foundation. on  which  an 
emotional  religion  can  be  based,"  which  is,  I  fear,  a  stern  but  humbling  truth.  It 
is  Phallic  faith  which  taught  us  to  love  and  honour  our  father  and  mother,  to  revere  the 
rising  orbs  of  day,  and  the  seasons  with  their  varied  properties  and  fruits,  and  to 
enhance,  as  a  fete  or  even  sacrament,  every  social  feature  of  our  lives,  as  birth, 
puberty,  marriage,  conception,  &c.  ;  it  glories  in  all  manly  manifestations  of  "  tJie  great 
father,"  and  every  womanly  office  of  "the  'great  mother,"  and  it  is  undoubtedly  the 
foundation  of  every  past  and  present  faith. 

It  was  Ahriman  or  Satan,  said  Zoroastrians  ages  before  Jews,  who  introduced  the 
serpent  to  make  man  fall,  which  he  did  in  the  lovely  garden  of  Ahura-Mazda,  where 
the  poisonous  monster  was  known  as  Angromainyus — "father  of  lies,"  deceit,  and 
every  evil  passion.  Ahriman,  says  Lajard,  wTas  an  old  serpent,  with  two  feet, 
a  species  of  reptile  we  often  see  in  Egyptian  paintings,  especially  in  the  region  of 
1  "  Anthrop.  Socy's.  Journ.,"  July  1870,  p.  cxxvi. 

N   YONI. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  145 

Sheol,  or  what  our  ordinary  Egyptologists  call  "scenes  of  the  dead  and  judgment ;" 
see  my  chapter  on  Egypt.  The  snake  Bed  (very  like  Hai  or  Hea  of  Asyria)  was  one 
who  guarded  the  portals  of  the  dead,  for  the  serpent  is  "  all  the  circle  of  Eternity" 
in  opening  as  well  as  closing  life.  He  is  also  the  Ru&ch  or  "  creating-breath  "  of 
Genesis,  and  Siva  the  king  of  serpents  and  father  of  the  winds. 

The  serpent  or  satan,  in  his  own  person,  may  be  held  to  represent  the  "  male  and 
female,"  or  sword  and  sheath  (zachar  and  nekebah)  of  Genesis,  under  passion's  rule. 
The  word  Pithon,  "  the  inflated  On,"  is  compounded  of  nnQ  Patliah  and  On 
he  who  expands,1  "  cleaves  asunder,"  "  decides,"  &c.  In  the  two  Sanskrit 
words  "  Ananda,"  the  god  of  desire,  and  "  Ananta  "  the  serpent  with  tail  Ij 
in  mouth  representing  eternity,  and  in  Mary's  emblem  "  the  vesica  piscis," 2 
we  see  the  full  force  of  the  reptile-emblem.  It  is  by  Ananta  or  Sesha 
that  Vishnoo  created  all  things.  His  vehicle  was  the  thousand-headed 
serpent  resting  upon  the  waters  of  life  or  generation,  which  will  be  fully  FIB-  56 
explained  in  my  chapter  on  Hindoo  Faiths. 

Ananta,  the  serpent  is  said  to  do  the  necessary,  though  menial  work  of  crea 
tion,  from  over-zealous  performance  of  which,  he  caused  or  created  wickedness,  incurr 
ing  Vishnoo's  anger.  Some  poems  even  represent  him  as  an  enemy  to  Vishnoo  or  true 
religion,  which  must  only  be  understood  in  the  same  sense  as  the  Delphic  quarrels 
of  Apollo  and  the  Python.  No  Vishnooite  procession  or  great  ceremony  is  complete 
without  the  serpent,  just  as  no  great  shrine  of  the  Solar  "  God  of  Eeligion  and  Truth" 
is  perfect  which  is  not  abundantly  adorned  with  the  Naga.  At  one  of  Vishnoo's 
holiest  shrines  in  Southern  India — the  temple  of  Tripaty  in  Tanjore — on  the  first  day 
of  the  procession  Vishnoo  comes  forth,  first  on  a  great  gilt  Tree ;  on  the  third  he  is 
borne  aloft  resting  on  a  gilt  serpent ;  on  the  fourth  he  appears  resplendent  as  the  Sun, 
and,  doubtless,  significant  of  Fire  also  ;  and  on  the  fifth  he  is  seen  going  to  visit 
Maiya,  or  the  abode  of  mirrors,  illusion,  and  fertility.  When  he  returns  in  state  he  is 
seen  again  resting  on  the  golden  serpent,  and  we  know  how  serpents  overshadow  him 
in  the  greatest  drama  of  creation. 

Krishna,  the  eighth  Avatar  of  Vishnoo,  is  a  man  devoured  by  the  serpent  who  is 
there  as  a  demon.  Vishnoo  in  kindness,  however,  restores  .him  as  his  incarnation,  to 
life,  and  enables  him  (Krishna)  to  overcome  the  serpent.  "Eternity"  is  represented 
as  dancing  upon  this  serpent's  "  tongue  of  fire,"  which  reminds  us  of  the  Pentecostal 
narrative.  I  shew  him  as  Eternity  in  Fig.  12,  and  with  tongue  of  fire  in  Fig.  55, 
as  lately,  if  not  still  carried  in  some  Roman  Catholic  processions. 

The  story  of  Krishna's  war  with  the  great  Naga  runs  briefly  thus : — When  a 

fair  youth,  called  Basoo-deva,  he  was  playing  with  a  ball  on  the  banks  of  the  holy 

Jamna  at   Bachban,  near  Basai,  which,  like  all   rivers,  is  represented    as  a  fruitful 

woman.    Some  say  that,  to  refresh  himself,  he  plunged  into  a  deep  pool ;  but  others  that 

i  See  Inman's  Anc.  Faiths,  I.  70,  and  II.  497.  2  The  Yesica  signifies  a  bladder,  or  purse. 

I.  T 

146  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

his  ball  fell  into  the  sacred  stream  then  infested  by  the  Nagac — called  here  Kaliya 
or  "  black  one  " — who,  afraid  of  the  eagle,  the  great  god's  vehicle,  had  fled  from 
the  regions  assigned  him  by  Vislmoo,  and  troubled  and  even  rendered  poison 
ous  the  holy  river.  The  youth's  ball,  and  his  plunge  into  the  troubled  water  to 
recover  it,  awoke  the  Naga  who  enveloped  him  in  his  coils,  and  seized  him  with  his 
poisonous  fangs.  We  are  then  told  that  his  foster  parents  Nanda  and  Jasooda,  and 
his  brother  Baliram,  found  him  in  the  coils  still  and  motionless,  but  smiling  and  in  no 
pain;  and  it  is  said  the  Naga's  attack  poisoned  Basoo-deva's  blood,  rendering  him  what 
he  was  then,  and  for  ever  after  represented  and  called,  Krishna,  or  the  Black  One.  In 
this  fight  we  may  perhaps  consider  parabled,  with  other  matter,  the  Aryan  war  with 
the  dark  Naga  Dynasties  of  the  aborigines.  Krishna,  says  the  tale,  jumped  and  danced 
on  the  head  of  the  snake,  and  would  have  killed  him  ;  but  on  the  representation  of  his 
(the  Naga's)  wives,  who  represented  their  lost  condition  if  deprived  of  their  lord,  he 
merely  put  him  under  subjection,  making  him  leave  the  sacred  river,  and  go  to  the 
Island  of  Rawana,  where  he  assured  him  that  the  eagle  of  Vislmoo  would  no  longer 
molest  him.  Of  course  my  readers  will  see  the  parable  which  runs  through  all  this, 
as  well,  I  believe,  as  glimpses  at  the  early  history  and  faiths  of  ancient  India.  The 
story  runs  on  to  say,  somewhat  parallel  to  that  of  Genesis,  that  God  set  his  mark 
upon  this  Cain,  so  that  no  .one  might  molest  him.  Though  punished,  the  serpent  of 
Eden  as  well  as  that  of  Hindoo  story  was  let  go  free ;  surely  a  .good  God  should 
have  destroyed  the  demon. 

In  Numbers  xxi.  6,  we  find  that  the  Lord  sent  fiery  serpents  or  seraphim 
(corresponding  to  scorpions  in  Deut.  viii.  15),  which,  with  the  assurance  in  Isaiah  vi. 
that  "  to  Thee  cherubim  and  seraphim  continually  do  cry,"  informs  us  that  these 
creatures  lived  in  close  companionship  with  the  Jewish  Jhavh,  just  as  the  serpent 
did  with  Jupiter,  Amon,  and  Osiris,  and  still  does  with  Siva. 

I  know  it  is  quite  unnecessary  to  take  so  much  pains  to  establish  jn  the  eyes  of 
well-read  men,  a  distinct,  universal,  and  long-enduring  Serpent  faith  ;  but  I  have  met 
with  such  ignorance  and  unbelief  on  the  part  of  many  who  profess  to  have  looked 
into  such  matters,  that  I  write  this  chapter  to  heap  proof  upon"  proof. 

Europe  seems  to  have  satisfied  itself  that  ophiolatry  was  a  sort  of  rude  Paganism 
which  probably  sprang  up  in  the  days  of  those — to  all  ordinary  readers  — most  incom 
prehensible  people,  known  as  Koothites  or  Kyklops,  &c.;  who  also  dealt  in  cists  or 
boxes,  which  ignorant,  sceptical  men  presumed  to  call  "  arks,"  as  if  such  boxes  had 
some  connection  with  that  ineffable  divine  mystery  and  poetic  abstraction  "  the  Ark 
of  (or  for)  the  Testimony" — a  box,  which  with  the  Jews  was  used  for  keeping  two  stones, 
an  "Eduth"  or  Testimony  (which  I  shall  shew  to  be  a  lingam),  a  baton  or  rod,  and 
sundry  other  articles  used  by  Diviners,  but  which  with  most  peoples  was  commonly 
used  as  a  crib  or  coop  for  their  sacred  serpents.  I  will  therefore  here  try  to  clear 
up  this  idea  of  ancient  peoples,  and  especially  Jews,  speaking  clearly,  though  I  fear 
very  .unpleasantly,  in  the  opinion  of  many  who  call  us  "blind  leaders  of  the  blind." 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  147 

None  of  us  can  use  another's  eyes,  but  let  us  see  that  we  all  diligently  use  our  own.  My 
readers  will  now  no  doubt  grant,  at  least  in  regard  to  all  arks,  except  their  own 
Mosaic  one,  that  speaking  broadly,  arks,  shells,  buccinae,  trumpets,  cornucopias,  eggs, 
sistrums,  and  such-like,  all  signify  the  feminine  principle  or  fecundatrix  generally  ; 
and  in  particular,  such  deities  as  Isis  of  Egypt,  the  Multimammia,  or  Diana  of  Ephesus, 
the  Maya  of  the  East,  and  Mary  of  the  West,  Rhea,  Ceres,  Kubele,  &c. 

An  ark  indeed  is  nothing  by  itself,  just  as  a  woman  was  esteemed  incomplete  or 
nought  without  her  husband;  and  important  and  venerated  as  the  ark  was  in  all 
ancient  faiths,  it  was  chiefly  so  as  "  the  dwelling-place  of  a  god  " — the  place  of  creation 
or  generation — mundane  and  mortal  anciently,  but  spiritual  and  immortal  said  the 
peoples  of  these  days — the  Archaic  Sakti,  "Grove"  or  female  energy,  though  always 
merely  so  even  then,  in  a  sort  of  spiritual  sense,  such  as  Parvati  is  to  Siva,  and  Lakshmi 
to  Vishnoo.  Creation  there  was  indeed,  but  not  brought  about  or  manifested  in  any 
mundane  way ;  nevertheless  the  ark  without  the  god,  and  the  god  without  the  ark  was 
imperfect  in  all  respects,  as  a  city  without  a  king,  or  a  church  without  a  bishop. 

When  correcting  the  above  —  written  several  years  ago  —  for  the  press,  I 
observed,  in  confirmation  of  it,  that  the  Rome  correspondent  of  the  London  Times, 
of  8th  April  1875,  says  the  Roman  Catholic  Church  still  keeps  up  this  idea  in  fact  and 
in  deed.  As  the  ancient  Temple  or  Dagoba  was  the  womb  or  feminine  principle  of 
the  god  Siva  or  Bod  and  others,  so  the  new  Cardinal  Archbishop  Manning  "  was  after 
his  elevation/'  says  the  Times,  "  conducted  to  his  church,"  which  is  here  entitled  in  its 
relation  to  him,  "  bride  "  or  "  spouse,"  he  calling  it  "  SPONSA  MEA  !  "  The  Cardinal 
is  called  "  the  bridegroom,"  and  the  actual  building  (the  shrine  of  St  Gregory)  HIS 
SPOUSE,  and  not  "  the  Spiritual  Church,  which  is  called  Christ."  The  Times  corre 
spondent  writes  thus  of  this  " Sacerdos  Magnus,"  as  he  is  termed,  going  to  meet  "his 
spouse  the  Church."  He  stood  reverently  at  the  door,  "  when  holy  water  was  presented 
to  him,  and  clouds  of  incense  spread  around  him,  to  symbolize  that  in  as  much  as 
before  the  bridegroom  enters  the  bride  chamber,  he  washes  and  is  perfumed,  so  the 
Cardinal,  having  been  espoused  with  the  putting  on  of  a  ring  to  the  Church  of  his 
TITLE,  holy  water  and  incense  are  offered  to  him,  .  .  .  when  the  choir  burst  forth 
with  the  antiphon — -JEcce  SACERDOS  MAGNUS."  We  are  thus  assured,  as  far  as  this  is 
possible,  that  the  Phallic  idea,  and  a  Phallic  faith  lies  at  the  base  of  this  creed ;  and 
we  are  reminded  of  Apis  of  the  Nile  entering  his  palace  for  his  "  works  of  sacrifice  and 
mercy  " — terms  applied  to  the  duties  of  "  the  great  generator,"  or  Great  Creator.  The 
ancients  all  taught  that  their  great  one,  Manoo,  man,  or  Noh,  ru,  was  in  the  great  ark 
which  floats  "in  the  midst  of  the  waters,"  and  that  the  whole  was  "a  mystery," 
incomprehensible  to  the  uninitiated,  or  "  unregenerate  mind." 

He  who  is  lord  of  the  Christian  ark,  is  the  Lord  of  all  nations,  which  the  Great 
Sacerdos,  or  Pope,  claims  to  be.  He  is,  or  was  till  very  lately,  a  temporal  as  well  as 
spiritual  head  of  kings  and  nations,  so  no  wonder  that  the  holder  of  the  "rod,"  baton, 

148  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

or  "  banner,"  who  occupies  the  place  also  of  Moses  to  lead  his  flocks  through  "  this 
wilderness,"  is  always  examined  as  to  his  Phallic  completeness  before  being  confirmed 
in  the  Pontificate.  This,  we  read  in  the  Life  of  Leo  X.,  by  Roscoe,  is  required  in  the 
case  of  Popes  just  as  the  Laws  of  Moses  required  that  all  who  came  to  worship  their 
very  Phallic  Jahveh  should  first  prove  their  completeness  as  men.  From  this  we  may 
conclude  that  eunuchs  or  incompetent  men  were  "  children  of  the  Devil,"  or  at  least 
not  of  this  phallic  god — a  fact  which  the  writer  of  Matthew  xix.  1 2,  and  the  Fathers, 
Origen  and  Valentine,  and  a  host  of  other  Saints  who  acted  on  this  text,  must  have 
overlooked.  Wm.  Roscoe,  the  historian,  thus  writes  :  "On  the  llth  of  August  14.92, 
after  Roderigo  (Borgia)  had  assumed  the  name  of  Alexander  VI.,  and  made  his 
entrance  as  Supreme  Pontiff  into  the  Church  of  St  Peter."  After  the  procession  and 
pageants  had  all  been  gone  through,  Alexander  was  taken  aside  to  undergo  "  the  final 
test  of  his  qualifications,  which  in  his  particular  instance  might  have  been  dispensed 
with."  The  historian,  of  course,  alludes  to  his  numerous  progeny,  which,  like  those  of 
"  the  holy  people  " — the  types  of  the  Christian  Church,  were,  as  we  know,  occasionally 
due  to  incestuous  excesses.  Roscoe  gives  a  foot-note  to  explain  matters  more  succinctly 
and  authoritatively,  to  which  I  add  a  few  words.1 

A  man  or  a  living  serpent  in  an  ark  was  called  its  "life,"  zoe  or  hoe,  "joy"  and 
"  peace  "  and  "  repose  " — that  on  which  we  can  rely.  One  of  the  Targums  calls  the 
serpent  which  tempted  Adam — it  does  not  speak  of  Eve  being  tempted,  the  Hui  or 
Huia,  so  that  we  get  the  idea  of  the  man  in  the  ark,  or  chief  of  an  ark,  being  a  manoo, 
mens,  or  menes,  the  mnr  of  Phenicians  and  Minerva  of  the  Greek ;  also  Nous, 
mind,  and  wisdom,  and  hence,  no  doubt,  Sir  Wm.  Jones  arrived  at  the  conclusion  that 
"Noah  was  the  Indian  Menu"  allied  to  the  Minos  of  Crete,  the  wise  son  of 
IAO  and  10,  as  Noah  was  of  Jahveh.  Eratosthenes  tells  us  that  "Mines  the 
Tliebanite"  that  is,  Mines  of  the  Ark,  means  "by  interpretation  Dio-nius,"  who 
in  this  very  feminine  kingdom  "  was  succeeded  by  Hermagenes "  or  him  begotten 
by  Hermes,2  that  is,  Maha-Deva,  king  of  serpents.  Noh  is  indeed  "the  leader"  or 
"preceder,"  as  Higgins  reasonably  supposes.  Moses  makes  him  the  Husband  ofGe  or 
Terra  (Gen.  ix.  20,  ncnxn  B»N,  Ish  haadamah),  which  makes  him  Saturn.  Where 
the  moon  was  masculine,  Noh  seems  to  have  been  connected  with  this  very  snaky 
luminary,  but  it  is  usually  said  to  be  his  ark  ;  and,  curiously  enough,  "  Osiris  entered 
into  the  moon,  and  impregnated  her  on  the  17th  of  the  month  Athyr,  the  day  on 
which  the  Jews  say  that  Noah  entered  the  ark.3 

Let  us  now  consider  the  object,  and  probable  origin  of  the  article  which  the  Hebrews 
had  inside  their  ark.    They  had  no  Serpent  in  it,  though  they  had  two  stones  and  Moses' 

1  «  NOTE  5. — 'Finalemente,  essendo  fornite  le  solite  solennita  in  Sancta  Sanctorum  e  domesticamente 
toccatoyli  i  testicola,  e  data  la  benedizione,  rifcornb  al  palagio.      Corio,  Storio  di  Milano  VII.,  980."     It 
is  said  we  will  find  the  origin  of  this  custom  in  Shepherd's  Life  of  Poggio  Bracciolini,  149.      Toccatogli 
appears  to  signify  "  the  Toucher,"  "  Tip  Staff,"  or  Baton  (Dav.  and  Petronj's  Italian  Die.) 

2  Anacal.,  I,  235.  3  Do.,  p.  526. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 49 

rod,  which  was  at  one  time  a  Serpent.  They  carried  about  with  this  ark,  the  real  and  bond 
fide  form  of  a  Serpent  on  a  pole,1  which  is  a  highly  Phallic  object,  and  which  in  India 
signifies  Serpent  and  Lingam.  The  first  God — Elohim,  who  preceded  the  God  Jhavh 
or  Yac^veh  of  Phenicia,  and  whom  the  Greeks  properly  called  IAH  (IAO),  was  clearly 
the  Eduth  who  was  sometimes  put  into,  and  sometimes  on  the  top  of  his  ark — the 
latter,  of  course,  being  the  proper  place  when  the  people  halted,  as  I  shew  in  Fig. 
76,  page  194  where  I  put  it  between  the  pot  of  manna  and  the  sprig  of  almond 
tree.  This  Eduth,  we  see  from  the  Bible  narration,  was  not  made  by  the  hands  of 
artificers,  like  all  arks  and  temples.  Only  after  a  long  and  very  careful  study  of  this 
and  all  similar  faiths,  have  I  arrived  at  my  conclusion  as  to  the  Eduth  of  Ex.  xvi.  34  ; 
and  so  important  is  it,  and  so  perplexing,  perhaps,  to  those  who  have  long  looked  upon 
the  Jews  and  their  faith  as  something  highly  monotheistic,  and  surpassingly  better 
than  the  faiths  of  all  other  people,  that  I  must  here  try  and  make  clear  the  grounds  on 
which  I  have  come  to  this  conclusion,  for  it  is  one  which  can  scarcely  be  heard  of  by 
Christians  without  horror — viz.,  that  the  Jews  had  a  Phallus  or  Phallic  symbol  in  their 
"  Ark  of  the  Testimony,"  or  ark  of  the  Eduth,  nny,  a  word  which  I  hold,  tries  to  veil 
the  real  object. 

This  view  is,  I  confess,  not  well  supported  by  Hebraists  or  by  the  learned  ;  indeed, 
I  do  not  know  that  it  has  ever  presented  itself  to  any  one  but  that  Father  in  this  occult 
research — Dr  Inman — whom  I  am  sorry  to  say  I  have  never  met;  and  he  has  not  given 
any  one  much  encouragement  here,  though  he  has  thrown  out  many  clues  towards  the 
solution  of  the  problem  in  his  article  Ark,  Vol.  I.  of  Ancient  Faiths. 

It  is  not  likely  that  any  Hebraists,  especially  of  orthodox  habits  of  mind,  could 
here  assist  us,  for  the  whole  subject  is  quite  foreign  to  those  who  have  never  studied 
this  class  of  Oriental  faiths,  especially  out  of  Europe.  The  Hebraist,  like  the  judge  on 
the  bench,  must  follow  his  records,  and  not  make  words  or  laws,  but  interpret  these ; 
so  we  must  here  look  to  men  who  practically  know  Sivaik  faiths,  and  cannot  be 
deceived  by  a  blind  in  a  word  or  words,  but  can  gather  up  the  meaning  by  analysing 
the  old  ideas,  and  who  know  by  abundant  experience  that  priests  often  veil,  in  language 
which  defies  philological  research,  what  afterwards  turns  out  to  be  degrading  ideas 
of  their  god.  It  is  here  quite  clear  to  us  that  if  this  Eduthawas  a  lingam  or  "grove," 
it  would  be  very  obnoxious  ;  and  I  have  already  stated  in  my  Introductory  Chapter, 
pages  14  and  15,  that  the  most  orthodox  Christians  have  acknowledged,  that  the  tribes 
were  ashamed  of  their  personal  God  in  the  third  century  B.C.,  when  all  their  writings 
and  oral  sayings  began  to  be  collected. 

In  the  translations  of  that  period,  we  are  assured  that  they  softened  down  the 
strong  expressions  where  human  parts  were  ascribed  to  God  ; 2  so  we  may  be  quite 
certain  that  in  this  word  eduth  rrny,  or  gehduth,  we  have  an  emasculated  or  mutilated 
word  such  as  good  Hebraists  tell  us  we  have  in  the  word  translated  as  "  emerods  "  in 
1  As  it  existed  to  Hezekiah's  days,  I  conclude  it  always  accompanied  the  Ark.  2  Art.  Sept.,  S.  Bible  Diet. 

1 50  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

1  Sam  v.  9  ;  see  page  52,  before.  Scholars  say,  that  all  they  can  make  out  of  the 
Hebrew  word  emerods,  is  the  signification  of  a  "  protuberance  ; "  and  hence,  owing  to 
the  addition  in  the  text  of  "  secret  parts,"  they  say  emerods  may  be  "  bubos,"  which 
is,  I  suspect,  only  half  the  meaning,  for  we  know  the  penalty  which  is  said  to  have 
followed  in  the  case  of  all  other  peoples  who  looked  into  arks  or  neglected  their  Phallic 
deity.  There  is,  then,  a  length  in  Sivaik  lore  at  which  it  says  to  philology,  and  even 
to  the  most  learned  analysts  of  its  language,  through  mere  book  learning,  "  Thus  far 
shalt  thou  go  and  no  farther ; "  and  I  believe  pure  Hebraists  have  reached  that  stage 
in  the  investigation  of  this  word  eduth.  The  ark,  I  must  repeat,  was  built  for  it, 
not  it  for  the  ark,  see  Exodus  xxv.  16,  and  elsewhere.  Of  course  it  came  direct  from 
God,  as  do  all  Palla-Diums  and  Lingams ;  which  is  the  universal  fiction  of  priests,  just 
as  in  the  case  of  books,  and  moral  and  other  laws,  &c.,  with  which  they  wish  to  indoc 
trinate  us.  This  riddle  of  the  eduth,  or  "geduth,"  which  had  an  altar  and  offerings  long 
ere  an  ark  or  "  testimony  "  (law  or  covenant)  existed,  can  then  be  approached  by  paths 
apart  from  philology ;  and  well  it  is  so,  else  we  would  oft  remain  dark  indeed, 
especially  in  India,  were  we  to  await — in  Sivaik  lore,  the  investigations  of  even  this 
powerful  arm  of  flesh ;  and  this  I  have  had  abundant  experience  of  in  studying  as  I 
have  done,  and  in  some  original  tongues,  the  occult  nomenclature,  rites,  and  customs 
of  Lingam-worship.  My  poverty  in  Hebrew  has  been  somewhat  compensated  for  by 
having  a  tolerable  smattering  of  several  Oriental  languages,  in  which  I  learned  how 
dense  is  that  veil  which  modern  as  well  as  ancient  priests  throw  around  their  gods  and 
rites — a  veil  intended  not  only  to  defy  all  philological  approach  to  their  mysteries,  but 
to  hide  these  from  ninety-nine  hundredths  of  their  followers,  as  well  as  from  their 
scholarly  co-religionists.  No  one  can  read  of  religious  matters  in  even  ordinary  Tamil 
or  Telogoo,  not  to  say  in  the  hiyh-flown  and  orthodox  writings  of  Eastern  priests  and 
mystics,  without  meeting  the  impenetrable  curtain  with  which  they  so  easily  hide  all 
from  the  vulgar  gaze.  To  do  this  is  pious ;  so  let  us  approach  the  subject  of  the 
Eduth  on  grounds  which  I  think  are  much  more  sure  than  even  those  of  philology. 

All  Africa,  Arabia,  Syria,  and  Phenicia — indeed  all  Asia,  aye,  all  the  world — 
bowed  to  stones,  as  these  volumes  will,  I  think,  abundantly  shew,  if  others  more  able 
have  not  already  done  so ;  and  why  should  not  poor  Jews  bow  to  stones  ?  Why 
should  not  these  poor  quarriers  and  brickmakers  of  Lower  Egypt  and  Idumea,  who 
had  at  this  time  been  expelled  from  Egypt,  as  the  most  reliable  writers  assure  us, 
for  dirt  and  diseases  connected  with  uncleanliness  ?  They  anointed  them,  and 
rejoiced  in  calling  their  deliverers,  such  as  Cyrus,  and  the  great  and  long-expected 
one  "  the  MESSIAH,'''  which  is  a  name  of  Maha-deva  as  the  specially  and  continually 
"  ANOINTED  ONE."  They  were  slaves,  and  the  lowest  of  the  low,  in  that  land  which 
tolerates  more  filthiness  than  most.  Of  course  the  gods  or  idols  of  such  a  race,  if  any  at 
all,  would  be  of  a  still  lower  type  than  those  deities  which  are  still  common  to  similar 
labourers  in  Asia ;  that  is,  gods  represented  by  round  or  conical  stones  (female  or  male 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  151 

symbols),  stuck  up  on  a  little  altar  of  mud  under  any  tree  or  shade  near  to  their  works;  it 
would  be  decorated  by  the  women  with  rags  from  their  coloured  garments,  and  smeared 
with  any  oils  or  pigments  which  they  could  get  hold  of,  red  or  yellow  being  preferred. 
We  know  that  such  humble  Sivaik  altars  abounded  and  were  adored  from  time  imme 
morial  all  over  Africa  ;  as  indeed  they  are  still.  Christian  converts  stated,  as  cited  in 
page  106,  that  they  worshipped  such  up  to  their  conversion.1 

It  is  in  vain  to  ask  for  light  on  this  subject  from  Jews  or  even  European- Jewish 
students ;  they,  like  Christians,  are,  I  have  found,  for  the  most  part  quite  ignorant 
of  the  ancient  symbols  and  gods  of  their  faith  ;  the  first  idea  of  the  ark  and  its 
mysteries  has  as  completely  passed  away  from  the  Jews  of  Britain,  and  even  of  Asia 
Minor,  as  have  the  Serpent  and  Solar  faiths,  which  were  once  those  of  our  ancestors, 
faded  from  our  ken.  We  must  go  to  the  so-called  general  history  of  the  facts,  or 
acts  of  a  faith,  and  study  what  other  peoples  did  to  know  what  Jews  did,  what  was 
then  and  now  going  on  under  the  same  circumstances  on  similar  altars ;  doing  this, 
and  taking  for  the  present  their  own  statements,  as  facts,  and  the  occurrences  in  their 
order  of  time,  what  do  we  find  ? 

Exodus  xii.  37,38 — A  "mixed  multitude"  of  Jews,  Egyptians,  and  hybrids,  number 
ing,  they  shew,  some  3,000,000,  left  Egypt  by  Eameses  and  Succoth  in  the  month  of 
Abib,  or  the  vernal  equinox,  "Eostre."  xiii.  18-21 — Their  god  Elohim  led  them  a 
round-about  way  from  fear  of  the  Philistines  frightening  them  back  again,2  and  guided 
them  by  smoke  in  the  day  time,  and  by  fire  at  night.  Ex.  xvi. — The  tribes  had  in  one 
and  a-half  month  reached  the  wilderness  of  Sin,  between  Elim  and  Sinai.  Their  gods 
Elohim  and  Jhavh,  or  "  Jhavh  their  Elohim,"  have  all  along  been  spoken  of  by  them, 
though  this  is,  I  think,  an  interpolation;  but  no  altar,  tent,  tabernacle,  or  ark  is 
spoken  of  in  this  chapter,  nor  up  to  this  date  in  the  Bible  do  we  know  of  the  tribes 
having  such,  when  we  suddenly  hear  (verse  33)  Moses  say  to  Aaron,  "TAKE  A  POT  OF 

MANNA  AND  LAY  IT  UP  BEFORE  THE  JHAVH  ;  "  and  Verse  34,  "  As  THE  JfiAVH  COMMANDED 

MOSES,  so  AARON  LAID  IT  UP  BEFORE  THE  TESTIMONY,"  or  EDUTH  !  What,  then,  was 
this  Eduth  which  stands  for  Jhavh  ?  for  no  "  law  "  or  "  testimony,"  nor  even  fixed 
place  in  which  to  lay  such,  then  existed !  Clearly  this  was  their  Beth-el  or  "Kock," 
which  we  find  in  so  many  instances  is  the  principal  god  of  the  Old  Testament ; 
see  some  details  of  this  in  page  103.  Exodus  xvii. — In  this  chapter  we  come  to 
the  FIRST  ALTAR  OF  THE  TRIBES,  and  it  was  evidently  not  built  in  the  manner  which 
their  deity  liked,  for  he  afterwards  gives  out  from  Sinai,  which  they  do  not  reach  till 
the  xix.  chapter,  or  after  three  months'  marching,  the  way  in  which  his  altars 
are  to  be  erected  (xx.  24-26)  viz.,  of  mud,  or  unhewn  stone  without  a  step,  in  case 

i  Arnobius,  of  the  4th  century,  A.C.,  wrote  thus,  see  Ar.  Ad.  Gentes,  trans,  by  Bryce  and  Campbell, 
T.  £  T.  Clark,  Edin.  : — "  I  worshipped  images  produced  from  the  furnace,  gods  made  on  anvils  and  by 
hammers,  the  bones  of  elephants,  paintings,  wreaths  on  aged  trees:  whenever  I  espied  an  anointed 
stone,  or  one  bedaubed  with  olive  oil,  as  if  some  person  resided  in  it,  I  worshipped  it,  I  addressed  my 
self  to  it,  and  begged  blessings  from  a  senseless  stock."  2  "  600,000  fighting-men  "  need  not  have  feared. 

152  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  god  sees  "their  nakedness,"  shewing  us  that  this  deity  was  a  smallish  lingam 
emblem,  which,  if  a  person  stood  beside,  or  on  a  level  with,  dressed  only  in  the  long  loose 
robes  of  Arabians,  and  not  much  of  these  in  the  summer  season,  he  would  probably 
expose  "  his  nakedness  "  to  the  god.  Illustrations  follow  shewing  the  kind  of  altar  and 
deity,  and  the  probable  order  of  advancement  of  such  Phallic  architecture. 

It  is  not  seen  from  the  15th  verse  of  Exodus  xvii.  what  kind  of  altar  this 
"  Jahi'eh-Nissi"  had,  but  in  all  probability  it  was  a  hastily -thr own-together  karn  of 
stones  with  the  Nissi  or  standard  stuck  in  the  centre,  a  still  common  enough  deity 
among  all  rude  Eastern  people,  and  especially  so  from  Cape  Koomari  to  the  table-lands 
of  high  Asia.  Hooker,  in  his  Himalayan  Journals,  shews  us  these  among  the 
glacier  torrents  of  the  Upper  Himalaya,  and  every  picture  of  Tibetan  and  Tatarian  rites 
and  cult  gives  these  equally  clearly.  It  is  one  we  may  meet  with  two  or  three  times 
in  any  morning's  march  among  most  of  the  hill  aborigines  of  India,  and  so  also,  say 
travellers,  all  over  Central  Asia,  Mongolia,  China,  and  Japan.  I  may  quote,  in 
confirmation  of  this  assertion,  the  following  from  a  paper  read  before  the  Eoyal  Geo 
graphical  Society  in  February  1874  by  Dr  Bushel,  physician  to  Her  Britannic  Majesty's 
Legation,  Pekin,1  in  which  we  have  the  result  of  a  most  interesting  itinerary  he  made 
outside  the  Great  Wall  of  China  in  September  and  October  1874.  On  visiting,  he 
writes,  the  lake  of  "  Ichinor,  some  three  miles  in  circumference,"  he  came  upon 
"  TENGRI  OBO,  one  of  the  most  sacred  hills  at  which  the  Mongols  worship."  It  was 
only  "  a  smooth  grassy  elevation  raised  a  few  hundred  feet  above  the  general  level  of  the 
plateau,"  but  sloping  up  from  the  south  edge  of  the  lake,  a  situation  Phallically  correct. 
The  Doctor  continues — "  It  is  crowned  by  a  karn  of  stones  heaped  up  AROUND  A 
CENTRAL  POLE,  and  hung  about  with  strips  of  silk  and  cotton— a  relic  of  ancient  nature 
worship,"  of  which  I  give  many  an  example,  notably  so  from  the  Arabian  deserts, 
but  which  is  equally  applicable  to  this  Mongolian  one.  In  one  illustration,  the  god  is 
a  tree,  because  trees  are  generally  to  be  found  suitably  situated ;  but  where  they  are 
not  so  found,  then  Phallic -worshippers  merely  place  the  stem  of  a  tree,  or,  which  is 
the  same  thing,  a  pole,  rod,  or  standard,  as  emphasizing  the  part  of  the  tree  which  they 
more  especially  desire  to  symbolise.  It  appears  that  this  Mongolian  karn  and  pole 
had  an  ark  like  the  Sinaitic  one  ;  not  the  grand  and  impossible  ark  which  is  described  to 
us  by  some  after  interpolator  of  the  25th  and  following  chapters  of  Exodus,  but  a  mere 
box  or  "  ark  of  wood"  which  Deut.  x.  1  says  Moses  was  to  make,  as  it  were,  on  the 
spur  of  the  moment,  in  order  to  carry  more  carefully  the  two  new  stones  which  the 
Deity  said  he  would  re-engrave  for  him.  Dr  Bushell  writes  :  "  On  one  side  of  the 
kairn  a  wretched  wooden  box  was  placed  enclosing  a  porcelain  image  of  Boodha" 
and  one  no  doubt  as  symbolic  of  the  great  prophet  as  the  obelisk  is  of  the  creator 
Qsiris  or  Jove,  and  the  Eduth  or  rod  was  of  Yahveh  or  Yac/^veh.  "  It  was  odd  to 
observe,"  says  the  Doctor,  "  our  priests'  looks  of  unutterable  horror  when  one  of  us 
1  See  Jour.  Royal  Geo.  Soc.,  Vol.  XLIV.  for  1874,  pp.  78,  79. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 53 

unwittingly  offended,  by  climbing- to  the  top  of  the  karn  to  get  a  better  view  of  the 
country ;  he  afterwards  made  not  a  few  propitiatory  kotows."  It  would,  no  doubt, 
have  fared  much  worse  with  him  who  ventured  to  climb  on  to  that  "  JAHVEH-NISSI  " 
upon  the  slopes  of  holy  Sinai,  than  it  did  with  Kora  and  his  company,  or  poor  Uzzah 
who  tried  to  steady  the  toppling-over  "ark  of  the  testimony." 

We  would  like  very  much  to  know  the  meaning  of  the  Mongolian  name  of  Tengri- 
Obo.  The  latter  part  is  very  serpent-like,  and  occurs  among  a  race  of  determined 
Serpent  or  Dragon- worshippers.  Dr  Bushell  says,  at  page  84,  that  "  OBO  is  a  kairn 
covered  with  ragged  streamers  of  silk  and  cotton  tied  to  sticks,"  so  that  it  may  signify 
"  a  Serpent-shrine."  Tengri  may  be  related  to  Tenar,  Tenaris,  the  thundering  Jove 
of  Kelts  and  Komans,  &c.,  or,  more  likely,  he  is  the  great  founder  of  Japan,  "  TENSIO- 
Dai-Sin,  or  TENSIO  the  god  of  light  whose  temple  ivas  called  NAIKOO,"  *  which  I  take 
it  is  in  Sanskrit  Naga,  and  in  various  idioms  Nak,  Nakoo,  Nagoo,  &c.  Tensio 
has  a  cavern  near  his  temple,  where  he  is  at  times  hid,  "when  no  sun  or  stars 
appear."  He  is  the  "  fount  of  day,"  his  priests  are  called  Kanusi,  and  they  occa 
sionally  exhibit  Tensio  as  a  great  deity  sitting  on  a  cow,  which  may  make  him  Osiris 
and  Siva  ;  anyhow,  in  TENSIO  we  have  the  Sun,  for  "  Japan  is  the  kingdom  of 
CHAMLS,  whom  we  hold  to  be  the  same  as  SCIN,  the  origin  of  all  things  " — the  words 
of  a  Japanese  emperor  to  the  Portugese  viceroy  in  1585.2  The  result  is  thus  the  same 
in  Mongolia,  Japan,  and  Ireland,  viz.,  that  the  erect  object,  whether  wood  or  stone,  is  the 
Sun-stone,  the  Akro-polis,  or  Jahveh-nissi,  or  god,  the  pole  of  fertility,  which  connects 
the  Sun  and  Phallus.  The  Polus  or  Nissi  on  an  altar,  mount,  or  karn  of  stones  etc., 
is  a  polis  on  an  Akro,  or  Akro-polis,  which  in  time  came  to  mean  a  place  or  city 
around  which  tribes  congregated  and  built.  We  must  take  our  stand  here,  even  should 
students  of  modern  Greek  object  to  <™x/£  being  voi.og,  Latin  polus,  a  pole,  for  all 
Eastern  travel  shows  us  that  the  shrine  of  a  god,  who  at  first  is  always  the  obelisk,  or 
"standard,"  or  "creating  one,"  is  the  centre  of  all  old  cities — just  as  fine  old  trees 
became  sacred  centres,  this  from  Mamre  to  Vienna ! 

In  this  case  the  wandering  Edumeans  had,  by  means  they  believed  of  their  Phallic 
god,  gained  victory  over  the  great  Am-el,  Ham-el,  or  Sun- worshipping  tribes,  under 
the  shadow  of  Dio  Nissi's  Mount  Sinai,  and  this  by  holding,  up  the  wonder-working 
"  rod  of  God  "  or  Elohim  (Exod.  xvii.  9),  for  he  was  a  deity  of  Thyrsi,  Kaducei,  and 
such  emblems,  and  would  be  appropriately  called  the  Jahveh-nissi,  or  "  Lord  of  the 
standard"  The  victory  was  obtained  not  by  the  skill,  numbers,  or  bravery  of  Israel, 
but  only  by  Moses  standing  erect,  or  sitting  on  a  stone  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  holding  up 
this  baton  with  both  hands  ;  which  he  did,  till  so  tired  that  Aaron  and  Hur  put  him 
down  on  a  stone  and  "  stayed  up  his  hands  "  till  sun  down.  One  is  thus  led  to  con 
nect  the  scene  with  solo-phallic  lore,  and  with  men  who  used  to  stand  on  the  Phallic 

1  Holwell's  Myth.  Die.,  108.  2  Do.,  109,  and  Bryant,  iii.  p.  553. 

1.  U 

154  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

pillars  of  Syria,  see  fig.  16  of  Dr  Inman's  plate  v.,  vol.  ii.,  and  this  other  which 
he  gives  us  at  page  491  of  the  same  volume,  exemplifying  the  Phallic  pillar, 
on  an  altar,  or  a  mount  of  sacrifice,  but  which  may  mean 
something  more;  I  give  many  figures  of  the  Phallic  Thyrsus 
and  Serpents.  The  two  supports  of  the  man  Moses  on 
this  occasion  are  suggestive.  Hur  "iin,  says  Inman,  is  the 
moon  as  a  male  god,  and  was  a  deity  in  Babylon  and 
Phenicia  (i.  96,  596)  ;  whilst  Aaron  prix,  or  Ahur  "in«, 

v  ' 

Fig.  57.—  MOSES,  EXODUS  xvii.  9-11.      .  . 

is  held  to   be   the  air,  later   Aer,  •  and   Greek  (Juranos,  pro 

bably  light  or  brightness  and  heat,  with  the  root  -n«,  or,  aur,  or  Ur.  Hebraists  tell 
us  that  n«  is  "  one  of  power  "  or  strength,  who  extends,  is  firm  like  a  tree  or  mast, 
etc.  (see  Inman,  i.  277).  Aer  was  one  of  the  second  Asyrian  triad  in  conjunction 
with  the  sun  and  moon  (p.  176),  and  the  sky,  or  air,  whether  Jupiter  tonans  or  pluvius, 
is  the  connection  between  god  and  his  children  —  between  .the  sun  and  his  earthly 
ark  ;  and  this  link  between  Jhavh  and  his  people  Israel,  was  here  the  high  priest 
A-aron.  If  the  A  at  the  commencement  is  held  to  be  prosthetic,  and  the  two  last 
letters  merely  formative,  as  we  have  many  instances  of  (I-esh-wdra  and  Par-vati  are 
in  point),  then  we  have  Hur,  as  an  Omphi  or  mouthpiece  of  the  deity,  precisely  similar 
to  Hermes,  who  had  a  blossoming  club,  which  gave  life  and  dealt  forth  death  ;  who 
originated  worship  and  sacrifices,  and  taught  eloquence  —  all  points,  in  which  Aaron 
excelled,  see  Ex.  iv.  14-16  and  onwards,  and  Dr  Inman  under  Art.  Aaron.  It  is 
mere  trifling  with  Israel's  God  to  tell  us,  that  we  over-reach  ourselves  in  likening  a 
man  on  a  hill  top  with  a  rod,  and  two  men  supporting  him,  to  a  Phallic  triad,  for 
these  here  are  clearly  no  mere  men,  and  this  no  mere  rod.  The  figure,  and  then  the 
group,  swayed  warring  thousands  and  determined  victory,  which  neither  skill  nor 
numbers  had  any  effect  over;  so  it  is  our  duty  to  try  and  see  what  God  is  here, 
and  how  he  manifests  himself.  Immediately  after  the  victory,  the  god  is  brought 
down  from  the  hill,  and  we  may  conclude  that  "his  rod"  —  Nissi,  or  a  pole  emblema 
tical  of  "  the  rod  ofElohim"  which  had  given  the  tribes  the  victory,  was  erected  on 
this  altar,  which  thus  takes  the  place  of  the  erect  man  Moses  seen  on  the  right  hand 
of  the  figure.  This  Nissi,  which  I  take  to  be  merely  an  enlarged  edition  of  the  Rod, 
as  the  outer  columns  of  temples,  or  the  obelisks  of  Egypt  were  of  the  rods  of  the 
priests  of  Egypt,  was  then  their  god  of  victory,  and  the  Jews  say  they  had  only  one 
god,  which  none  dare  make  light  of,  nor  would  wish  to  do  so,  for  he  gave  victory  on  the 
very  easiest  of  terms  ;  he  had  but  to  be  erected,  to  discomfit  Israel's  foes  "  from  gene 
ration  to  generation  ;"  his  rod  budded  as  did  that  of  Bacchus,  see  Figs  5  and  9,  PL  V., 
turned  into  .  a  serpent,  cleft  asunder  rocks  and  seas,  and  was  therefore  in  all 
respects  a  veritable  Soter  Jcosmou,  so  that  no  wonder  the  tribes  kept  the  God's 
symbol  carefully  shut  up  in  their  "  holy  of  holies." 

These  two  figures  seem   to   embrace   the   same,    or   a   very   close   similarity  of 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


ideas  ;    the  man   Moses    on  the  mount,    is   a  veritable   Beth-el,    or    oracle   of  the 
god,  and  so  is  this  Phallus  on  the  altar  which  is  reduplicated  here  by  a  man  upon 

Fig.  58—  WORSHIP  OF  BACCHt 

it  again,  who  holds  a  budding  rod  with  serpent  streamers.  Eegarding  this  last,  Dr 
Inman  writes  thus, — "  In  this  we  notice  the  peculiar  shape  of  the  altar,  the  triple 
pillar  arising  from  it,  the  ass's  head  and  the  fictile  offerings,1  the  lad  offering  a  pine 
cone  surrounded  by  leaves,  and  carrying  on  his  head  a  basket,  in  which  two  phalli 
are  distinctly  to  be  recognized.  The  deity  to  whom  the  sacrifice  is  offered  is  Bacchus, 
as  figured  by  the  people  of  Lampsacus.  On  his  shoulder  he  bears  a  thyrsus,  a  wand 
or  Virga,  terminating  in  a  pine-cone,  and  having  two  ribbons  dangling  from  it ;  .  .  . 
the  thyrsus  represents  the  Linga,  and  the  pine  cone  its  appendages"  (pp.  491-5,  vol. 
ii.  Anc.  Faiths).  Dr  Smith's  Diet,  of  Antiquities  tells  us,  that  this  "  thyrsus  of 
•Bacchus  is  called  a  spear  enveloped  in  vine  leaves,  whose  point  was  thought  to  excite 
to  madness  ;  .  .  .  very  frequently  a  white  fillet  was  tied  to  the  pole  just  below  the 
head."  The  vine  leaves,  conically  arranged,  often  take  the  place  of  the  pine  cone,  all 
having  the  same  meaning.  This  figure  58,  is  copy  of  an  ancient  gem  depicted  by 
Maffei  (Gemme  Antiche  figurati,  tome  iii.  pi.  40).  The  pillar  is  divided  by  fillets 
precisely  like  that  of  the  supreme  Polynesian  god  Terao,  of  which  I  give  a  drawing 
further -on,  and  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  the  twining  scroll,  running  about  the 
altar,  is  the  serpent,  which,  if  so,  makes  the  picture  as  complete  ,  and  perfect  an 
illust  ration  of  the  worship  of  generative  power  as  any  I  have  come  across. 

In  regard  to  the  supporters — Aaron  and  Hur,  of  Fig.  57,  and  the  whole  group,  I 
need  only  say  that  I  have  seen  many  similar,  from  furthest  West  in  Mexico  to  the  furthest 
1  See  Faber's  Pag.  Idol.  III.  130  as  to  the  head  of  the  Ass,  and  offerings. 

156  Rivers  of  Life ',  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

east.  It  is,  I  think,  a  sample  of  one  of  those  strange  features  of  early  religions  such  as 
visitors  to  our  Indian  collections  in  museums  must  have  often  seen,  where  a  group  of 
devotees  or  fanatics  form  themselves  into  the  shape  of  a  god  and  his  vehicle,  as  Vishnoo 
riding  the  Eagle  ;  the  Sun-god,  his  chariot  and  horses  ;  Kama,  her  love-bird,  &c.  The 
great  figure  is  often  built  up  on  a  basement  of  four  men  or  women,  who  form  the 
legs  ;  and  by  extending  their  arms,  support  other  upright  figures,  or  else  reclining  men 
or  women,  who  again  carry  others,  and  so  build  up  the  body,  head,  &C.1  In  this  case 
we  have  the  clear  fact,  that  in  the  eyes  of  all  Israel,  the  three  men  on  this  mount  over 
the  field  of  battle,  engaged  in  supporting  "  the  Rod  of  God,"  actually  represented  their 
Elohim  or  Jahveh  Elohim  himself,  and  well  indeed  did  they  call  him  a  "  God  of  Battles." 
He  was  a  veritable  Jupiter  Victor,  bound  by  covenant  to  give  them  victory  over  all  their 
enemies;  and  a  generator  who  was  "  to  increase  them  from  generation  to  generation  ; " 
and  one  especially  required  therefore  at  this  time.  The  feud  with  the  Amaleks  had 
become  one  of  extermination,  and  the  leader  had  assigned  as  the  reason  for  raising  an  altar 
to  Jehovah,  or  rather  Jahveh-nissi,  that  "a  hand,  the  standard  of  Jah  will  have  war 
with  Amalek  from  generation  to  generation"  (verse  16);  so  that  the  god  of  greatest  gene 
rative  capacity  was  he  whom  such  a  people  joyfully  looked  to  for  victory,  and  Siva  is  the 
god  of  the  hand.  Figs.  57  and  76  give  this  Almighty  rod,  and  its  equivalent  emblem — 
the  Eduth,  before  which  stood  the  pot  of  manna  as  the  true  god-idea  of  the  tribes  at  this 
period  of  their  history,  and  it  seems  absurd  to  credit  them  with  any  higher  one.  It  was  his 
holy  hill,  Nisiah  or  Sinai,  that  they  were  warring  to  approach  to,  for  he,  Siva,  is  "a  moun 
tain  god,"  and  on  its  slopes  did  they  as  it  were  become  men,  and  receive  his  Testimony 
or  two  Stones,  and  an  Ark,  his  Sakti,  for  she  was  also  the  "mountain  goddess,"  great 
Parnasi  or  Parvati.  Here  it  was  then  that  THE  SECOND  ALTAR  of  the  tribes  was  erected, 
but  not  for  some  time  after  the  first  altar  to  Jhaveh  Nissi  in  Rephidim  or  Sinai,  had  been 
reached,  and  for  an  unknown  period  been  their  residence  ;  here  we  learn  from  xxiv.  4, 

that  they  erected  their  SECOND  ALTAR, 
which  was  a  gilgal  or  stone  circle,  evi 
dently  like  the  stone  circles  or  Eachans 
of  Keltic  lands — a  group  of  twelve  mono 
liths  under  the  great  Phallic,  and  I  believe, 

Fig.  59.— LOCH  STENNES  AND  IIAUKAY,  ORKNEY.  t^le      COUC        Of       SlHal.  SCC        Col.        ForDCS 

Leslie's  "Early  Races,"  for  many  similar  altars,  and  this  one,  Fig,  65,  which  I  give 
as  the  cone  and  stone  circle  of  Loch  Stennes  and  Harray,  Orkney;  the  reader 
will  find  it  fuller  in  that  writer's  frontispiece  to  vol  ii.,  E.  R. 

In  speaking  of  theirs*  and  second  altars  of  the  tribes  which  it  is  customary  to 
consider  as  here  erected  in  the  last  decade  of  the  fifteenth  century  B.C.,  but  which 
modern  orthodoxy  grants  as  more  probably  in  the  thirteenth  century  B.C.,  I  have  not 
counted  the  altars  of  the  patriarchs  (1900  B.C.),  said  to  have  been  dead  more  than 
1  Two  very  good  samples  of  such  a  god-like  group,  forming  one  deity,  may  be  seen  in  the  Indian  Museum. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 57 

400  years  before  the  Sinaitic  wanderings  (1490  B.C.),  because  during  all  this  time  the 
tribes  had  existed  in  Egypt  only  as  poor  oppressed  slaves,  knocked  about  from  public  work 
to  public  work,  and  we  are  therefore  justified  in  assuming,  that  whilst  in  Egypt,  they  had 
always  been  in  an  utterly  disorganised  state,  and  perfectly  illiterate — more  so  than  any 
band  of  African  slaves  in  the  West  Indies  and  America,  in  the  worst  times  of  such  slavery. 
This  being  so,  these  Jewish  slaves  could  not  have  carried  forward  the  ideas  of  their 
ancestors,  nor  avoided  adopting  the  most  superstitious  beliefs  and  rites  of  the  lowest  and 
most  depraved  classes  in  Egypt,  even  had  they  cared  to  remember  the  Betyls  of  Jacob, 
and  the  little  Lingam  idols  of  Rachel.  Up  to  the  days  of  David  these  Edumeans  were 
poor  and  uncivilized  beyond  that  of  almost  any  tribe  we  now  know  of,  save  a  few 
small  ones  here  and  there,  who  still  wander  about  with  no  weapons  save  bows  and 
arrows,  stones,  slings,  and  sticks.  Up  to  the  days  of  Saul  (1090  B.C.),  "  there  was  no 
king  in  Israel,  and  every  man  did  that  which  was  right  in  his  own  eyes,"  and  (as  the 
keen  but  very  fair  investigator  of  the  Hebrew  history,  Mr  T.  Lumisden  Strange,  here 
adds),  "it  was  anarchy  socially,  politically,  and,  as  the  position  of  this  sentence 
occurring  in  the  midst  of  Micah's  idolatrous  ways  shows,  also  in  religious  practices. 
.  .  .  There  was  no  safety  in  the  highways,  and  travellers  resorted  to  by-paths ;  the 
villages  were  deserted,  and  the  people,  surrounded  by  hostile  races,  unarmed."1  For 
Deborah,  the  valiant  prophetess,  twits  them  by  asking  if  a  spear  or  shield  can  be  found 
among  40,000  in  Israel  ?  (Jud.  v.  8).  One  great  hero  had  distinguished  himself  before 
Deborah's  day  by  slaughtering  "600  Philistines,"  but  it  was  with  "an  ox -goad,"  and 
another  killed  1000,  sometime  after  the  days  of  this  Joan  of  Arc,  but  he  also  had  only  the 
"jawbone  of  an  ass ;"  and  the  mighty  David  had  to  start  on  hiswarwith  giants  with  nought 
but  a  sling  and  a  stone,  and  was  glad,  says  Mr  Strange,  to  arm  himself  with  the  giant's 
sword.  Even  up  to  the  beginning  of  the  tenth  century  B.C.,  "  there  was  no  smith  found 
throughout  all  the  land  of  Israel,  and  the  tribes  had  even  to  go  down  to  the  Philistines  to 
sharpen  every  man  "  his  agricultural  instruments  !  the  Philistines  only  permitting  them 
to  have  "files ! "  and  in  the  day  of  battle  none  save  Saul,  and  Jonathan,  his  son,  had 
either  sword  or  spear !  (1  Sam.  xiii.  19  to  end.)  It  is  clear  that  the  tribe  occupied,  and  only 
on  sufferance,  the  high  and  wilder  parts  of  Syria,  and  "did  stink"  in  the  eyes  of,  or  were 
"  held  in  abomination  (xiii.  4)  by  the  Philistine"  kings  and  princes  who  ruled  the  country; 
they  were  troublesome,  and  made  raids,  but  when  attacked  in  earnest,  "they  hid  them 
selves  in  caves,  and  in  thickets,  and  in  rocks,  and  in  high  places,  and  in  pits!"  (verse  6). 
The  idea  of  such  a  tribe  building  an  ark,  or  even  tabernacle,  &c.,  such  as  is  de 
scribed  in  Exodus  xxv.  and  onwards,  in  the  deserts  of  Sinai,  about  1500  B.C.,  is 
therefore  preposterous ;  and  we  do  not  require  Bishops  of  the  Church  to  tell  us  that 
these  chapters  here  are  all  interpolations,  nor  yet  Hebraists  to  explain  that  the  Eduth 
and  Jahveh-Nissi  of  such  a  tribe,  is  philologically  incomprehensible.  Common  sense, 
if  allowed  to  range  freely  over  the  histories  of  all  similar  peoples,  assures  us  in  a 
1  Legends  of  Old  Testament,  Hebrews,  pp.  144,  5  :  Triibner,  Lond.,  1874. 

158  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

manner  which  no  hidden  words  or  language  can  gainsay  or  impose  upon,  that  these 
poor  wanderers  worshipped  in  the  crudest  and  grossest  manner  the  organs  of  procrea 
tion,  symbolised  by  poles,  rods,  arks,  "  groves,"  and  such  like.  Nevertheless,  let  us  turn 
to  other  parts  of  the  Bible  to  see  the  after-signification  of  Nissi — the  banner  or  standard. 
This  word  occurs  twice  amongst  other  very  relevant  matter  in  Solomon's  love  song.  In  ii. 
34,  the  "  love-sick  "  one  says,  "  as  the  apple  tree  amongst  other  trees,  so  is  her  beloved  one 
among  sons  ;"  that  she  is  in  raptures  sitting  under  his  shadow,  and  that  when  he  takes 
her  to  "a  house  of  wine,"  ".his  Banner  or  Nissi  over  her  is  love."  I  need  not  repeat 
the  rest,  here  so  gross.  In  the  6th  chapter,  this  "  banner  "  is  described  as  fierce  in  love. 
In  Isaiah  lix.  19,  we  learn  that  "  the  Jhavh's  "  spirit  is  a  Standard  against  the  enemy, 
as  was  the  Rod  of  Moses ;  and  in  Is.  xi.  \  0,  that  a  root  of  Jesse  is  to  stand  for  an 
Ensign  among  the  people  ;  so  that  we  have  here  the  Toth,  obelisk,  or  Sun-stone,  and 
that  Standard  or  Banner,  as  with  Serpent,  Hand,  or  Eagle  on  summit,  (Fig.  53,  page 
134),  such  as  we  know  the  Roman  legions  followed  and  bo  wed  down  to.  We  know 
also  that  the  Jews  seem  to  have  retained  their  Serpent  and  Pole  more  continuously 
than  their  ark,  which  is  natural ;  as  it  was  of  no  money  value  nor  use  except  for 
worship,  and  wTas  an  object  too  universally  revered  to  be  injured  by  any  of  their  many 
conquerors  and  masters.  It  is  reasonable  to  expect  that  the  tribes  had  sacred  poles 
and  pillars,  for  every  civilized  people  had  these,  which  the  wide-travelling  merchant 
princes  of  Venice  imported  into  Europe,  planting  them  all  about  and  over  that 
fine  old  Venetian  shrine,  appropriately  dedicated  to  that  unknown  writer — MARK,  but 
w^ell-known  Lion,  a  brave  and  salacious  old  emblematic  deity  whom  wise  Priests 
purloined  from  Sol's  world- wide  faith. 

It  has  been  said,  and  not  unreasonably,  that  we  are  not  to  assume  that  the 
serpent  pole  was  a  great  unwieldy  flag-staff,  but  rather  a  Kaduceus,  which  priests  held 
up  as  an  exerciser,  as  later  priests  hold  up  a  cross,  with  or  without  a  man  on  it.  From 
the  important  part  which  I  have  shown  tree  shoots  or  stems  to  have  played  in  Phallic 
faiths,  especially  in  Africa  and  Asia,  and  what  we  know  of  Phenician  Venuses  and 
wooden  idols  among  many  peoples,  the  expression  of  Isaiah  as  to  "the  Root  of  Jesse" 
standing  for  an  ensign  has  a  real  significance.  My  plates  VI.  to  VIII.  give  abundant 
examples  of  such  "root"  and  "stump,"  and  tree  gods.  Mr  J.  T.  Wood  also,  to 
whom  we  are  so  much  indebted  for  his  searching  out  "  Diana  of  the  Ephesians,"  spoke 
thus  in  a  late  lecture  of  this  "  root "  deity.  "  The  Goddess  Diana  was  first  represented 
as  a  simple  tree  stump,  and  afterwards  as  a  motherly  fostering  goddess  of  earth, 
vegetation,  animals,  and  men,  of  which  many  figures  are  given ;  all  Asia  Minor 
abounded  with  these  rough  and  shapeless  ideas  of  this  deity,  whom  the  Greeks  called 
Artemis."  She  was  old  when  Herakles  founded  Ephesus  in  1250,  although  flourishing 
still  when  it  was  one.  of  the  Ionian  confederacy,  under  Androcles  in  1044  B.C. 
In  the  third  century  A.C.,  this  famous  temple  was  entirely  subverted.  If,  then,  the 
temple  of  Diana  had  only  "  a  simple  tree  stump"  we  have  not  a  shadow  of  excuse  for 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 59 

saying  that  the  Jews  had  anything  so  good,  especially  if  they  desire  to  antedate  their 
Jehovah  Nissi  to  1490  !  All  armies  used  a  bond  fide  standard  to  support  bond  fide 
images,  as  serpents  etc.,  and  so,  no  doubt,  did  Jews  who  would  not  be  likely  to  under 
stand  woven  or  painted  symbols,  but  be  ambitious  to  carry,  like  all  nations,  a  real  rod 
or  baton,  like  that  of  Mercury  or  Hermes.  As  in  the  case  of  all  standards  also,  this 
would  be  revered  and  worshipped  like  a  god  by  the  soldiers  as  well  as  generals 
who  led  "  the  armies  of  the  Lord."  The  Syrian  and  all  Arab  tribes  were  inveterate 
mountain-worshippers,  as  will  be  made  very  clear  as  we  proceed ;  and  that  Sinai,  as  a 
great  conical,  dark,  frowning  and,  perhaps,  fiery  mountain  should  be  "  THE  MOUNT 
OF  GOD,"  was  quite  agreeable  to  the  views  of  all  sects  in  the  Jewish  camp.  So  we  see 
that  as  soon  as  the  wanderers  came  near  to  Sinai,  all  understood  that  Elohim  or 
Jahveh  was  there  ;  for  it  is  related,  as  a  mere  matter  of  course  (Exod.  xix.  3),  that  imme 
diately  Moses  approached  the  hill,  the  Yahveh  "  called  unto  him  out  of  the  mountain," 
and  "Moses  went  up  unto  Elohim."  Then  follows  one  of  those  strange  eastern  tales, 
in  which  we  are  told  of  mighty  trumpetings,  the  rage  of  the  deity,  and  a  host  of 
puerilities,  such  as  we  so  often  read  of  in  temple-tales  in  India.  The  people  are  warned 
again  and  again  that  Jhavh  or  El  is  a  violent  god,  constantly  apt  to  "  break  forth  "  in 
ungovernable  rage ;  that  whatsover  creature  even  touches  the  mountain  with  his  hand 
shall  die  ;  that  the  cloud  and  the  fire,  lightnings  and  thunders,  and  loud  trumpetings, 
are  his  manifestations,  that  the  people  are  to  sanctify  themselves  in  Phallic  fashion 
by  not  going  near  their  wives,  &c.  ;  all  of  which,  however,  comes  to  nothing,  and 
the  next  chapter  opens,  with,  it  is  justly  suspected,  an  interpolation  of  the  so-called  "Ten 
Commandments"  or  rather  "ten  words,"  regarding  which,  see  Bishop  Colenso's 
excellent  Lecture  viii.,  on  The  Pent,  and  Moabite  Stone. 

Chapter  xx.  ends  with  the  tribes  being  instructed  not  to  make  gods  of  silver  or 
gold,  and  how  to  make  altars;  verse  22  being  apparently  the  beginning  of  the  celebrated 
"  Covenant "  or  "  Law  of  the  Lord,"  which  ends  in  the  xxiii.  chapter,  and  which 
Bishop  Colenso  thinks  may  be  eleven  hundred  words,  and  as  such,  have  been  engraved 
on  the  four  sides  of  two  stones  of  about  3x2  feet;  but  this  is  not  my  idea  of  the 
stones  of  ancient  gods. 

Thus,  not  till  the  tribes  had  been  for  some  time  at  Sinai,  did  they  know  anything 
of  their  after  altars,  sacrifices  on  them,  tents,  tabernacles,  arks,  or  laws  or  writings  : 
so  we  crave  to  know  what  our  Eduth  of  xvi.  34  was,  which,  when  Moses  built  the  ark 
of  xxv.  16,  he  was  to  put  into  it, — "  that  Eduth  which  I  shall  give  thee,"  not  what  you 
can  obtain,  or  make  for  yourself,  like  an  ark,  altar,  or  temple,  but  a  real  PALLA-DIUM, 
and  evidently  like  all  such,  believed  to  be  the  gift  of  Jove.  I  should  here  notice  that 
after  the  tribes  got  their  victorious  rod,  and  worshipped  Dio-nissi,  and  had  shown  their 
capacity  for  war,  they  are  recognised  as  an  independent  desert  tribe;  and  Moses  is  visited 
by  his  father-in-law,  Jethro,  "  a  priest  of  Midian,"  who  now  graciously  brings  to  him  his 
wife  and  two  sons  out  of  Egypt,  and  forthwith  begins  to  instruct  this  "man  of  God  " 
how  to  manage  and  judge  the  people  of  God  !  All  this  Moses  strictly  attends  to,  and 

160  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

gets  on  better  after  his  lesson.  Jethro  and  Moses,  that  is  Egyptians,  Midianites,  and 
Jews  were,  we  see  by  this  story,  clearly  serving  one  God,  whom  both  indifferently  call 
their  Elohim,  or  Aleim  and  Jhavh.  Jethro  found  no  fault  with  "the  Jhavh,  my 
Banner"  and  he  and  Moses  parted  great  friends. 

All  Hebraists  are  now  agreed  that  the  name  of  the  Jewish  God  had  precisely  the 
same  signification  as  that  of  the  gods  of  other  nations  around  them,  notably  of  the 
Phenicians,  viz.,  "He  who  makes  life"  or  "generates  into  life."  Yachveh  is  more 
frequently  used,  says  Bishop  ColeDso,  than  Yahveh,  but  this  is  a  difference  due  only  to 
pronunciation.  The  favourite  God  of  the  masses  was  Ba-al,  which  signifies  "  erection" 
"  upward;"  whilst  Pcor,  its  adjunct,  has  also  the  meaning  of  "open"  or  "  spread,"  so 
that  Baal-Peor  is  nothing  more  or  less  than  the  simple  Sri-Linga  or  Linga-m-Arghsi. 
Let  me  repeat,  then,  that  the  idea  is  preposterous  that  these  tribes  were  more 
monotheistic  than  their  neighbours.  Baal  and  the  "  Grove,"  or  Astarte,  were,  we  see, 
their  dominant  gods,  together  with  Eduths,  stones,  arks,  and  ephods  ;  and  seeing  that 
this  faith  in  such  Phallic  emblems,  though  slightly  spiritualized  in  the  minds  of  their 
prophets  and  sages,  continued  down  to  long  past  the  days  of  Mahomed,  when  we  know 
that  they  still  worshipped  El,  or  Elohim,  Baal,  and  the  Grove  or  Ark,  and 
revered  the  unhewn  rock  or  cap  of  Mount  Moriali,  which  Moslems  have  placed 
a  temple  over,  and  all  Phallic  mountains  like  Sinai,  Horeb,  Nebo,  Peor,  and 
Hermon ;  that  their  faith  was  exhibited  in  setting  up  holy  stones  and 
circumambulating  them  on  all  great  occasions ;  in  revering,  if  not  worshipping 
ancestors  who  worshipped  Betyls  or  Matsebas,  whose  greatest  and  wisest  monarch 
erected  temples  to  Molok  and  Chemosh  on  "sacred  mounts;"  that  they  universally 
circumcised,  and  considered  no  uncircumcised  or  sexually  imperfect  person  fit  to  enter 
their  Phallic  shrine  or  appear  before  the  god ;  who,  when  they  had  not  an  ark  to  place  in 
their  second  temple,  placed,  like  their  countrymen  of  Meka,  a  stone  in  it  ;x  when  we  are 
told  that  their  El,  or  II,  or  Al,  or  Jah — the  common  Phallic  or  Solo-Phallic  god  of  all 
the  peoples  of  these  parts,  minutely  described  to  them  how  to  erect  Phallic  pillars  and 
sacrificial  altars,  and  all  the  paraph arnalia  of  a  Sivaik  temple,  in  "  lavers,  basins,  candle 
sticks,"  and  such  utensils,  scents,  perfumes,  and  unguents  for  the  deity,  also  strange 
Seraphim  and  Cherubim  figures  ;  looking,  I  repeat,  at  all  this,  and  how  imperfect  any 
ark  or  Argha  would  be  without  its  Pallas,  or  Argha-nat,  a  Caput-oline  without  its 
Palatine,  woman  without  man  ;  can  we  hesitate  to  pronounce  that  Edyth  to  have  been 
a  Lingam,  which  Moses  and  Aaron  both  called  their  Elohim  or  Yahveh  ?  "  We  see  at 
once  that  these  words  were  synonymous,  though  it  is  possible  that  the  Eduth  was  meant 
only  as  the  god's  symbol;  and  that  just  as  we  might  ask  in  India — pointing  to  a  Sivaik 
shrine,  "what- is  that?"  and  the  Brahman  would  reply,  "Maha-Deva"  (the  great  god), 
so  possibly  it  (verse  34- of  xvi.)  may  mean  "The  Eduth — the  Jhavh's  symbol,"  but  this 
strengthens  and  not  weakens  my  argument.  Look  again  at  that  which  is  presented  to 
the  Eduth — manna  or  bread,  the  only  bread  they  have,  and  to  the  god  of  l&cili-lehem  (the 
1  The  Rev.  J.  Wilson's  Arch.  Diet.  Art.  Sanctum  S. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  161 

place  of  Bread)  here  again,  Siva  for  his  emblem  is  always  seen  overwhelmed  with  bread 
and  rice,  and  all  the  food  of  the  season.  Look  at  the  occasion  of  the  manna-offering ;  the 
leader  gets  puzzled  for  want  of  bread  in  the  desert,  as  he  well  may  with  some  three 
millions,  or  more  likely  three  thousand  mouths  to  fill,  and  quite  enough  too,  if  we  are 
to  credit  the  tale  at  all;  so  the  manna  miracle  is  invented  from  a  probable  substratum 
of  fact.  Manna,  as  food,  is  an  absurdity  ;  but  we  have  the  well  known  produce  of  the 
desert  oak  or  ash — Fraxinus  ;  see  Bagster's  Comprehensive  Bible,  marginal  notes. 
An  omer  of  this  was  precious,  and  in  this  quantity,  at  the  spring  season,  not  difficult 
to  get ;  it  was  a  specially  fit  tribute  to  be  "  laid  up  "  before  any  Phallic  Jah,  as  it  was 
the  pollen  of  the  tree  of  Jove  and  of  Life,  and  in  this  sense  the  tribe  lived  spiritually 
on  such  "  spiritual  manna  "  as  this  god  supplied,  or  was  supplied  with.  Manna,  my 
readers  may  perhaps  know,  is  a  mild  purgative,  and  does  not  keep  following  and  fall 
ing  upon  wandering  Arabians  all  over  the  deserts,  just  as  they  require  it ;  on  which 
accounts,  of  course,  Biblicists  are  compelled  to  call  it  miraculous,  and  to  say  that  it 
was  "  angels'  food  "  which  fed  the  tribes ;  but  discarding  the  substance  as  one  never 
eaten  by  either  angels  or  these  Edumeans,  nor  peculiar  to  only  six  days  in  the  week, 
I  incline  to  think  that  from  the  juice  of  the  flowering  ash  (Fraxinus)  or  Oriental  oak, 
as  a  very  holy  tree,  they  manufactured  for  religious  purposes,  a  small  quantity,  as  an 
"  Omer,"  and  "  laid  this  up  before  the  Eduth  "  as  the  most  suitable  offering  to  this 
deity.  The  comments  of  even  the  most  orthodox  men  lead  me  to  this  possible  solution 
of  the  manna  myth. 

The  Jhavh  or  Yahveh  was  in  many  other  respects  very  completely  represented  in 
this  Eduth  as  a  Maha-Deva ;  he  had  all  his  offerings  of  cakes,  spices,  &c.,  as  in  Exodus 
xxx.  36,  and  elsewhere,  quite  according  to  present  Sivaik  practice,  and  he  had  also 
cruel  and  bloody  sacrifices  as  Jhavh  latterly,  and  Elohim  formerly.  Such  Deities  were 
represented  by  Er,  Har,  or  a  Stone,  Eock,  or  Conical  Mountain,  and  were  not  only 
generative  power  (J.  Genitor),  but  wisdom.  (Higgins' Anac.,  i.  645.)  Jupiter  was 
not  only  "  the  God  of  the  Covenant,"  or  Fcederis,  but  men  swore  their  most  solemn  oaths 
upon  Jupiter  Lapis,having  to  take  the  Lapis  in  their  hand,1  as  the  patriarch's  servant  did. 

Jahvh  or  Jove  was  also  J.  Ferctrius,  "  the  smiter  of  his  enemies,"  and  "  the 
giver  of  peace  ;"  but  the  ambassadors  or  suppliants  had  to  swear  on  the  holy  stone  of 
the  Temple  (Tooke,  20).  He  was  the  lord  or  husband  of  Olympus,  the  "  God  of  the 
holy  hill  of  Zion,"  the  "  God  of  Bethlehem,"  J.  Pistor — "  the  bread-giver,"  and  Zeus 
of  Mount  Hymettus  ;  because  the  author  of  all  life,  J.  Pluvius,  and  Dies-piter, 
or  "  father  of  our  days  " — the  Divum  Pater  atque  hominum  Rex ;  and  Lucetius,  God  of 
Light  (Lux).  The  Augurs  called  him  Jupiter  Tonans,  and  Fulgens,  and  hung 
a  bell  upon  his  statues,  and  we  know  what  this  means,  as  ancient  sculptures  show  us 
curious  objects  as  bell-suspenders ;  the  Greeks  pronounced  him  the  Saviour  of  men 
and  Jupiter  conservator  orbis. 

1  Tooke's  Pan.,  21,  quoting  Cicero  and  others. 
1.  X 

1 62  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  Kcv.  T.  Wilson  in  his  Archeological  Diet.,  art.  "  Sanctum,"  tells  us  that  "the 
Ark  of  the  Covenant,  which  was  the  greatest  ornament  of  the  first  temple,  was  wanting 
in  the  second,  but  a  stone  of  three  inches  thick,  it  is  said,  supplied  its  place,  which  they 
(the  Jews)  further  assert  is  still  in  being  in  the  Mahomedan  mosk,  called  the  Temple  of 
the  Stone,  which  is  erected  where  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem  stood."  My  figures  Nos.  64, 
93,  pages  181  and  218,  make  this  matter  clear,  and  show  that  the  lingam  of  "three  inches 
thick,"  if  it  ever  existed  on  the  ovate  mass  of  stone  which  covers  the  present  rock  and 
cave,  must  have  been  so  during  the  reign  of  Lingamites,  and  that  these  therefore  were 
dominant  over  Yonites  when  the  second  temple  was  built.  It-  of  course  is  always  admis 
sible  in  Sivaik  lore  to  substitute  the  Eduth,  "  covenant "  or  "  testimony  "  which  dwelt 
inside  the  ark,  for  the  ark  itself.  I  cannot  help  thinking  that  this  lingam  of  "  three 
inches  thick  "  is  the  one  precisely  of  this  size,  which  has  been  built  into  the  corner  of 
the  Al-Kaba  of  Meka,  regarding  which  see  a  drawing  in  my  chapter  on  Mahomedanism  ; 
for  Moslems  conquered  and  long  held  Jerusalem,  and  would  .very  likely  purloin  this 
relic.  The  Kev.  Mr  Wilson  calls  the  "  holy  of  holies,  the  most  holy  place  and  the 
oracle."  .  .  .  The  roof,  contrary  to  the  Eastern  custom,  was  not  flat,  but  sloping,1  and 
covered  all  over  with  golden  spikes.  .  .  .  The  length  of  the  Sanctum  Sanctorum 
was  twenty  cubits.  Its  situation  was  towards  the  west,  and  its  entrance  towards  the 
east."  It  was  a  sort  of  crypt  such  as  mythology  usually  connects  with  the  idea  of 
Ceres,  and  would  present  some  such  appearance  as  I  give  in  illustration  No.  93,  page 
218,  Fig.  in.  Seeing,  then,  that  the  natural  rock,  and  a  stone  three  inches  broad, 
was  a  great  treasure  of  this  late  period,  is  it  wonderful  that  the  poor  wanderers  put 
stones  into  their  itinerating  ark-box  ? 

Newman,  in  his  "  Hebrew  Monarchy,"  rightly  says  that  the  Jews  were  "  not 
Monotheistic  in  the  sense  of  denying  the  existence  of  other  gods,  but  that  their  creed 
rather  degraded  them  to  devils  ;"2  but  it  is  scarcely  possible  thus  to  generalise, 
for  the  Jewish  writers  who  have  become  celebrated  amongst  us  were  no  doubt  thought 
dangerous  and  unorthodox  men  by  the  mass  of  the  people,  just  as  our  "  Essayists  and 
Reviewers,"  Stanleys  and  Colensos,  are  held  to  be.  The  greater  number  of  men  and 
women  detest  thought  and  uncertainty,  and  usually  love  churches  ritualistic  and 
ornate — though  some  think  it  evangelical  to  be  Puritan  and  rude ;  and  so  it  was  with 
Jews ;  they  for  a  long  time,  opposed  a  grand  temple,  preferring  simple  Betyls,  Ba-als, 
and  "  Groves,"  and  erecting  these  all  over  their  land  "  on  high  places/',  on  the  banks  of 
all  rivers,  the  bases  of  all  mountains,  and  in  the  centre  of  open  spots,  as  at.  Gilgal  or 
Jericho  ;  where  their  judges,  and  favourite  seers  circumambulated  these  stones  or  circles 
of  stones,  and  prayed  for  the  people  before  such  emblematical  gods.  The  tribes  had  not 
many  feelings,  in  common  when  they  came  to  be  writers,  and  told  us  what  they  thought 
of  each  other ; — as  a  rule  they  bitterly  reviled  each  other's  gods  and  temples.  Moriah, 
that  is  Meroo  or  Miriam,  the  female  element,  scorned  and  detested  Gerizim,  the  male 
1  On  this  account  I  show  a  low  sloping  roof  to  the  Sanctum  in  my  Fig  39*  '2  P.  29. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  163 

energy ;  Judeans  called  the  Samaritan  temples  where  calves  or  bulls  were  holy,  in  a  word 
of  Greek  derivation,  DUKB^B — «Xetfoc  va6$,  the  dung-hill-temple,  and  ipp  Shikar  (instead 
of  Shechem),  a  lie.  The  Samaritans  in  return  called  the  Temple  of  Jerusalem  the  house 
of  dung  Krfcpfjpjva,  and  since  its  destruction  feroorpa,  Mdes  Plagae,  the  house  of  calamity.1 

The  tribes  were  quite  proud,  perhaps  are  so  still,  of  having  carried  about  idol 
arks  during  all  their  so-called  forty  years  of  wandering  in  the  desert.  Amos  and  others 
tell  us  that  Moloch  (Siva,  Fire,  or  Passion),  and  Kiun  (the  star  or  sign  of  woman) 
were  inside  of  these.  Hosea  speaks  in  chap.  iii.  ver.  4,  with  regret  that  Israel  is  de 
prived  of  king,  sacrifice,  and  lingam,  stone,  or  pole,  or  Matsebah  ("  Image "),  and 
Ephods  and  Teraphim.  The  Kiun2  or  Chiun  was  an  emblem  of  Astarte  or  Ish-tar, 
and  is  no  doubt  the  root  or  origin  of  our  word  queen  or  quean,  which  is  in  Greek  ywfi  ; 
0.  Sax.,  quan,  quena;  Icel.,  qvinna,  kona,  given;  0.  Ger.,  quina,  and  Irish,  coinne. 
There  are  amongst  us  similar  feminine  terms  not  yet  dead,  which  these  words  recall. 
Calves  or  bulls  and  serpents  were  natural  manifestations  of  this  Jewish  faith,  and  so 
also  quarrels  as  to  whether  the  Lingaites  or  Arkites  (right-  or  left-  hand  sects)  should 
prevail.  As  I  have  said,  numerous  nations  possessed  arks,  and  prominently  Hindoos, 
Egyptians,  Phenicians,  Greeks,  and  Tibetans,  down  to  Eomans ;  and  so  also  we  have 
much  made  of  Eods,  Spears,  Batons,  Kaducei,  and  such  Phallic  emblems  of  the  pillar, 
tree,  stone,  or  obelisk.  Dionysus,  like  to  Moses,  but  in  a  higher  sense,  for  he  was 
a  god-man  and  God  of  an  Ark,  was  the  possessor  of  a  wonder-working  Rod  and  very 
wonderful  emblems  or  insignia.  His  great  emblem,  both  in  Thebes  and  Troy,  was  an 
Agalma,  "AyaX/^a,  or  " image,"  " statue"  " anything  that  delights ; "  it  was  also  a 
"shrine,"  a  "res  auro  ornata"  and  bond-Jide  simulacrum  of  the  God.  The  initial 
letter  of  these  words,  and  of  the  Greek  alphabet,  seems  also  to  be  here  full  of  meaning 
as  regards  this  god.  A,  or  alpha,  signifies  a  male,  that  is  Phallus,  or  "fellow"  as 
A-koites,  a  bed-fellow ;  whilst  A-gapo  is  to  love  or  embrace ;  Agape  is  love,  and  gala 
"something  rare  or  precious,"  and  in  medicine  the  milky  juice  of  a  plant;  whilst  gameo 
is  to  marry  ;  the  husband  is  gametis,  and  the  wife  gamete,  which,  straws  though  they 
may  be,  show  how  the  wind  blows. 

We  gather,  further,  from  that  excellent  publication  by  Mr  Thomas  Scott,  "  The 
Physician  on  the  Pentateuch"  that  the  usual  article  in  heathen  arks  or  coffers  was 
roy  A/oi/oio-ou  "AidoTov,  the  pudendum,  male  or  female  ;  for  one  or  both  are  commonly  repre 
sented  in  these  shrines,  just  as  they  are  in  present  Siyaik  ones.  This  learned  Physician, 
whom  I  have  not  the  pleasure  of  knowing,  and  whose  work  I  had  not  read  till  after 
most  of  this  article  was  written,  says,  "  Is  not  the  Greek  Attofa  the  Hebrew  Eduth  ? " 
He  also  draws  attention  to  the  fact  of  Joshua's  "great  stone  "  which  he  "  set  up  as  a 
witness  under  an  oak,"  being  an  actual  god  who  "  heard  all "  that  was  said  to  him 
(Josh.  xxiv.  26,  27),  and  of  Joshua's  spear  taking  the  precise  place  of  Moses'  Phallic 

1  "Letters  on  Mythology."     Lon.,  1748,  p.  136,  said  to  be  written  by  the  Archdeacon  of  Durham. 

2  In  Sansk.  Kun  signifies  "  to  cherish  or  support,"  and  hence  "Woman  or  Womb. 

164  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

rod,  which  of  course  godhj  spears  do,  as  those  of  Siva  and  Bacchus.  This  stone  is 
distinctly  called  a  witness,  Latin,  Testis,  so  we  see  that  even  Jewish  translators  of 
their  sacred  scriptures,  have  here  granted  what  I  urge,  for  they  call  the  Eduth  before 
which  the  manna-vase  was  placed  by  the  same  English  word  testimony.  The  spear  in 
the  hands  of  all  gods  and  great  mythic  leaders  signified  the  obelisk  or  Phallic  god ; 
and  Joshua,  in  holding  up  his  spear  as  at  the  destruction  of  Ai  (viii.  26)  and  elsewhere, 
is  shewn  as  perfectly  understanding  and  following  up  the  Yahveh-Nissi  worship,  insti 
tuted  by  Moses  after  the  destruction  of  the  Amalekites.  Both  chiefs  and  people  were 
evidently  severe  and  relentless  in  human  sacrifices  to  their  Phallo-solar  god,  which  is 
a  proof  that  he  was  Siva.  This  is  manifest  in  the  but  slightly  disguised  story  of  poor 
Aclian  (Josh,  vii.)  and  all  his  sons  and, daughters,  who  clearly  became  cher&m,  or 
"  devoted,"  because  of  the  first  repulse  of  the  tribes  before  Ai. 

From  Joshua's  dying  speech  (xxiv.  14),  it  seems  very  clear  that  when  the  book  bear 
ing  his  name  was  written,  the  writers,  of  probably  about  the  time  of  Manasseh — G50  B.C. 
as  we  gather  from  such  learned  theologians  as  Bishop  Colenso  and  Dr  Davidson,  did 
not  acknowledge  all  the  previous  gods  of  Israel,  calling  them  with  but  little  respect 
"  those  (gods)  which  your  fathers  served  on  the  other  side  the  river,"  although  the 
people  are  made  by  those  writers  to  say,  that  it  is  Jhavh  who  brought  them  out  of 
Egypt.  If  the  writer  did  not  mean  that  his  tribe  had  changed  their  god,  then  we  may 
charitably  suppose  that  they  now  intended  to  serve  Jhavh  spiritually,  and  no  longer  in 
his  mere  Betyl  or  creative  symbol. 

Most  learned  men,  not  blinded  by  preconceived  views  indoctrinated  into  them  in 
childhood,  are  now  of  opinion  that  Edomites,  Moabites,  and  the  mongrel  and  later 
Cana-anites  and  Jews,  were  practically  one  people,  of  the  Solar  or  Shemitic  family, 
with  always  very  similar  social  laws  and  customs,  and  therefore  the  same  religion 
— that  is,  Solar,  or  Shams,1  or  Shemish  faiths — after  they  rose  above  the  grosser 
Phallic  ones  of  Betulia,  and  Baal-Peor  and  his  arks.  It  was  then  they  began  to  call 
their  El  or  Elohim,  Jhavh,  Yahveh,  or  YacAveh,  and  Zabaoth  or  Tsabaoth,  and  became 
pretty  tolerably  pure  Sabeans.  Long  after  this,  however,  the  mass  stuck  to  their 
Matzebahs,  Steli,  Asheras  or  "  Groves,"  and  to  Kiun  or  Kewan  of  their  earlier  days. 
The  Star,  Molok,  Serpent,  and  Shaft,  had  gradually,  but  very  gradually  only,  to  give 
way  to  great  'IA&  as  the  Greeks  very  properly  called  the  later  JHAVH.  Not,  however, 
till  the  sixth,  or  even  fifth  century  B.C.,  diet  the  Jews  form  any  clear  "perception  of  the 
unity  and  omnipresence  of  Jhavh,  or  of  his  being  the  only  God,  and  there  being  "  none 
else  beside  him;"  for  though  Isaiah,  and  Jeremiah,  the  probable  Deuteronomist,  and  one 
or  two  others  use  this  language,  yet  the  dates  of  these  writings  are  now  thrown  back  by 
the  best  scholars  to  about  the  time  of  the  Captivity,  or  a  hundred  years  later,  of  which 
I  will  speak  elsewhere.  The  tribes  were  more  benefitted  by  contact  with  wiser  and 
1  In  Sansk.  Ksham  is  to  "  endure  "  or  "  be  able,"  lience  The  Sun. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  165 

more  civilised  races,  than  by  any  gods  they  took  up  with,  and  in  this  respect  have  been 
like  us  all.  The  clever  writer  of  "  The  Pentateuch  " *  truly  says,  "  The  Keligious  Idea, 
under  whatever  shape  it  has  been  formulated,  even  to  the  latest  and  noblest  Chris 
tianity,  has  only  been  humane  and  beneficent  as  men  have  been  enlightened  and  truly 
civilised."  As  our  education  progresses,  by  travel — reading  out  of,  and  beyond  our  own 
small  grooves,  and  by  mixing  and  arguing  with  all  classes  of  our  fellows,  of  all  other 
nations  and  religions,  so  do  we  gradually  see  the  errors  in  which  we  have  been  brought 
up,  and  far  other  reasons,  for  not  bowing  down  to  Matzebahs  and  Asheras,  than  those 
which  are  said  to  have  actuated  these  little  Jewish  tribes,  as  they  advanced  in  civilisa 
tion.  He  who  will  not  read  save  in  his  own  line  of  thought,  and  will  not  travel,  or  if 
travelling,  sees  all  only  through  his  own  national  spectacles,  and  so  with  a  jaundiced 
eye,  must  remain  ignorant ;  argument  and  evidence  are  of  no  use  with  such  persons, 
but  a  "  new  man," — -the  regeneration  of  the  whole  creature  by  education,  out  of  himself. 

I  will  now  advance  other  arguments  to  prove  that  the  god  of  the  Jewish  ark  was 
a  Phallus  or  sexual  symbol,  by  what  I  termed  "  a  bye-path,"  though  perhaps  not  very 
correctly ;  I  mean  by  accepting  the  word  "  testimony,"  which  is  given  to  us  by  the 
LXX.  translators  in  the  third  century  B.C.  for  the  Hebrew  Eduth.  These  translators 
must  have  had  not  only  great  learning,  but  great  experience  of  all  ancient  Jewish  faiths 
before  their  eyes,  such  as  we  can  now  only  approach  to,  by  a  close  study  of  such  faiths 
where  still  living — that  is  in  Eastern  Asia ;  also,  the  translators  must  have  well  and 
long  considered  this  term  "  testimony "  as  here  applied ;  so  I  address  myself  to 
unravelling  the  ideas  which  induced  them  to  put  the  "  testimony  "  into  an  ark  when 
no  "  laws,"  "  commandments,"  or  "  ordinances"  yet  existed  among  the  wandering  tribes. 
In  doing  this,  I  must  crave  pardon  for  speaking  very  freely,  and  using  language  which 
ought  perhaps  to  be  veiled  in  a  foreign  tongue,  but  which,  after  all,  does  not  make 
matters  more  decent.  I  speak  to  men,  as  I  said  in  my  opening  chapter,  and  we  must 
spare  no  one's  feelings  or  modesty  in  our  endeavours  to  find  out  the  REAL  GOD  OF 
THE  JEWS,  the  GOD  OF  "  THE  ARK  OF  THE  TESTIMONY/'  but  surely  not  of  EUROPE. 

El  or  Yahveh,  and  the  ark-box,  was  the  old  Egyptian  idea  of  the  Light,  and 
Enlightener,  of  Osiris  and  Isis,  Toth  and  Nox,  the  Pyramid  and  the  Box ;  and  there 
is  no  doubt  that  from  Toth  or  Th-o-th  we  gradually  came  to  The-oth,  then  The-os, 
Zeus,  and  Deus.  Toth  was  " all  knowledge"  an  obelisk  of  light  in  every  temple,  in 
which  was  engraved  all  the  wisdom,  faith,  and  hopes  of  the  people ;  and  hence  this 
came  to  be  called  Hermes,  "  personified  wisdom,"  but  also  El  or  Helios,  whose  rays 
enlighten  the  dark  Box — earth  or  ark,  the  womb  on  which  El  acts. 

The  Jewish  ark  carried  within  it  for  long  dark  ages,  two  stones,  which  we  are 
asked  to  believe  were  only  put  there  because  there  was  engraven  on  them  "  all  wisdom" 
concerning  the  social  questions  of  our  hearths  and  homes,  for  which  the  goddess  of  the 
ark — Sophia — has  been  ever  held  famous.  This  is  too  much  to  ask  from  any  one.  It 

1  Scott's  Series,  "  Pentateuch  in  contrast  with  the  Science  and  Moral  Sense  of  our  Age,"  Part  V.,  p.  412. 

1 66  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

is  more  likely  that  the  stones  were  first  put  there  for  their  own  sakes,  just  as  the  obelisk 
was  in  Egypt,  as  representing  a  distinct  Phallic  phase — viz.,  the  worship  of  virile 
power  such  as  we  still  see  in  India,  when  the  devotee  of  Siva's  shrine  reverently 
touches  the  testes  of  the  Nanda  or  Bull,  (the  god's  representative,  which  the  "  testimony  " 
was  in  the  Jewish  shrine)  as  he  enters  upon,  his  worship.  As  the  Jews  advanced  in 
knowledge,  and  we  may  add  modesty,  they  apparently  took  advantage  of  the  presence 
of  the  stones,  as  did  the  Egyptian  of  his  obelisk,  to  write  thereon  their  laws  and 
learning,  social  and  other ;  and  told  their  children  that  this  was  the  original  purpose  of 
the  stones.  Mayhap  the  tale  about  the  destroying  of  the  first  two  stones,  which  would 
be  round,  as  we  see  these  usually  are,  and  not  adapted  for  writing  on,  was  related  to 
after  generations  as  a  blind.  It  was  quite  natural,  as  I  have  shewn,  that  the  ark 
should  be  the  abode  of  a  virile  emblem  of  some  sort ;  and  therefore,  had  the  two  stones 
not  been  mentioned  after  we  had  heard  of  an  Eduth  which  represented  Jahveh  or 
Elohim,  we  might  with  great  reason  have  concluded  that  "  the  Eduth  "  of  Exod.  xvi.  34, 
was  the  Testis,  because  the  old  translators,  considered  "testimony"  a  fit  word  by  which  to 
lead  us  to  understand  what  an  Eduth  meant ;  but  the  after-mention,  and  so  far  on  as  the 
end  of  the  31st  chapter,  precludes  this  idea  I  think,  although  I  speak  with  great  diffi 
dence,  for  it  is  a  noticeable  fact,  that  the  first  two  stones  were  the  gift  of  Elohim — a 
regular  Palla-dium  obtained  direct  from  Jove — and  not  made  nor  graved  by  man  (see 
verse  16),  and  therefore  precisely  what  a  Phallic  worshipper  requires  in  the  case  of  a 
Sri-Linga.  The  throwing  away  of  these  god-made  stones,  and  breaking  them  in  pieces, 
seems  to  mark  a  change  of  faith  from  the  Lingaite  to  the  Yonite ;  and  so  also  the 
violent  grinding  to  pieces  of  the  calf,  or  rather  golden  cone  or  bull.  Great  importance  was 
attached  by  all  Shemites  to  stones  as  emblems  of  virility ;  even  to  the  present  tune,  as 
with  the  Jewish  patriarchs,  oaths  have  been  exacted  on  them,  and  hence  no  doubt  arose 
the  Latin  term  testis,  meaning  a  witness.  So  in  India  no  more  solemn  oath  could  be 
exacted  from  a  Sivaite,  or  probably  any  Hindoo,  than  by  making  him  swear  with  hand 
on  the  testis  of  the  temple  Nanda ;  nor  could  son  or  servant  in  the  eyes  of  all  Easterns, 
give  a  more  enduring  oath  or  pledge,  than  by  acting  as  those  of  Abram's  and  Jacob's 
did.  As  the  leader  of  the  tribes  was  furnished  by  the  god  of  the  tribe  with  two  stones, 
so  does  the  Pope  present  to  the  bishops  of  the  church  two  very  symbolic  loaves  of 
bread,  one  gilt  with  gold  (Ami?),  and  the  other  silvered  (Hea?),  with  the  arms  of 
the  officiating  prelate  and  the  bishop  engraved  on  them,  and  two  tapers.  Picart  at  ii. 
132,  gives  us  a  drawing,  shewing  the  kneeling  recipient  carrying  a  too  emblematic 
flambeau,  and  the  attendant  with  the  two  citron-shaped  loaves.  The  oath  which  the  new 
bishop  takes  is  to  be  faithful  to  Petrus,  alias  the  Tsur  or  Rock  when  he  is  then  married 
to  the  church  with  a  ring,  and  kisses  his  new  love  ;  on  which  day,  like  a  bridegroom, 
he  takes  precedence  of  all  others.  The  bishop's  pastoral  staff  is  blessed  by  the  Petrus 
and  anointed  with  oil ;  it  corresponds  with  Moses'  rod,  the  Lituus  of  the  Augurs,  and 
the  Kaduceus  of  Mercury,  but  it  is  more  Phallic  in  form  than  most  of  these. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  167 

There  is  nothing  new  or  strange  in  our  finding  stones  in  arks,  caves,  or  caverns, 
but,  on  the  contrary,  it  would  be  strange  not  to  find  them  in  such  places.  Most  of 
the  kistvaens  or  karns  and  tumuli  of  our  islands,  have  yielded  white  stones,  and 
usually  in  pairs ;  see  an  account  of  some  of  the  last  opened, 
as  given  by  the  writer  of  the  excellent  article  in  Good  Words 
of  March  1872,  where  is  described  to  us  so  ably  the  Earthen 
Serpent  of  Loch  Nell.  The  same  holds  good  of  existing  caves 
in  India,  where  we  usually  find  either  pyramidal  or  ovate  stones 
in  secret  niches  or  ledges,  if  not  in  the  most  prominent  place  of 
the  cave  or  shrine.  I  give  here  a  drawing  of  a  not  uncommon 
Eastern  holy  cave.  In  the  Loch  Etive  karns,  opened  by  Dr 
Angus  Smith,  writes  Miss  Gordon  Gumming,  "  the  white  stones 
were  arranged  in  pairs,  on  a  ledge  of  rock  projecting  above 
the  urns,  a  single  stone  being  placed  at  each  end  of  this  double  roiv ;  another 
single  ivhite  pebble  was  found  inside  one  of  the  urns!'  ....  "A  considerable 
number  of  similar  pebbles  of  white  quartz  have  recently  been  discovered  in 
various  old  British  tombs,  more  especially  in  those  tumuli  lately  examined  by  Mr 
Phene*  on  the  principal  Isle  of  Cumbrae.  Others  have  been  found  within  the 
Sacred  Circle  on  the  Isle  of  Man  ;  a  circle  which,  from  time  immemorial,  has  been  held 
in  such  reverence,  that  to  this  day  the  parliament  of  the  island  is  there  convened." 
Thus  we  have  in  Kal-IOnia  urns  or  arks  and  dark  adyta,  with  stones  just  as  in 
Indian  shrines  of  this  day.  Further,  we  are  told  that  near  Inverury  at  the  village  of 
Achnagoul,  or  "  Place  of  the  Stranger,"  there  was  lately  "  a  great  oviform  kairn 
opened,  measuring  120  by  30  feet,  and  running  north  and  south;"  and,  says  the  writer 
previously  quoted,  "in  one  of  the  principal  chambers,  there  was  discovered  a 
conical  stone  of  ivhite  quartz,  which  undoubtedly  had  some  connection  with  these  mys 
terious  rites,  being  identical  with  that  discovered  by  Mr  Phene*  at  Letcombe  Castle, 
Berks,  while  a  third  has  been  found  at  Maiden  Castle,  near  Weymouth ;  each  in  con 
nection  with  human  remains.  Precisely  similar  pillars  of  white  quartz  were  found  in 
the  excavations  at  Nineveh,  and  are  now  to  be  seen  in  the  British  Museum.  In  the 
neighbourhood  of  this  great  chambered  tumulus  were  found  various  incised  stones, 
bearing  the  'cup  and  ring'  mark,  precisely  like  those  near  Lochgilphead."  The  "in 
cised  stones  "  convey,  no  doubt,  such  meaning  as  the  learned  author  of  the  Hindoo 
Pantheon  alludes  to  in  the  case  of  incised  trees ;  see  page  69.  We  observe  that 
these  kind  of  stones  are  always  kept  in  dark  adyta  or  arks,  just  as  serpents  are 
kept,  whether  in  Benares,  Phrygia,  or  Syria,  and  the  whole  world  has  known  of  such 
arks,  serpents,  and  stones  ;  so  we  need  not  be  at  all  surprised  at  finding  stones  in  the 
Jewish  Ark,  but  on  the  contrary,  we  should  expect  to  find  them  ;  and  therefore  as  soon 
as  we  hear  of  the  "ark  of  shittim  wood,"  as  a  bond  fide  ark,  and  not  a  mere 
description  of  how  an  ark,  &c.,  is  to  be  made  (such  as  we  see  in  the  plainly  interpo- 

1 68  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

lated  chapters  from  Exodus  xxv.  onwards,  but  rather  in  the  simple  order  for  a  box, 
given  in  Deut.  x.  1),  as  soon  I  say  as  we  hear  of  such  an  ark,  we  also  have  the 
stones  described  as  the  articles  for  which  it  was  made,  or  vice  versa,  for  precedence 
would  be  given  according  to  whether  the  writer  was  an  Arkite  or  Lingaite. 

It  is  becoming  to  write  with  diffidence,  as  I  desire  in  all  I  have  here  said  to  be  under 
stood  to  do;  but  it  would  be  equally  unbecoming,  nay  unmanly,  to  refrain  from  putting 
these  important  points  of  the  God  and  sacred  records  of  Jews  and  Christians  before  my 
countrymen,  as  I  believe  any  intelligent  Brahman,  acquainted  with  the  lore  of  his  own, 
and  the  Jewish  people,  could  do.  He  would  assuredly  see- all  these  tales  concerning 
sacred  stones,  Eduths,  and  arks  as  I  have  tried  to  depict  them.  It  is  unreasonable  to 
suppose  that  a  small  rude  tribe  should  at,  its  first  birth  in  the  deserts  of  Arabia,  be 
able  to  cut  and  grave  stones — not  an  easy  task— with  many  hundreds  of  words,  not  to 
say  write  volumes  of  parchment  or  dried  leather,  laying  down  on  these  intricate  laws, 
rites,  and  ceremonies,  which  mostly  concern  only  settled  peoples  living  in  towns  and 
cities  ;  especially  as  the  very  writers  of  Exodus  do  not  even  pretend  to  say  they  did 
prepare  or  engrave  any  stones  whatsoever,  but  on  the  contrary,  allege  that  they 
never  did  so,  but  that  they  got  them  in  some  mysterious  and  incomprehensible  way  on 
the  summit  of  a  lofty  mountain — ever  held  sacred,  and  inhabited  by  a  fierce  and  fearful 
Deity  or  Demon.  .They  candidly  confess  also,  that  long  years  after  the  scenes  of  Sinai, 
there  was  not  so  much  as  a  smith  in  all  their  settled  territories  in  the  lands  they  had 
seized  and  appropriated  ;  that  they  had  even  to  seek  aid  from  the  rulers  of  the  plains 
and  meads  of  this  land  to  sharpen  their  few  rude  agricultural  implements  ;  and  though 
capable  of  raids — armed,  no  doubt,  with  stones,  and  slings,  and  bludgeons,  or  with  bows 
and  arrows,  pointed  probably  with  hard  wood,  bones,  or  natural  flints  ;  that  yet,  when 
attacked,  they  had  to  "  hide  themselves  away  in  holes  and  caves,  pits,  and  inaccessible 
hills ;  "  that  their  very  deity  could  not  help  them,  even  when  all  were  in  full  armed 
array,  against  a  single  tribe  of  "  a  valley,"  who  had  "  chariots  of  iron  ;  "  seeing  all  this, 
it  is  unreasonable,  I  think,  to  suppose  that  such  a  rude  untutored  tribe  had  any  capa 
bility  of  extensively  graving  stone  tablets,  or  writing  long,  intricate,  and  advanced 
laws  on  religious  rites  and  ceremonies,  as  well  as  on  minute  social  and  political  sub 
jects;  and  able  to  build  or  frame  arks  and  tabernacles  such  as  are  described  in  the  latter 
parts  of  Exodus  ;  nor  is  it  to  be  suppose.d  that  they  had  or  could  comprehend  any  such 
spiritual,  immutable,  and  Almighty  Father  as  Christians  desire  we  should  understand. 
On  the  contrary,  all  the  early  Jewish  writings — divested  here  and  there  of  most  evident 
interpolations  of  a  far  later  period  of  their  history,  when  Hebrews  had  long  served  as 
slaves  and  labourers  amongst  the  great  peoples  around  them,  recall  to  our  minds  many 
tribes  in  the  .East  who  now  live  as  they  did,  disorganised,  brutal,  and  superstitious, 
and.  dependent  for  every  sign  or  symptom  of  culture,  for  every  graving  tool  or  war  im 
plement  among  them,  on  their  raids  upon  their  neighbours,  or  on  their  goodwill  and 

Serpent  and  Phallic 

Let  us  now  go  into  some  details  of  the  word  "  Testimony,"  for  this  is  perhaps  not 
yet  put  so  forcibly  as  it  might  be.  I  mean  the  word  as  it  occurs  in  Exodus  xvi.  34, 
before  any  laws  or  even  altars  were  known,  or  Sinai,  its  God  and  thunder  heard  of. 

This  is  a  most  important  word,  both  in  its  roots  and  derivations,  so  let  us  recur 
to  our  text  and  remember,  that  the  Jewish  ark  is  nothing  by  itself,  but  only  as  "  the  ark 
of  the  testimony"  (Ex.  xxx.  26),  that  is  as  the  Eduth's  dwelling-place  or  abode,  which 
was  ever  and  again  rendered  still  more  holy  by  the  fire  from  heaven  and  the  voice  of  the 
God  speaking  on  it,  "between  the  cherubim,"  which  again  represented  creation,  that  is  the. 
winds  of  heaven  in  the  four  wings 
which  each  cherub  had — two  upper 
and  two  lower,  and  in  the  four  heads 
or  four  seasons.  These  were,  it  has 
been  often  demonstrated/the  zodia-  M 
cal  signs,  viz.,  aquarius,  a  bacchus- 
looking  head,  the  vernal  lamb  or  ram, 
the  solstitial  bull;  and  thirdly  the 
hawk  or  eagle-headed  one,  as  swift 
ness,  wisdom,  and  omnipresence 
soaring  over  all,  and  to  which,  there 
fore,  no  particular  place  is  assigned ; 
see  Ezek.  i.  10.  This  the  learned 
Calmet,  not  understanding,  mourns 
over  (Diet,  of  Bible  Frag.  p.  123); 
but  of  this  more  hereafter.  I  give 
here  one  drawing  of  these  Jewish 
idols,  and  others  will  be  found  fur 
ther  on.  From  the  most  elemen 
tary  dictionaries  we  gather  food  for 
.grave  reflection  in  regard  to  "the  testimony."  Testum,  in  Latin,  is  an  earthen  vessel,  and 
testudo  is  a  tortoise ;  that  old,  old  idea  "  which  sustains  the  world,"  he  who  goes  about 
with  a  covering,  to  and  from  that  "  urn  "  or  "  ostrakon  "  (offrpaxov).  He  not  only  has  a 
carapace,  which  the  ancient  world  loved  to  mark  as  a  sort  of  labyrinth  leading  to  the  holy 
mysteries,  but  that  symbol  peculiar  to  all  male  organs— the  posthe.  Our  lexicons  further 
tell  us  that  the  testudo  was  a  lyre  or  lute,  as  that  on  which  Apollo  played,  mixing  up, 
as  usual,  music  and  love ;  it  is  also  "  an  encysted  tumour,  resembling  a  tortoise  in 
shape."  Testula  was  the  voting  tablet  of  the  Athenians,  and  Cicero  aptly  says 
in  regard  to  invoking  a  testis  or  witness,  "  dii  patrii  ac  penates,  testor,  me  defendere" 
thus  bringing  the  two  deities  curiously  into  conjunction.  To  die  testate  was  to  die  a 
completed  man,  as  intestate  meant  one  who  died  not  having  completed  a  good  citizen's 
duties.  Tester,  English,  and  testa,  Latin,  is  a  covering  or  canopy  over  a  pulpit,  tomb, 

L  Y 

Fig.  01.— CHEKUBIM 

i  jo  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Afan  in  all  Lands. 

or  other  upright  thing,  and  is  now  applied  to  the  covering  over  a  bed.  The  cetacean 
«>r  whale  order  in  zoology,  is  called  testicond,  from  condere  to  hide;  so  the  botanical 
order  of  some  tubers  and  orchids  is  called  testiculate  from  the  prominence  of  ovate 
members,  such  as  I  show  in  page  51  in  speaking  of  Rachel's  mandrakes.  Testudo  was 
also  the  name  given  by  the  Romans  to  the  shield  which  protected  their  warriors,  so  that 
even  here  it  seems  to  convey  the  idea  of  virility  and  manliness,  qualities  which  can  alone 
save  a  people  from  extinction,  and  these  are  held  to  be  gifts  from  Jove,  which  none  can 
produce  or  acquire  by  their  own  aid.  As  Jhavh  gave  the  eduth  or  testimony,  so  did 
lie  give  the  sacred  palladium  or  first  stones  ;  and  everywhere  we  see  him  busying  him 
self  with  the  social  and  domestic  matters  of  his  children ;  the  increase  of  their  families 
and  flocks,  circumcision,  and  such-like  -sexual  matters.  He  was  specially  a  God  of 
oaths  and  covenants,  and  very  remarkable  ones — of  which  a  few  words. 

Abraham  told  his  most  faithful  servant  to  "  swear  by  the  Lord,  the  God  of 
heaven  and  earth,"  by  putting  his  hand  "in  sectione  drcumcisionis  mece,"  according 
to  the  received  orthodox  translation  of  Gen.  xxiv.  2;  see  the  margin  of  Bagster's  Com 
prehensive  Bible.  The  same  reverend  writers  tell  us  that  the  Israelites  as  soon  as 
they  got  quit  of  Gideon  the  Ephod-ite,  or  Yonite,  went  back  to  this  great  "  Lord 
of  the  covenant,"  called  in  Judg.  viii.  33  Baal  Berith;  the  margin  of  this  same 
Bible  tells  us  to  here  read  "  Jupiter  fcederis,  or  Mercury  " — -fcedus  being  "  a  treaty  " 
or  "  agreement,"  which  is  the  orthodox  "  testimony;"  and  also  something  "  ugly  "  and 
"  disgusting."  Jupiter  fcederis  was  the  Roman  deity  who  presided  over  all  treaties  or 
compacts,  and  of  course  was  a  Lingam-god,  just  as  Hermes  and  Brahma  were.  The 
Jewish  covenanter  bled  in  and  for  his  "  covenant-God," — the  God  of  the  "  Testimony," 
and  so  the  Christian  is  said  to  be  sealed  by  the  sanguis  novi  testamenti,  for  it  was  the 
testamentum  drcumcisionis  which  sealed  the  Jew  to  his  Eduth-deity  of  Exod.  xvi.  34. 
The  testament,  says  the  severely  orthodox  Calmet,  "  is  commonly  taken  in  Scrip 
ture  for  covenant."  Yes,  very  commonly,  for  the  later  writers  who  have  given  to  us 
our  present  Bible  speak  of  it  as  "  the  law  of  God,"  by  which  we  may  understand  that 
as  the  race  got  a  literature,  they  drove  out  their  eduth  and  put  in  their  liber,  though 
this  I  think  was  so  slow  a  process  with  all  people,  that  these 
words,  Liber  and  Libra,  the  waterpoise,  the  scales  and  plum 
met,  the  zodiac,  or  solar  dwelling-place,  and  the  licentious 
Bacchus,  have  all  got  inexplicably  mixed  up,  though  in  every 
phase  very  distinctly  partaking  of  an  aphrodisiacal  character.  I 
give  here  Libra  and  his  two  zodiacal  signs  as  we  find  him  com 
monly  represented,  by  merely  copying  from  the  new  Supplement 
Fig.  M.-L.BRA  ou  T,,.  SCALES.  of  our  ^^  Webster's  English  D/ctaowm/.  We  should  notice 
that  the  signs  of  A  res  or  Mars  correspond  with  Libra,  and  are  not,  I  think,  in  character 
much  different.  In  the  root  of  the  word  librarium  we  have  the  meaning  Themis,  justice, 
the  upright  one,  or  right-doer,  and  Hermes ;  and  also,  as  I  before  said,  all  the  roots 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 7 1 

connecting  liber  with  a  book.  Ceres'  daughter,  Proserpine,  was  the  holder  of  the 
"  Balance"  in  the  old  zodiacs,  and  Romans  called  her  Libera;  he,  the  Balance,  being 
Libra ;  so  that  the  idea  of  this  Season  which  Leo  or  Sol  opened  with  his  fires,  was  the 
conjunction  of  the  young  maid  with  Libra,  There  are  more  signs  in  the  zodiac  than 
"  the  Balance,"  which  have  a  very  different  meaning  from  what  is  popularly  supposed. 
As  the  pious  and  orthodox  author  of  Idolomania  says,  "  I  would  rather  not  explain  what 
the  Gemini  mean,"  and  so  he  might  have  said  of  the  two  fish  and  Virgo,  or  mother  Ceres, 
for  they  were  identical.  Egypt  shewed  this  mother  to  be  as  bad  as  her  daughter, 
inasmuch  as,  instead  of  her  daughter's  "  Balance,"  the  elderly  lady  carried  in  her  hand 
the  blue  lotus,  emblem  of  celestial  love,  which  is  frequently  seen  on  the  back  of 
Leo,  and  is  there  addressed,  as  Mr  Maurice  tells  us, — 

"  Child  of  the  sun  !     Why  droops  thy  withering  head, 
While  high  in  Leo  flames  thy  radiant  sire  1 " 

Blue  is  Siva's  colour,  and  Leo  in  flames  is  Siva,  or  the  Lingam,  as  Agni,  god  of 
passion.  To  Ceres,  say  some,  as  the  first  goddess  of  ceremonies  (Cereris-monita?},  we 
owe  the  beginning  of  all  religious  rites.  Let  us  remember,  also,  that  Libra  was  not  in  the 
old  faith  always  separate  from  Virgo  ;  as  in  the  case  of  Christianity,  here  one  disciple 
proved  false  ;  the  Scorpion  merged  in  Virgo,  and  the  claws,  "  bruisers,"  or  "  crushers  " 
became  the  sign  of  Libra  (see  Baldwin's  Pre- Historic  Nations,  p.  118,  and  many 
other  works) ;  and  the  Serpent,  we  may  remember,  is  called  in  Gen.  iii.  15,  he  who  is  to 
"bruise"  Eve  on  the  "  Akab"  mistranslated  heel.  Higgins  shews  us  in  his  Ana- 
calypsis,  that  the  words  liber,  free  (from  "the  solar  ^^  of  Egypt"),  and  liber,  a  book, 
are  indissolubly  connected.  Bookish-men,  or  men  of  Bac,  Boc,  or  Bacchus,  were 
free  from  all  the  laws  which  controlled  others  as  to  peace  or  war,  and  this  has  con 
tinued  down  to  our  time  in  what  is  known  as  "  benefit  of  clergy." 

From  the  Sun  came  Apollo,  who  was  worshipped,  like  lakos,  with  great  shouts 
and  merriment,  for  lako  signifies  in  Greek  "to  make  a  great  noise;"  inasmuch  as  he  is 
I0-Bakoth  and  I0-Triumplie,  the  god  of  triumph  ;  whoever  approached  to  his  proces 
sions  or  to  join  in  his  fetes,  did  so  with  such  exclamations  as  "  Hosannas  to  the 
highest,"  or  "  Save,  oh  save  us,  thou  great  Sun  god  !  "  This  the  Jews  thoroughly  un 
derstood,  and  hence  their  "  feast  of  trumpets,"  with  such  shouts  as  above. 

Let  us,  then,  clearly  understand  that  the  sign  of  "  the  Scales  "  was  by  no  means 
"  the  Balance,"  which  Europe  has  generally  accepted  ;  nor  was  it  a  mere  book  or 
liber,  but  something  more  vitally  connected  with  the  Liber-pater.  If  "justice"  be 
meant  as  his  sign,  it  is  that  which  is  meted  out  by  the  Sun  of  Righteousness  (<5/*a/- 
offiwj),  the  fertilizer,  the  Toth  or  Pillar-god  of  justice — Hermes,  the  base  of  all 
learning  and  civilization,  who  was  also  the  tree-stem  on  which  the  people  always  wrote 
in  Europe  as  well  as  in  Asia,  just  as  the  Egyptian  did  on  his  Toth  or  pillar.  Teutons 
also  danced  and  shouted  round  their  Boko  (bocco)  or  holy  beech,  as  others  did  round 

172  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

their  lakos.  It  was  the  bark  of  the  beech  and  the  birch  which  contained  all  the 
wisdom  of  ancient  Europe;  and  what  in  modern  Latin  is  called  liber,  the  Skands 
and  Kelts  called  Bed  or  Bee, — and  the  Sanskrit  Aryans  their  Ved,  or  what  enlightens 
them.  The  Irish  called  their  letters  by  the  names  of  trees.  Only  the  youth  who  had 
come  of  age  could  have  or  use  this  liber  or  liberty,  and  the  god  was  therefore  called  the 
Liber-Pater  of  all  who  had  just  come  of  age,  and  joyous  were  the  fetes  with  which  he 
welcomed  his  children.  Latterly  his  Bacchanalia  became  so  gross,  that  the  good  sense 
of  the  Roman  people  put  these  down  ;  this  happened  in  186  B.C.,  but  the  Liber  alia 
continued  under  considerable  restrictions,  though  not  severe  enough,  for  we  find  St 
Augustin  describing  the  licentiousness  of  the  festival,  as  in  his  day  (400  A.c.)  some 
thing  very  bad  indeed.  But  this  seems  inherent  to  the  season  of  the  vernal  equinox, 
when  animal  life  in  all  lands  responds,  perhaps  too  demonstratively  to  please  our  civili 
zation  and  sense  of  what  is  proper. 

Wherever  people  were  unable  to  engrave  on  stone,  they  scratched  or  cut, 
especially  on  their  most  holy  trees,  all  that  they  desired  to  express  to  those  following 
after  them,  or  to  show  off  their  feelings  or  learning ;  and  this  spirit  may  have  induced 
the  Jews,  as  time  wore  on,  to  so  engrave  the  stones  which  had  at  first  only  found  a 
place  in  their  arks,  as  the  bull  and  serpent  still  finds  a  place  at  present  in  temples 
representing  the  energies  of  creation.  One  may  often  witness  strange  inscriptions  on 
prominent  or  holy  tree-stems,  when  travelling  through  the  wilds  of  .aboriginal  or  very 
rude  tribes,  as  well  .in  Barma  as  in  India. 

I  always  expected  to  find  that  the  Libra  or   Balance,    and   its   accessories— 

which  we  are  told  were  kept  so  reverently  in  the 
temple  of  Saturn  at  Rome — had  a  Phallic  mean 
ing  ;  and  this  we  see  is  the  case  in  this  beautiful 
design  of  "  a  steelyard "  or  statera,  which  J.  Y. 
gives  us  in  Smith's  Classical  Dictionary  under 
the  head  Trutina,  a  word  signifying  both  Libra 
and  a  balance  or  "weighing-yard"  The  last 
word  reminds  us  that  before  it  came  to 
signify  a  specific  measure,  it  signified  a  baton 
or  rod  (as  that  of  Moses  or  Hermes,  &c.), 
Fig.  G3.-THE  BALANCE,  OK  STATED  OF  THE  CAP™,,  and  was  pronounced  in  Old  Saxon,  gerd  or 
gyrd;  in  Dutch,  gard ;  C.  Gothic,  gazd  or  goad — that  is  "a  thorn  stick"  or 
"  enlivener ;  "  in  Icel.  it  is  a  gaddr,  a  "  club,"  and  closely  related  to  gardr ;  Gothic, 
yards  and  "  garden"  &  private  place  or  yard  around  a  house,  accessible  only  to  the 
lamily ;  Heb.  Gan,  as  in  Gan-Eden.  From  the  term  Trutina  we  can  only  get  the  idea 
of  "a  great  pair  of  weights,  one  good  in  judgment,"  &c.,  but  from  its  equivalent  in 
Hebrew,  bbs,  we  get  back  to  the  old  idea  of  the  "divider,"  "tearer,"  or  "cutter 
asunder,  that  which  breaks  through,  as  lightning  does  the  clouds  "  (Furst) ;  also  "Making 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 73 

firm,"  and  "  establishing,"  which  is  the  hidden  meaning  of  Boaz,  the  left-hand  pillar  of 
Solomon's  temple.  The  Libra  then,  as  seen  in  the  museum  of  the  Capitol,  conspicu 
ously  bears  out  my  surmises,  written  long  ere  I  saw  this,  viz.,  that  the  Liber-god,  is 
Libra,  and  his  real  support  a  Tree  and  Serpent.  Note  that  the  Cock  or  equipoise  here 
is  a  Minerva  with  pyramid  or  the  cone  of  fire  on  head,  as  we  observe  all  Egyptian  women 
have;  though  difficult  to  show  in  this  small  scale,  she  has  in  her  breast  a  babe,  or  gorgori 
as  it  is  usually  called,  denoting  passion.  The  spare  weights  here  seen  lying  at  foot  suggest 
a  Lingam  origin,  and  so  does  the  astronomical  hieroglyph  which  we  have  in  Fig.  62  for 
this  Zodiacal  sign ;  the  horizontal  surface  below  the  Omphi-looking  handle  of 
the  scale  stands,  I  fancy,  for  water,  and  therefore  woman.  The  serpent  coiling  round 
the  tree  stem — ever  the  Phallus,  and  especially  when  reaching  away  outwards,  suspending 
the  balance  of  Life  and  Justice,  is  sufficiently  clear.  We  must  also  remember  that  all 
pendulous  objects  have  not  only  formed  subject  for  joke  and  banter  amongst  mankind 
in  most  nations,  in  all  times,  but  that  the  pendulum,  as  in  the  bell,  &c.,  is  known  as 
the  Phallus,  and  so  also  Tassels  in  architecture  and  otherwise.1  The  results  which 
such  investigations  yield  are  too  important  to  skim  lightly  over. 

Even  taking  the  ordinarily  understood  Bible  term  for  Covenant,  as  Testamentum, 
Greek  Diatheke,  A/ad^,  and  looking  only  to  orthodox  authors  like  Calmet,  we  learn 
that  in  no  part  of  the  Old  Testament  does  the  word  occur  in  this  sense  as  a  "  will "  or 
"  testament/'  But  Diatheke  is  in  Hebrew  Berith  irna,  and  referring  to  Fiirst  we  are 
told  that  it  only  metaphorically  signifies  a  covenant,  as  in  Genesis  xxi.  27,  "from  the 
custom  of  going  between  parts  "  of  that  which  is  cut  for  sacrificial  purposes,  as  spoken 
of  in  Jeremiah  xxxiv.  18.  It  is  "  the  sign  or  media,"  continues  Fiirst,  so  that  we  see  it 
becomes  in  reality  the  symbol  of  the  god,  by  which  those  people,  as  well  as  their  deity, 
made  oaths,  as  in  Acts  vii.  8,  where  it  is  said,  God  made  a  covenant  (dedit  illi  Testamentum 
circumcisionis),  hence  Fiirst  actually  says  the  SIGN  of  the  Covenant  of  Circumcision  is 
Berith,  which  sign  is  a  sacrificial  circle  such  as  envelopes  the  Lingam  !  If  we  investigate 
the  accessories  of  the  covenants  also,  which  were  called  Beriths,  we  see  still  more  the  full 
force  of  the  symbolism,  as  in  this  very  tale  in  Gen.  xxi.,  which  Fiirst  quotes  ;  there 
we  find  every  Sivaik  rite,  a  grove,  or  tree,  and  well,  and  offerings  of  sheep  and  oxen, 
&c.  We  also  see  how  frequently  all  who  had  covenants  tp  make,  had  to  go  to  the 

1  In  Higgins  Anac.  we  learn  that  Tally,  Tolly  engaged  on,  and  we  'must  not  remain  blinded  by 

(Tassel)  is  a  common  Phallic  term  among  boys  in  ignorance  through  a  false  modesty  ;   let   us   know 

the  North  of  England,  which  does  not  seem  so  far  exactly  what  mankind  have  revered  or  worshipped, 

removed  from  the  Hebrew  Al-Tuld,  or  Al-Talad,  and  let  us  remember  that  xvvdog   (Kunthos),  gene- 

and    the   common    Greek   Phales    or    P'ale.       In  rally  written  Cynthus,  is  the  membrum  femineum. 

Hebrew  and  Irish  we  have  nearly  the  same  word  This  was  the  name  of  Latona's  mountain  in  Deel  or 

for  Pudendum,  ma,  Phuth,  and   Phuddh.     Is  not  Delos,    from    whence    Apollo   came.     Kunthos  is 

the  same  meant  in  Basar  or  Miplei  basar  of  the  therefore  called  his  Isle,  and  this  word  agrees  with 

Hebrew1?       See    Job    xli.    14    (iBO^lb)    for   the  similar  Indian  words  meaning  the  same.     Kunti  is 

Basar,   which   was   "  the  word  made   flesh,"    was  the  mother  of  the   Pandoos,  wife  of  the  Sun,  &c.  ; 

the  same  that  was  circumcised.      These  names  are  Kunda  is  a  sacred  cave  or  well ;  Kooa  or  Kua,  is 

of  great  consequence  in  fathoming  the  cults  we  are  a  well. 

174  Rivers  of  Life,  or  FaitJis  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

Covenant  or  Pillar-God.  See  the  ratification  of  the  Covenant  as  related  in  2  Kings 
xxiii.  3,  where  even  the  righteous  reformer  Josiah,  who,  it  is  said,  removed  all  Phallic, 
Sun,  and  Serpent  images  from  the  temple,  stands  by  the  pillar  to  swear  to  "the 
Jhavh,"  who  was  therefore  a  Pillar-God  or  Jupiter-Lapis. 

Thus  "  the  Testimony  "  is  simply  a  sign  or  symbol,  and  so  then  was  the  Eduth. 
Moreover,  it  was  the  same  symbol  as  that  which  dominated  all  over  these  Shemitic 
lands.  Phenicians  also  called  their  god  Elohim  ;  and  the  Bow  with  them  was  also  his 
sign,  as  being  a  heavenly  arc,  and  connected  with  water. 

If  Abraham  made  the  sign  of  his  God  in  circumcision,-  so  did  Jacob  and  Laban, 
in  raising  to  him  "a  heap  of  witness,"  or  a  stone  in  a  karn  or  heap.  This  God,  as  the 
pious  Father  Calmet  points  out  (Fragments,  cxxix.),  is  he  who  "  makes  all  naked  and 
open,"  or  JV/M&  rtTpa%riMgft,iva,  "like  to  Agamemnon's  sword."  "Words  which,"  adds 
the  orthodox  old  writer,  "are  sacrificial  ones  !  "  Need  we  say  more  to  prove  the  kind 
of  deity  the  Jews  honoured  and  symbolized  in  their  Eduth,  and  his  pot  of 
manna,  and  in  Jahveh-Nissi  ?  Further  on  in  their  history  we  find  this  deity  delighting 
in  savage  butchery  ;  in  hecatombs  of  cattle  which  bled  before  him,  and  whose  blood 
and  fat  he  was  supposed  to  "lick  up"  daily,  nay,  hourly.  His  altars  were  mere 
shambles,  and  he  himself  was  constantly  anointed  with  unguents  so  holy,  that  none 
save  Aaron  and  his  sons  were  to  presume  to  use  them ;  nay,  not  even  the  ingredients 
of  these  ointments,  under  penalty  of  death  (Ex.  xxx.  32,  to  end),  and  this  also  in  the 
case  of  his  perfumes  or  incense,  which  Moses  and  others  ever  offered  before  him  in  a 
manner  which  is  disgustingly  familiar  to  all  of  us  who  have  so  constantly  wit 
nessed  the  operations  in  the  shrines  of  India.  The  priest,  the  king,  and  the  deity  are  all 
thus  anointed  in  many  lands,  and  indeed  with  such  words  as  Israelites  and  cognate  tribes 
used,  viz.,  "  God  anoint  thee  with  the  oil  of  gladness  above  thy  fellows."  Moore,  in  his 
Oriental  Fragments  (page  133  et  seq.),  gives  us  some  amusing  notes  on  the  coronation 
of  our  last  King  William  and  Queen  Adelaide,  quoting  the  facts  from  the  London 
Times.  It  appears  that  both  their  majesties  were  anointed  from  "  la  Saint  e  Ampoule" 
which  vessel  \vas  in  the  form  of  an  eagle  with  outspread  wings  (Jove),  through  whose 
mouth  (Pi  or  Phy)  the  oleo  santo  flowed  into  a  spoon — (query,  Argha),  "curiously 
ornamented."  Three  swords  and  three  wedges  of  gold  were  carried  before  their 
majesties,  so  that  truly,  as  Moore  saysr  "Lingams  were  offered  by  the  king"  to  the 
gods,  priests,  or  people  ;  and  rings  with  ruby  stones  were  selected  and  bestowed,  and 
the  king  kissed  the  priests,  and  then  his  nobles — regarding  all  of  which  The  Times 
indignantly  says  :  "  Why  this  fuss  with  palls  and  ingots,  spurs  and  swords,  and  oil  for 
anointing  (greasing)  their  sacred  majesties,  and  whipping  on  and  off  of  mantles  ? " 
The  reply  is  simple.  The  old  faith  is  in  the  old  rite,  and  rulers  require  to  be  careful 
in  standing  upon  old  rules,  faiths  and  ceremonies,  else  old  laws  might  declare  the 
whole  illegal,  and  it  might  be  difficult  to  get  new  laws  passed,  authorising  kings  and 
coronations.  On  this  occasion  the  prayers,  it  is  said,  were  those  used  at  Queen 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 75 

Judith's  coronation  in  856  A.C.,  and  the  ampulla  was  after  the  pattern  of  the  one  used 
in  anointing  Clovis,  the  first  Christian  King  of  France,  regarding  which  Dr  Middleton 
writes  (Mis.  Works,  i.  361,  quoted  by  Moore):  "This  vial  is  said  to  have  been 
brought  from  heaven  by  a  dove  (lOna  ?)  for  the  baptismal  unction  of  Clovis,  .  .  .  and 
dropped  into  the  hands  of  Saint  Remigius,  then  Bishop  of  Rheims,  about  the  end  of 
the  fifth  century,  where  it  has  ever  since  been  preserved.  .  .  .  Its  descent  is  said  to 
be  confirmed  by  this  miracle,  viz.,  that  as  soon  as  the  coronation  is  over,  the  oil  in  the 
vial  begins  to  waste  and  vanish,  but  is  constantly  renewed  of  itself  for  the  service  of 
each  coronation."  Mark  that  this  oil-vase  or  ampulla  is,  like  the  Eduth  and  the  first  holy 
stones,  and  all  holy  books  and  Palladiums,  received  direct  from  Jove,  and,  like  Apollo, 
this  oil  or  holy  water  is  also  "  ever  young,"  and  never  failing ;  it  is  fecundative 
energy.  In  regard  to  "  the  palls  and  whipping  on  and  off  of  mantles,"  which  Tlie 
Times  indignantly  relates,  we  see  the  remnant  of  a  very  old  faith.  As  Moore  says, 
"  the  Pallium  was  an  old  and  most  mystical  thing,  an  essential  part  of  a  Bishop,  sent 
or  given  by  the  Pope  with  much  ceremony  and  cost,  both  at  episcopal  consecration 
and  translation.  The  Bishop  could  not  wear  the  same  Pallium  at  two  Sees,  and  it 
was  buried  with  him."  The  monk's  cowl  was  his  pall,  and  Asyrian  kings  were  Pals 
or  Asliers,  but  regarding  this  more  will  appear  further  on ;  for  Ps,  not  to  say  Pals, 
are  suspicious  subjects,  and  these  strange  customs  were  not  idly  instituted. 

Whilst  sending  this  to  press,  I  observed  in  the  London  Athenaeum  of  12th  Sept. 
1874  some  notes  on  the  labours  of  the  Palestine  Ordinance  Surveyors,  which  speak  of 
the  old  faiths  of  Syria  and  Moab,  regarding  which  I  wish  here  to  make  a  few  remarks. 
Nob  is  called,  in  the  Old  Testament,  the  city  of  the  priests,  and  is  constantly 
mentioned  in  connection  with  Ramoth  (Er-Ram),  Anatoth,  Gibeon,  or  El- Jib. 
Isaiah  says  the  Asyrian  army  will  rest  at  Nob,  and  "  shake  his  hand  against  the 
mount  of  the  daughter  of  Zion"  (x.  32),  showing  the  popular  idea  that  the  rounded 
mound  of  Zion  was  an  Omphi,  whilst  the  holy  "  Nob  or  Neb,"  a  lofty  white  peak,  was 
only  holy  as  a  Lingam.  It  was  "  a  great  altar  to  see  to"  (Jos.  xxii.  10),  that  is  a 
lofty  "Ed"  (verse  34),  or  "a  witness,  testis  or  testimony,"  that  is,  Eduth  :  it  was  a 
"stone''  or  "great  stone,"  specially  stated  not  to  be  an  altar  for  burnt  offerings  or 
sacrifices.  No  doubt  the  Ed  was  Neb  El,  or  the  God  of  the  conical  hill,  but  the  Hebrew 
might  by  :a  mean  merely  "  a  high  place,"  such  as  the  "  high  place  of  Gibeon," 
where  Solomon  sacrificed  in  a  tabernacle — "  still,"  say  the  Palestine  Ordinance  Sur 
veyors,  "  existing  there,"  which  is  not  in  the  least  wonderful,  as  the  date  at  which 
tribes  with  arks  have  here  worshipped,  is  by  no  means  so  very  ancient.  These  faiths 
only  perished  nationally  on  the  rise  of  Islamism,  and  the  symbolisms  and  customs  of 
Solo-Phallic  Worship,  have  no  more  departed  from  Western  Asia  than  these  have  from 
Eastern.  The  explorers  say  that  the  Ed  on  the  Peak  or  Neb  (this  is  the  Danish  ;  in 
Saxon  and  Dutch,  Nebbe)  is  still  an  immense  monument  of  fine  masonry.  The  Arabs 
call  the  mountain  'Ayd,  which  is  the  Hebrew  Ed.  Can  it  be  related  to  our  Ed-uth  ? 

176  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  "  Tabernacle  "  was  supposed  to  have  remained  in  Nob  and  Gibea  (a  hill),  on  two 
occasions,  and  the  surveyors  now  tell  us  that  a  platform  suitable  for  it  adjoins  the  Nob 
or  Ed,  "  which  seems  to  have  been  made  for  it."  All  the  same,  we  have  no  authority 
for  saying  that  the  Jewish  tribes  then  had  a  "  tabernacle  "  nor  anything  probably,  save 
the  small  box  of  Deut.  x.  1.  Mount  Neb  or  Nebo  was  apparently  Mount  Peor  or 
Priapus ;  or  else  these  two  holy  cones,  because  so  closely  adjoining  each  other,  were 
called  indifferently  NEB  or  PEOR.  The  explorers  seem  to  be  of  this  opinion.  Some1 
persons  allege  that  Nob  is  from  OB,  the  serpent,  or  sun-hill,  which  would  also  embrace  the 
term  Pi-or.  Later  intelligence  from  the  American  Exploration  Society  tells  us  that  one 
of  the  names  of  Jabel  Neba  or  Nebo,  is  Siaghah,  which  Professor  Paine  reads  Pisgah ;  the 
explorers  fixing  on  this  high  peak  principally  because  it  gives  most  of  the  view  which 
Moses  was  said  to  have  seen  from  it,  viz.,  from  Dan  to  Negeb.1  What  is  of  more  con 
sequence,  and  likely  to  give  a  truer  result  as  to  the  ancient  faith  of  these  parts  is  the 
fact  which  the  explorers  tell  us,  of  all  the  hills  having  abundant  cromlechs  or  hermi. 
On  the  southern  portion  of  this  Nebo  is,  they  write,  a  truncated  cone  of  small  stones, 
130  feet  in  diameter  and  25  feet  high.  Cromlechs  abound,  have  broad,  flat  stones,  but 
"  not  a  sign  of  hewing  or  preparation  beyond  the  rough  straightening  of  edges  can  be 
found  about  the  stones,  nor  any  trace  of  letters."  The  ruins  of  a  large  temple  were 
found  on  the  summits  of  Jabel  Siaghah,  "  or,  as  Professor  Paine  says,  Beth-Peor,  our 
Ob  or  Nob.  In  Hebrew,  Ob,  Ab,  Aub,  Oub,  Oph,  Op,  Eph,  Ev  are  all  from  the  root 
2K  Ab,  or  31K  Aub,  which  signifies  inflare,  and  is  therefore  applied  to  the  inflating  and 
irritated  or  irritating  one.  In  the  LXX.,  says  the  Kev.  Mr  Deane,  in  his  Worship  of 
the  Serpent,  p.  81,  nik  is  rendered  "  one  who  speaks  from  his  belli/,  which  is  the  Greek 
notion  of  inflation  or  a  familiar  spirit  ; "  the  italics  are  those  of  the  reverend  writer, 
and  require  no  comment,  being  much  nearer  the  mark  than  much  else  that  the 
orthodox  gentleman  states  in  his  nevertheless  most  excellent  volume.  We  see  the 
force  of  the  italicised  words  when  we  remember,  that  in  the  rites  of  Mithras  as  well  as 
"  the  mysteries  of  Sebazius,  a  serpent  was  thrown  into  the  bosom  of  the  initiated,  and 
taken  out  at  the  lower  end  of  his  garments,"  as  Mr  Deane  relates,  attaching  much 
importance  to  the  fact  (p.  49)  ;  "initiation,"  we  should  remember,  is  our  "confirma 
tion,"  or  coming  of  age,"  when  the  sacred  serpent-thread  of  the  Hindoo  should 
be  able  to  reach  from  bosom  to  "thigh."  Aub  is  also  the  "familiar  spirit," 
for  dealing  with  which  a  Jew  was  to  be  put  to  death,  according  to  Lev.  xx. 
27  and  Deut.  xviii.  11  ;  and  as  we  know  what  an  important  part  of  Ophiolatry 
this  divining  by  Serpents  was,  the  Serpent  being  a  "  fascinator "  and  "  persuader," 
so  we  see  in  the  condemnation  by  these  books,  which  date  from  the  sixth  or 
seventh  century  B.C.,  the  probable  decline  of  our  third  faith  among  Jews  at 
this  •  period.  The  Rev.  J.  B.  Deane,  in  writing  of  serpent-worship,  makes  this 
dearer  when  he  assures  us  that  the  reading  of  the  LXX.  here  should  be,  that 

1  Siaghah  or  Pisgah  is  2300  feet  high,  and  near  it  is  Muskar,   2 GOO  feet,  and  Neba,  2700  feet. 
Pisgah  may  be  Phasga,  Phogor,  or  Phegor,  i.e.,  Priapus  ;  in  Irish  Ferragh. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  1 77 

whoever  "  is  an  Ob"  or  "  priest  of  Ob,"  or  "  consulter  of  the  priests  of  Ob,"  should  be 
put  to  death  (p.  84).  She  whom  we  usually  call  the  witch  of  Endor,  he  says,  was 
really  "  a  priestess"  of  the  old  faith  of  the  country  and  tribes,  or  of  Ob;  Ab  or  Pethen. 
Sankoniathon  tells  us  that  "  the  son  of  Thabion  was  the  first  hierophant  of  Phenicia," 
and  son  may  stand  for  priest  ;  whilst  the  name  may  be  analyzed,  says  Mr  Deane,  into 
Th  =  God,  Ab  =  Serpent,  and  Ion  =  Sun,  making  the  whole  the  serpent-solar-god. 
In  Ab  we  have  the  ^6a-father,  and  in  Ion,  no  doubt  Jah.  As  we  investigate  the  faith 
of  the  early  Syrian  tribes,  whom  the  Jewish  writings  mention  as  in  the  land  before 
them,  we  find  Sankoniathon's  remarks  regarding  them  true ;  and  here  also  the  Rev. 
Mr  Deane  aids  us,  requiring  us  again  and  again  to  recur  to  the  root  op ,  and  those 
words  which  gave  to  the  Greeks  *op/c. 

The  learned  and  orthodox  Gale,  in  his  Court  of  the  Gentiles,'*-  identifies  Kadmus 
and  Hivites,  and  tells  us  that  from  Belus  sprang  Phenix  or  j^a,  the  father  of  Kadmus, 
which  signifies,  he  says,  in  the  Phenician  tongue,  "  oriental"  (I.  38),  as  does  Hivite  a 
"  serpent,  in  the  Syrian,"  K^n.  He  agrees  with  Bochart,  that  the  Hivites  lived  on 
Mount  Hermon,  and  were  also  "called  Kadmites,  i.e.  orientals,  Gen.  xv.  19." 
Kadmus  married,  we  know,  Harmonia  or  Hermione,  that  is  "  both  were  turned  into 
serpents;"  and  in  Josh.  xi.  19,  we  are  told  the  Jews  thoroughly  fraternized  with  Hivites, 
and  therefore  also  with  their  brethren  the  Gibeonites  and  Shechemites,  or  those  holders 
of  the  sacred  Mounts  of  Gerizim  and  Ebal,  the  southern  extremity  of  that  very  holy 
range,  which  culminates  in  the  cone  of  high  Hermon,  some  eighteen  miles  E.S.E.  of 
Sidon.  From  Judg.  iii.  3,  as  well  as  Bochart  and  Gale,  we  are  to  conclude  that  all 
Hivites  and  Kadmonites,  therefore  "  Canaanites "  were  Hermonites,  and  therefore 
worshippers  of  Serpents  and  holy  Conical  Mountains ;  that  is,  were  true  followers  of  our 
first  four,  and  latterly  of  our  fifth  and  sixth  streams  of  faiths. 

The  complete  fraternisation  of  the  Jews  with  Hivites,  Canaanites,  Hittites,  Amorites, 
and  such  true  Phallic  and  solar  worshipping  races  is  very  clear  from  Judges  iii.  and  on 
wards,  although  little  divertissements  are  introduced,  showing  how  the  good  writer  winces 
•under  what  he  is  nevertheless  compelled  to  acknowledge.  No  dagger  of  the  assassin 
Ehud,  nor  voice  of  the  songstress  Deborah  could  charm  a  whole  people  out  of  all  the 
ways,  thoughts,  and  hopes  of  their  lives,  for  reformations  are  matters  of  centuries ;  not 
to  say  make  them  disown  their  wives  and  families,  for  we  read  that  the  Israelites 
married  and  intermarried  with  all  the  peoples  "  from  Mount  Baal-Hermon  unto  the 
entering  in  of  Hamoth  "  (Ham  or  Amonsland),  and  "  served  their  gods,"  that  is  be 
came  Ophites  =  Hivites  =  Evites  — -  Ephites,  from  root  Eph  or  Ev  variant  of  ns  Aub, 
and  evidently  sincere  Serpent  and  Mount-worshippers,  in  this  pre-eminently  serpent- 
loving  land.  We  know  also  that  they  kept  up  their  faith  till  Hezekiah,  some  700 
years  after,  destroyed  the  god's  symbol,  and  abusively  called  it  Nehushtan  or  "a 
piece  of  brass  "  (2  Kings  xviii.  4),  an  act  which  evidently  hastened  the  fall  and 

1  Printed  by  Hall,  Oxon.,  1669,  in  two  parts.' 
I.  Z 

178  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Alan  in  all  Lands. 

misfortunes  of  the  tribes,  as  I  will  further  on  more  fully  show.  Very  shortly  after  this 
the  nation  fell,  never  again  to  rise  into  a  kingdom  if  they  ever  before  gained  this  rank. 
It  seems  most  probable  that  some  insults  to  the  dominant  faiths  of  all  the  great  nations 
of  Western  Asia,  by  this  obscure  little  hill  tribe,  may  have  tended  to  their  destruction, 
for  great  kings,  whatever  they  may  personally  think,  do  not  like  to  have  firebrands 
cast  into  their  midst,  which  most  religious  questions  or  reformations  are. 

Let  us  look  for  a  moment  at  the  important  phase  of  Ophiolatry,  "  Divination 
by  Serpents."  We  read  that  Helenus  and  Cassandra  by  means  of  serpents 
were  able  to  see  into  the  future  ;  the  serpent,  it  is  stiid,  "  cleansed  the  pass 
ages  of  their  senses  by  their  tongues ; "  and,  adds  the  "  scholiast  on  Euripid,  .  .  . 
serpents  approaching  licked  their  ears  and  made  them  so  sharp  of  hearing  that  they 
alone  among  all  men  could  understand  the  councils  of  the  gods  and  became  very 
excellent  prophets."  *  The  narrator  of  the  gospel  tale  of  Christ  giving  sight  to  the 
blind,  seems  to  have  borrowed  the  process  from  the  example  of  the  serpents  who  cured 
the  blind  Plutus ;  for  Aristophanes  says,  they  licked  his  eyelids  and  his  sight  became  at 
once  "  more  than  humanly  acute."  2  The  Paracce  (sic),  says  Philostratus,  ate  serpents' 
flesh  and  thus  understood  the  languages  of  the  brute  creation;  by  eating  the  heart  and 
liver  "  they  understood  their  thoughts."  It  is  the  erect  serpent-rod  of  Mercury  which 
conducts  mankind  to  hell ;  Ceres  went  thither  drawn  by  serpents ;  and  the  reptile's  bite 
sent  Eurydike  to  hell.  Was  not  Cerberus  the  watch-dog  of  that  very  hot  place  almost 
a  serpent  ?  He  had  "  a  dragon's  tail,  and  a  skin  studded  with  serpents'  heads,"  says 
Apollodorus;  and  looking  from  "  the  fathomless  abyss  up  to  the  realms  of  eternal  light," 
what  do  we  see  ?  Still  a  serpent !  For  yonder  is  Khea  or  Ops  the  serpent,  deceiving 
her  Lord  by  giving  him  a  Stone  (Betulus)  to  devour,  called  the  "  Ab-ad-ir  or  SERPENT 
DOMINUS  SOL,"  instead  of  his  offspring:  in  which  tale  we  possibly  see  the  origin  of  the 
gospel-saying  in  regard  to  the  Stone,  the  bread,  and  the  serpent.3  This  Abadir  Stone 
was  indeed  a  serpent  and  sun-stone,  for  it  was  a  Lingam,  and  it  "  assumed  a  CONICAL 
figure," 4  so  that  Saturn  took  to  consuming  his  own  strength,  which  is  the  case  with 
the  midsummer  sun,  when  all  the  crops,  as  in  the  tropics,  have  been  by  that  time 
reaped ;  when  the  sun  may  indeed  be  said  to  consume  himself  on  bare  fields,  and 
pastures,  and  desolate,  and  almost  leafless  forests,  having  nought  but  hard,  parched 
soils,  and  naked  rocks  and  stones,  from  'off  which  his  fierce  heats  have  eaten  away  all 

In  all  lands  and  faiths  the  serpent  is  he  who  gives  knowledge.  In  Eden  as  well  as 
in  the  Punjab  it  is  shown  that  nag  as  or  TaJc  Shaks  bring  in  learning  ;  it  is  a  very 
doubtful  matter  if  we  can  say  as  much  for  the  pious  prophets  of  mankind.  Boodha  and 
Confucius,  as  philosophers,  are  exceptions,  and  must  rank  before  Thales,  Pythagoras, 

1  Bochart,  quoted  by  Deane,  336.  -  Spanheim,  212. 

3  The  bishop  or  head  of  the  Christian  Church  of  Abysinia  is  styled  Ab-un,  which  is  I  suspect  derive.! 
from  a  serpent ;  it  looks  very  like  Afi  or  OB-ON  i\\Q  Serpent-Sun. 

4  Serpont  Worship,  340. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  179 

and  other  wise  ones  of  earth ;  but  pure  pietists  like  Rama,  Sakya,  Christ,  and 
Mahomed,  rather  brought  in  turmoil,  bloodshed,  and  misery,  than  joy,  peace,  and 
learning ;  nor  was  the  misery  assuaged,  until  scared-away  philosophy  and  science  re 
turned,  to  damp  the  irritable  and  inflammatory  matter  which  had  been  aroused  ;  and  it 
seems  as  if  all  dogmas  founded  on  superstitions,  or  the  marvellous  and  incompre 
hensible,  and  carrying  strong  cursings  or  anathemas  against  all  who  oppose  them  or 
introduce  learning  at  variance  with  them,  must  have  this  retarding  and  injurious  effect 
upon  us.  If  so,  it  becomes  our  duty  to  repress  all  superstitions  and  "  mysteries  ;" 
assured,  that  when  these  disappear,  turmoil,  misery,  and  crime  will  also  fly  away. 

Colonel  Tod  writes *  that  the  serpent  of  Boodha  possessed  all  science  and  pure 
religion,  which  Krishna  as  an  Eagle  had  to  fly  far  and  wide  to  obtain  from  Boodha. 
Christians  say  that  Mahomed  flung  the  world  back  many  centuries,  especially  in 
Asia  ;  but  Mahomedans  rightly  repel  this  as  a  slander. 

Let  me  here  make  a  few  remarks  upon  that  good,  because  necessary  feature  in 
the  Jews — common  to  us  all,  viz.,  the  continual  changing  of  their  ideas  of  God  as  they 
advanced  in  intelligence.  Jews  for  ages  clung  to  the  stone  which  they  said  their 
patriarch  Jacob  set  up,  and  which  they  removed  to  Jerusalem.  The  houses  of  their 
gods  were  Beth-els  (literally  houses  of  El),  and  all  over  Syria,  and  indeed  Asia  Minor, 
Sivaik  Shrines  were  known  as  Betuli,  that  is  Lingams,  or  Maha-Devas.  According 
to  Lewis  and  the  learned  Bochart,  the  Phenicians  were  the  first  worshippers  and 
anointers  of  Betyls.  During  this  rage  for  Lingam-worship,  the  southern  tribes 
condemned  Yonism,  or  as  they  called  it  Dove-worship,  by  their  kinsmen  the 
Samaritans  on  Mount  Gerizim.  Maimonides  disliked  the  worship  of  Ba-al-Peor,  which 
lie  said  (but  I  think  ignorantly)  "  consisted  of  exhibitions  of  the  Yoni  to  him,"  for  1 
find  that  the  worship  was  that  common  in  the  east.  St  Jerome  said,  "  it  (Peor)  was 
principally  worshipped  by  women" — "  Colentibus  maxime  fceminis  Baal  Phegor  ob 
obsceni  magnitudinem  quern  nos  priapum  possumus  appellare."  2 

We  have  lost  much  of  the  true  worship  of  the  Jewish  tribes,  from  the  various 
destructions  of  their  records';  but  above  all  from  that  weeding  out  of  gross,  degrading, 
and  objective  features  of  their  early  worship,  which  necessitated  the  obscuring,  if  not 
blotting  out,  not  only  every  term  or  sentence  which  showed  the  "  image  "  of  a  God — a 
feature  forbidden  in  their  faith,  about  perhaps  the  time  of  David,  though  little 
attended  to  till  the  fifth  century  B.C.,  but  also  the  obscuring  of  everything  too  anthro 
pomorphic  for  the  advanced  ideas  of  the  third  century,  when  their  "  shreds  and  scraps 
of  leather  "-literature,  began  to  be  gathered  together,  and  took  a  form  which  seemed  to 
consolidate  the  people  and  make  them  a  nation. 

I  long  since  came  to  the  opinion,  to  which  every  student  of  Asiatic  faiths  must 
come,  and  which  I  am  glad  to  say  Bishop  Colenso  has  now  thoroughly  established  as 
correct,  that  the  worship  of  the  Jews  was  precisely  that  of  the  people  amongst  whom  they 

1  Rajasthan,  I.  537.  2  Sellon's  "  Hindoo  Annotations,"  p.  27. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

dwelt,  and  that  the  only  God  they  knew  of  in  Arabia,  or  until  they  got  into  Canaan, 
was  El-Elohe  or  Elohim,  after  which  they  adopted  the  God  Yachveh  of  the 
Phenicians,  calling  him  Yahveh,  Jahveh,  or  Jhavh  or  Jhuh,  which  perhaps  was  the 
reason  their  Arabian  brethren  called  them  Jews.  This  change  did  not,  however, 
apparently  take  place  for  many  centuries  after  the  era  which  we  are  asked  to  accept  as 
that  of  the  mythical  Moses  (1490  B.C.).  It  seems  most  probable  that  the  tribes  of  II, 
that  is,  "  Is-Ra-El"  remained  true  to  El  and  Arkite,  or  the  more  gross  forms  of 
Phallic  faith,  until  the  period  of  full  contact  with  the  great  Solar-worshipping  nations 
on  their  east,  viz:,  the  eighth  century  B.C.,  as  the  period  treated  of  in  2  Kings  xvii. 
There  we  are  told  that  the  King  of  Asyria  sent  men,  no  doubt  priests,  from  the  strong 
holds  of  Sun-worship,  Ham-ath,  Kootha,  and  Sepharvaim,  all  words  which  taken  in 
syllables  or  together  signify  the  sun.  A  priest  of  El  or  of  Beth-el  went  up  to  try  and 
stop  the  defection,  but  it  was  of  no  use,  see  verse  29th  and  onward,  for  they  feared  not 
the  Lord,  who  had  "  named  Jacob,  Is-ra-el "  or  a  son  of  El.  Of  course  the  change 
had  begun  long  before  then,  but  this  was  probably  the  final  flicker  of  the  national 
worship  of  El. 

Dr  Inman  gives  this  subject  much  learned  criticism  in  chapter  x.  of  Vol  I.  Ancient 
Faiths,  and  here  I  mean  only  to  point  the  young  reader's  attention  to  it,  for  I  do  not 
write  here  for  the  learned,  but  only  the  ordinary  orthodox  public.  Any  cursory  reader 
will  observe  that  in  Samuel's  time  there  was  a  very  apparent  change  in  nomenclature  : 
Terminations  ending  in  El  are  less  frequent,  giving  place  to  Al,  Ar,  Ah,  Jah  and 
Ja  ;  whilst  Shams  and  Shemish  or  Esh — denoting  a  solar  deity,  then  constantly  appear. 
This  may  be  shown  in  juxta-position  thus  : — 

Micha-^/  (who  is  like  God). 

Ur-i-El  (Fire  of  God). 



El-Shemesh  (The  Sun  is  El). 



Araka-El  (The  Marshal  of  God). 
Gabri-.£7  (strength  of  God). 

Jr-Shemesh  (City  of  the  Sun). 



Ram-i-El  (Son  of  God). 

Abdi-£l  (Servant  of  God) 



JEn-S/temish  (Fountain  of  S.). 


Ab-deus  (Tyrian). 

These  names  have  visibly  gravitated  towards  the  Greek  I  AH,  (which  the  Hebrews 
preferred  pronouncing,  1AOU) ;  he  who  was  Hades  in  winter,  Apollo  and  Zeus  in 
early  summer,  Helios  in  the  heats,  and  "  loved  IAO  or  AD-ION  A  or  Adonis"  in  har 
vest.  This  subject  will  be  found  well  worked  up  in  Bishop  Colenso's  excellent  Lecture  IV. 
on  the  Pentateuch ;  see  also  the  nomenclature  as  developed  in  Judges  ii.,  iii.  and  vi. 
All  the  above  words  if  analysed,  would  lead  to  very  important  results  which  I  cannot, 
however  here  dwell  upon.  Most  of  my  readers  probably  know  that  ADONIA  vnx 
usually  translated  "  Jehovah  "  or  Lord,  is  the  Phenician  GOD  OP  LOVE,  and  in  Hebrew 
signifies  "  a  pillar,"  that  is  Toth  or  the  Jewish  Seth ;  see  Leigh's  Hebrew  Lexicon.  But 

Serpent  and  Phallic  IV or  skip. 


I  must  not  anticipate  all  my  chapter  on  Judean  Faiths  ;  I  only  here  wish  to  establish  the 
facts  of  the  so-called  Israelites  being  like  all  the  tribes  and  nations  of  ancient  times, 
and  indeed  more  than  three-fourths  of  all  on  earth  even  at  the  present  time,  ad 
dicted  to  the  practice  of  Phallic  or  of  highly  sensual  solar  faiths.  The  Jews  are  indeed 
one  of  the  very  last  western  peoples  who  had  a  temple  built  over  an  unhewn  natural 
rock  or  "  Parvati,"  as  we  in  India 
would  call  this.  I  give  here  an 
outline  sketch  of  the  shrine  over 
the  holy  rock,  which  Mr  W.  Simp 
son,  the  well-known  artist,  has 
kindly  sketched  for  me.  I  neg 
lected  to  do  this,  or  even  consider 
the  subject,  when  I  visited  Jeru 
salem  now  many  years  ago,  being 
unaware  then  of  the  very  ancient 
faith  it  pourtrayed,  and  its  extreme 

From  this  sketch  which  shows 
all  in  relative  proportions,  it  is 
difficult  to  realise  the  effect  of  a 
great,  rough,  ugly  and  unhewn  rock, 
rising  up  in  the  very  midst  of  a 
beautiful  temple;  so  will  my  readers 
try  to  imagine  for  themselves  the  Fi«- 64- 
effect  of  seeing  such  a  primeval  production  several  feet  high,  with  a  well  and  dark  cave 
below  it,  in  the  very  centre  of  St  Peter's  or  St  Paul's ;  or  still  better,  exaggerate  the  idea, 
and  suppose  it  a  score  of  feet  high,  and  they  will  then  perhaps  appreciate  more  clearly 
and  forcibly  the  real  faith  meant  to  be  pourtrayed,  and  here  still  asserting  its  intense 
endurance  and  obstinacy.  It  is  of  course  the  same  faith  as  that  which  for  many  long 
centuries  has  prevailed  all  over  the  parent  land  of  the  Syrian  tribes,  and  which  still 
sits  in  theMekan  Shrine;  but  the  male  or  right  hand  phase,  the  Siva  is  there,  and  the 
Sivi  here  ;  for  the  place  of  the  ark  was,  say  some,  over  the  top  of  the  sacred  rock  of  the 
temple,  now  still  covered  by  a  noble  dome. 

Both  Jews  and  Mahomedans  thought  their  own  shrine  the  centre  or  "  navel  of 
the  earth;"  and  for  a  long  time  Mahomed  could  not  make  up  his  mind  which  to  select, 
the  Argha  or  Akros  of  Hierosolyma,  or  "  the  black  stone  "  of  Abraham  in  the  Al-ka- 
ba ;  he  abhorred  the  idolatry  of  the  laud  of  Syria  however,  and  this  with  his  native 
Arabian  love  for  the  free  desert  of  his  youth,  determined  him  to  choose  the  latter. 
We  see  in  this  holy  Jewish  shrine  one  of  the  oldest  features  of  the  Phallic  Faith 
—viz.,  that  of  the  Cave  and  holy  covered  well,  which  no  one  may  see  into  ;  and  it  is 


1 82  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

believed  that  pure  water  exists  here,  though  the  highest  point  of  the  hilly  range. 
The  mass  above  the  well — the  Yoni  or  womb,  is  of  course  the  Umbo  or  "Ovpig,  the  oracle 
or  Pi  of  Am  or  Ham: — the  sun  or  heat ;  and  the  whole,  "  the  Omphalos  of  the  earth." 
Plutarch  in  his  Is.  ct.  Osir.  42,  tells  us  that  Omphis  was  an  Egyptian  deity  Euergetis 
'  Evtpyins,  or  Benefactress ;  and  we  know  that  anciently  all  such  spots  were  called 
Har-Al-Ompi,  which  Greeks  called  for  brevity  Al-Ompi,  or  "oxv^os;  Delphi  was  such  a 
place,  and  called  Omphi-El,  or  umbilicus  of  the  world.  Temples  built  on  such 
spots  were  often  called  Prutaneia  or  Puratheia,  and  had  a  tumulus  or  high  altar 
for  fire  rites,  for  Siva  or  the  Sun  is  nothing  separated  from  Agni. 

I  wish  my  readers  very  clearly  to  understand  what  we  have  here  on  this  Jeru 
salem  Omphi — Moriah,  or  Meroo,  now  surmounted  by  what  Europeans  call  the  Mosk  of 
Omar.  The  proper  name  for  this  fine  building  is  Kabet-Es-Sakra,  usually  translated 
the  Dome  of  the  Rock,  but  which  appears  to  me  to  signify  the  Tomb  of  the  rock,  or  cave, 
or  rocky  abyss ;  for  this  cave  is,  I  think,  here  the  principal  and  most  revered  object, 
and  has  no  name  if  we  take  the  word  "  Kabet  "  to  signify  a  dome  instead  of  a  tomb 
or  cave,  which  its  Indian  analogue  Kaber  does.  Under  or  below  the  cave  floor  we 
have  a  "  well  of  spirits  "  called  locally  Bir-Aruan,  the  entrance  of  which  is  shut  and 
forbidden  to  all  unbelievers.  It  is  thus  the  ancient  Ark  or  lOna.  I  extract  the  fol 
lowing  details  from  the  handbooks  of  1872,  given  to  visitors  of  Mr  Wm.  Simpson's  beau 
tiful  paintings  of  "  Underground  Jerusalem,"  in  the  Pall  Mall  Galler-y. 

The  Sacred  Cave  under  the  Sakrah. — "  It  is  thought  that  this  cave  extended  under  the  rock  beyond 
its  present  dimensions.  The  wall  on  the  north  sounds  hollow  when  struck,  which  confirms  this  idea. 
There  are  four  stations.  The  one  at  the  foot  of  the  stair  is  that  of  David.  It  is  a  Gothic  niche  of 
marble.  The  Place  of  Abraham  is  the  square  hole  to  the  right.  The  Place  of  Solomon  is  a  fragment 
of  marble  on  the  left,  and  that  of  Elias,  also  called  St  George,  is  the  largest  structure  on  the  right.  The, 
Hole  in  the  Sacred  Rock  has  a  light  suspended  through  it.  The  circular  plate  in  the  floor  is  the  i  hole 
leading  down  to  the  Bir  Aruan,  or  "  Well  of  Spirits,"  a  second  cave  beneath.  The  slanting  pillar  across 
the  stair  was  put  to  preserve  the  rock  (which  was  supposed  to  hang  in  the  air)  from  falling,  and  causing 
accidents.  This  cave,  according  to  Mr  Fergusson's  theory  of  the  topography  of  Jerusalem,  is  the  real 
Holy  Sepulchre ;  the  splendid  building  above,  called  the  Mosk  of  Omar,  being,  according  to  this  theory, 
the  church  built  by  Constantine." 

The  Sakrah,  or  Sacred  Rock. — "  The  so-called  Mosk  of  Om'ar  is  called  the  Kubbet-es-SakraJi,  or 
Dome  of  the  Rock,  because  it  is  built  over  this  holy  stone,  supposed  to  have  been  the  threshing-floor  of 
Araunah  the  Jebusite,  and  hence  the  traditional  site  of  the  Temple.  According  to  some  theories,  the  ark 
was  placed  on  this  rock  ;  according  to  others,  it  was. the  site  of  the  great  altar.  The  Sakrah  was  described 
by  Sophronius,  the  Patriarch  of  Jerusalem,  to  Omar,  as  '  the  rock  on  which  God  spake  to  Jacob  ;  which 
Jacob  called  the  Gate  of  Heaven  ;  the  Israelites,  the  site  of  the  Holy  of  Holies,  which  is  in  the  middle  of 
the  earth,  and  was  the  holy  place  of  Israel,  and  is  held  by  them  in  such  veneration  that,  wherever  thev 
are,  they  turn  their  faces  towards  it  when  they  pray.'  '  The  Franks  (Christians)  had  built  an  oratory 
and  altar  over  the  Saki-ah  itself,  and  filled  it  with  images  and  idols ; '  these  Saladin  removed,  and  re 
stored  it  to  its  original  condition  as  a  mosk.  The  Christians  are  also  said  to  have  cut  off  portions  of 
the  Sakrah,  and  sold  them  in  Sicily  and  Constantinople  for  their  weight  in  gold.'  In  the  present  day  the 
traditions  respecting  this,  wonderful  rock  are  principally  Mahomedan.  Moslems  believe  that  it  is  'the 
centre  of  the  world,  and  on  the  Day  of  Resurrection  the  angel  Israfil  will  stand  upon  it  to  blow  the  last 
trumpet.  It  is  also  eighteen  miles  nearer  heaven  than  any  other  place  in  the  world  :  and  beneath  it,  is 
the  source  of  every  drop  of  sweet  water  that  flows  on  the  face  of  the  earth,  that  is  of  all  female  energies. 
It  is -supposed  to  be  suspended  miraculously  between  heaven  and  earth.  They  believe  that  it  came  from 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  183 

heaven,  and  that  it  will  return  again  on  the  last  day.  According  to  the  story,  it  is  the  scene  of  the 
Prophet's  night  journey  from  the  Holy  City,  his  footprint,  whence  he  started,  being  a  shrine  on  the 
western  side.  It  also  bears  the  mark  of  the  angel  Gabriel's  hand,  who  had  to  lay  hold  of  the  rock,  or  it 
would  have  ascended  with  the  Prophet,  and  the  end  of  all  things  must  then  have  come.  The  traditions 

connected  with  the   sacred   rock   are   far   too  many  to  relate The  north  end  has  been  all  cut 

down  ;  so  has  the  west  ;  and  although  the  first  impression  of  any  one  looking  at  it  is,  that  it  is  just 
like  any  rough  rock  on  the  top  of  a  hill,  a  more  careful  inspection  indicates  that  a  tool  has  been  used  upon 
it  in  many  places.  It  is  about  60  by  50  feet  in  extent,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  circle  of  four  piers 
and  twelve  pillars,  which  support  the  dome  above.  The  impression  produced  by  this  rough  rock, 
canopied  by  silk  of  many  hues,  and  covered  by  one  of  the  grandest  of  ancient  temples,  built  of 
the  finest  marbles  and  mosaics,  is  difficult  to  describe  ;  for  it  is  exceptional  among  temples.  The 
real  rock,  rude  as  it  seems  to  the  eye,  is  more  awe-inspiring,  under  such  circumstances,  than  the 
finest  picture  or  sculpture  which  art  ever  produced.  The  sacred  cave  is  under  the  south-east 

At  the  north  end  of  the  rock,  there  is  a  place  scooped  out  as  if  for  some  rite,  and 
a  cavity  in  front  of  it,  which,  it  is  said,  was  for  sacrifice  by  those  who  assert  that  the 
rock  was  the  altar  of  the  temple.  Christians  used  this  rock  as  an  altar,  and  some  of 
the  tool  marks  upon  it  are  held  to  have  occurred  during  their  domination.  Cave  and 
Fire  rites  are  not  yet  extirpated  from  Jerusalem,  nor,  indeed,  from  any  nation  of 
earth.  Christians  still  rush  for  sacred  fire  to  the  holy  cave  at  the  birth  of  Sol,  and 
men  and  women  strive,  in  secret  nooks,  to  pass  naked  through  such  holy  fire  as  will 
appear  further  on  ;  see  also  Inman's  Symbolism,  2d  Ed.  1874,  p.  112.  Nor  has  Mount 
or  Omphi- Worship  (that  is  Venus'  Mount,  or  the  Mons  veneris),  or  at  least  intense 
veneration  almost  amounting  to  worship,  disappeared  among  Jews  and  Syrians.  Mounts 
Moriah,  Zion,  and  Calvary  are  as  sacred  to  thousands,  as  Mount  Meroo  is  to  hundreds  of 
thousands.  Wherever  we  find  a  dome  or  skull  (Calvaria)  shaped  hill  (and  of  course  a 
Lingam  one  also),  whether  in  Asia  or  Africa,  we  are  certain  to  hear  that  it  is  revered  if 
not  actually  worshipped;  and  not  only  so,  but  that  all  objects  like  this  skull  and  cone, 
are  so  too ;  moreover,  as  many  as  possible  will  be  made  like  to  these,  as  cakes  for  the 
gods,  or  even  for  use  in  temples,  &c.,  on  which  a  few  words. 

The  Rev.  J.  Bathurst  Deane  tells  us  that  "  honey  cakes,  with  raised  lumps  upon 
them  like  navels,  were  carried  by  noble  virgins  in  their  hands  in  golden  baskets,"  and 
that  such  formed  "a  very  important  part  of  the  procession,"  and  rites,  and  ceremonies 
of  Bacchus, — that  in  these  baskets  "  were  also  Sesamum,  small- pyramids,  wool,  grains 
of  salt,  and  a  SERPENT."  (Serpent  Worship,  p.  188).  "The  people  followed"  these 
maids  with  these  occult  insignia  "  crowned  with  serpents,  carrying  them  in  their  hands, 
brandishing  them  over  their  heads,  and  shouting  with  great  vehemence  sum,  tSia,  Euia, 
which,  being  roughly  aspirated,  says  Clemens  Alexandrinus,  will  denote  a  female  serpent." 
Some  thought  the  words  meant  "  Eve,  Eve,"  as  connected  with  the  serpent,  but  the 
Rev.  Mr  Deane  says  there  is  no  doubt  it  simply  meant  Ephia  or  Epia,  or  Ob,  Obia, 
&c.,  meaning  the  Great  Serpent  Deity.  The  shape  of  the  cakes  was,  in  plan  and 
section,  like  the  priestly  hats  and  shields,  page  185,  Fig.  68,  69,  and  these  are  con 
tinued  by  the  Roman  Church  in  the  symbolic  hats  of  all  orders  below  the  rank  of 

184  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

bishop.  Hats  or  head-dresses  have  also  always  formed  a  conspicuous  emblem  of  faiths, 
from  the  Phallic  cone  on  the  Tibetan  Lama — worshipping  Boodhist  though  he  be 
(see  that  strange  Phallus  which  Hue  gives  us  at  page  92  of  his  2d  vol.,  figure  further 
on)  to  those  of  Western  Asia,  Europe,  and  Africa,  which  I  give  in  Figs  66  and  105, 
iv.  5,  and  elsewhere.  The  Rev.  Mr  Deane  correctly  says,  that  the  cones  were  intended  as 
representations  of  the  sun's  rays,  and  are  sometimes  seen  in  the  hands  of  priests  kneeling 
before  the  sacred  serpent,  ....  the  supplicating  minister  of  the  god  offers  a  pyramid  in 
his  left  hand,  while  the  right  is  held  up  in  adoration  ;  on  his  head  is  the  deadly  asp." 
Now,  what  is  this  worship  but  the  requests  of  this  "  man  of  god  "  that  he  would  make 
these  emblems  of  the  people  fruitful,  and  so  bless  the  nation  with  abundance  of  offspring, 
the  only  blessings  early  races  appreciated.  I  give  here  an 
illustration  from  Mr  Sharpe's  Egyptian  Mythology,  page 
61,  of  such  an  offering  being  made  by  a  king  or  priest  "  to 
the  dreaded  Kabiri."  Mr  Sharpe  considers  this  suppliant 
to  be  a  King  of  Sais,  and  states  that  similar  drawings 
abound  of  Thebaic  Kings  making  these  "  offerings  to 
Amon-Ra,"  that  is  to  the  Heated  or  Passionate  Sun  of  Fer 
tility.  The  learned  gentleman  is  not  however  acquainted, 

Fig.  65.— EGYPTIAN  KING  AT  WORSHIP.  y         ,  1     •       T  •  ,1  A       '      -L-  T7<  J."  TTl        11  '  1  £  T 

1    think,    with  Asiatic   or   Egyptian  rhallic   lore,    for   he 

calls  the  Phalli  here  "  Cones  of  baked  clay ! "  I  should  fancy  they  are  just  such 
Lingam-like  sweet-bread  as  we  still  see  in  Indian  Sivaik  Temples.  I  think  the 
double-headed  bovine  deity  is  Isis,  or  Osiris  and  Isis,  that  is,  Sun  and  Moon  in  con 
junction,  and  that  the  two  cones  represent  male  virility  as  well  as  the  Lingam,  all 
such  emblems  being  made,  if  possible,  with  a  double  signification.  They  correspond  to 
the  two  stones  on  coins  as  seen  in  Plates  IV.  2  ;  VI.  2  ;  XIII.  1,  and  elsewhere.  We 
can  imagine  the  afflicted  Philistines,  Bethshemites,  and  Attic  Greeks,  who  offended 
against  the  Arkite  and  Bacchite  energies,  making  just  such  offerings .  as  this  royal 
Ophite  is  here  doing. 

"  The  sacred  cakes  of  honey  and  flour  were  marked,"  says  the  Rev.  Mr  Deane, 
"  with  the  Omphalos,  and  were  offerings  made  at  the  shrine  of  the  Sacred  Serpent ;"  and 
we  know,  as  a  matter  of  correct  history,  that  the  live  serpent  kept  in  the  Akropolis  of 
Athens,  and  the  serpent  of  Metele,  were  fed  on  these  cakes  (Deane  189)  ;  so  also  the 
dragon  of  the  Hesperides,  and  the  serpents  in  the  cave  of  Trophonius.  This 
Omphalos  cake,  the  Rev.  writer  explains,  "  is  a  boss,  upon  which  is  inscribed  a  spiral 
line  "  similar  to  that  which  is  seen  on  rude  stones  in  Ireland,  and  which,  as  Quintus 
Curtius  says,  is  also  found  on  the  rude  stone  at  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Amon  in  Africa  ; 
it  is  simply  the  prepuce  in  a  slightly  disguised  form,  and  I  say  this  after  having  seen 
hundreds  of  these  quite  undisguised.  It  appears  that  a  spiral  is  also  made  to 
envelope  the  mystic  baskets  of  the  Bacchic  orgies,  "  and  that  such  an  Omphalos  with 
spiral,  or,  in  this  case,  I. fancy,  a  zodiacal  zone  round  it,  was  kept  at  Delphi  (Strabo 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


and  Deane),  because,  says  Pausanias,  this  was  the  middle  of  the  earth.  The  Pelopon- 
nesians  had  a  similar  Omphalos  at  Phlius  in  Akaia,  but  I  fancy  this  was  not  so  clearly 
a  boss,  so  that  perhaps  the  object  was  a  Sri-Linga ;  see  Bryant  II.  109,  who  very 
correctly  derives  Omphalos  from  Om-phi-el,  the  mouth  or  oracle  of  the  Sun  (An.  I. 
307).  I  suspect  that  the  peculiar  broad-brimmed  hat  of  Italian  priests,  with  boss  in 
centre,  denotes  a  Yonite  instead  of  the  old  Phallic  Worship  with  which  the  ancient 
hats  of  the  Flamens  were  in  accordance.  Hats,  Helmets,  Crowns,  and  Tiaras  were 
all  highly  significant  objects,  as  will  appear  from  various  matters  hereafter  to  be  treated 
of ;  here  I  desire  merely  to  call  attention  to  them,  and  give  this  drawing  to  let  my 
readers  bear  this  feature  in  mind.  Kings,  Chiefs,  and  Priests  do  not  wear  such  symbols 
as  these  without  thought  and  meaning,  and  in  the 
first  line  the  symbols  are  clearly  meant  to  de 
note  upholders  of  Lingaite  faiths,  and  those  in  the 
other  two  columns,  Solar,  and  phallo-Solar  cult. 
The  spear,  or  Quiris  (after  which  the  Quirinal  hill  is 
named)  with  its  wrapper,  was  the  oldest  symbol  of 
the  purest  Nature-worshippers.  The  boss  upon  a 
shield  was  an  Omphalos  and  a  highly  venerated 
part ;  and  added  much  to  the  high  value  all  the  an 
cients  set  upon  their  shields.  Warriors  specially  re 
vered  and  held  sacred  rites  in  connection  with  their 
shields,  as  sailors  did  in  the  case  of  their  rudders  ; 
indeed,  both  classes  here  and  there  still  do  so  in 
the  East.  I  have  already  given  at  page  131,  draw 
ings  of  rudders  and  a  shield  adorned  by  serpents,  such  as  may  be  abundantly  found  in 
classical  atlases  and  dictionaries ;  and  pointed  out  that  the  great  Cesar's  first  gift,  after 
his  conquests  in  Britain,  to  his  favourite — the  Venus  Genitrix  of  Rome,  was  a  shield 
embossed  with  British  pearls,  a  highly  significant  ornament,  which  a  Cesar  and  a  Solomon 
.could  appreciate,  the  latter  having  made, 
we  are  told,  three  hundred  shields  of  gold, 
which  we  see  from  2  Chron.  ix.  16,  were  for 
religious  and  not  war-like  purposes.  Dr  In- 
man  gives  these  drawings  of  what  he  con 
ceives,  not  without  reason,  to  have  been  their 
shape.  No.  70  was  the  very  peculiar  Argha 
and  Yoni-like  form  of  the  shield  of  the  pious 
Templars,  all  of  whose  relics  teem  with 
Phallo-Solar  ideas. 

The  orthodox  Hislop,  in  his  "  Two  Babylons,"  tells  us  that  the  "  bouns,"  buns,  or 
bread  offered  to  the  gods  from  the  most  ancient  times,  were  similar  to  our  "hot-cross  buns 

i.  2  A 

Fig.  66.— THE  ! 


1 86 

Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

of  Good  Friday,  that  .  .  .  the  buns  known  by  that  identical  name  were  used  in  the 
worship  of  the  Queen  of  Heaven,  the  Goddess  Easter  (Ishtar  or  Astarti)  as  early  as  the 

days  of  Kekrops,  the  founder  of  Athens,  1500  years  B.c the  dyed  eggs  of 

Pasch  or  Easter  Sunday  figured  also  in  the  Kaldean  rites  just  as  they  do  now." 

Captain  Wilford,  in  "  Asiatic  Researches,"  VIII.  p.  365,  says  that  when  the  people 
of  Syracuse  were  sacrificing  to  goddesses,  they  offered  cakes  called  Mulloi,  shaped  like 
the  female  organ ;  and  Dulare  tells  us  that  the  male  organ  was  similarly  symbolised  in 
pyramidal  cakes  at  Easter  .by  the  pious  Christians  of  Saintonge,  near  Rochelle,  and 
handed  about  from  house  to  house  ;  that  even  in  his  day  the  festival  of  Palm  Sunday 
was  called  Le  Fete  des  Pinnes,  showing  that  this  fete  was  held  to  be  on  account  of 
both  organs,  although,  of  course,  principally  because  the  day  was  sacred  to  the  Palm, 
the  ancient  tree-Phallus.  The  procession  was  one  of  women  and  children  carrying 
Pinnes  at  the  end  of  thin  palm-branches  (highly  Bacchic),  which,  it  appears,  were 
then  taken  home  and  carefully  preserved  all  the  year.  This  is  exactly  as  still 
practised  in  India  with  household  Lingams,  and  reminds  us  of  the  Sacred  Fires,  and 
Lares,  and  Penates,  which  were  all  renewed  or  reinstated  annually.  Clermont  in 
Auvergne  preferred  the  female  organ,  but  in  Lower  Limousin  and  Brives  the  cakes 
were  Phalli.  We  may  believe  that  the  Jewrish  cakes  and  show -bread  were  also 
emblematic,  somewhat  as  I.  show  in  the  table  of  "  show-bread,"  Fig.  76,  p.  194.  The 
Omphic  Navel,  Nebo,  or  Nabis  33,  idea  figures  conspicuously  in  Vishnoo's  grandest 
Avatar.  From  it  all  creation  issues  as  he  rests  with  his  consort  on  the  serpent  Sesha— 

the  Ark  of  Life  on  the  "sea  of  milk  ;" — Vishnoo  is  here, 
as  in  most  instances,  the  Sun ;  and  the  Nabi  is  here  the 
Umbilicus  or  Olympus  of  the  gods,  from  which  the 
whole  world  proceeds.  It  is  different  from  Siva's  Argha, 
which,  when  shown  separate  from  him,  is,  as  in  these 
two  figures,  a  sort  of  Patera,  corresponding  to  the 
Hebrew  cups  and  bowls — mistranslated  "  spoons  "  in 
Exodus  xxv.  29.  The  real  word  is  nsn  Kapoth,  mean 
ing  cups  for  holding  the  oils  and  unguents  sprinkled 
over  all  Lingam-gods,  and  which  we  can  still  see  in 
Indian  Sivaik  Temples.  0  .'  course,  all  such  vessels,  like 
everything  else  here,  from  the  foundation-stone  and 
Lingam — buried  under  ground,  to  the  Tri-sool  on  the  high  summit  of  a  Sivaik  temple, 
and  again  on  the  high  side-pole  where  there  is  also  a  fire- cup  and  serpent-streamer, 
are  all,  and  every,  made  strictly  symbolic.  Every  line  nd  figure  is  so,  as  well  as 
the  colour  and  even  the  quality  of  the  material  if  practicable. 

.We  must  here  return  a  little  to  the  Syrian,  Arkite,  and  other  Phallic  worship,  and 
to  Jews,  as  those  regarding  whom  we  probably  have  most  details.  1  think  it  is  estab 
lished  that  the  Ark  was  at  first  merely  a  simple  box,-  made  up  in  a  hurried  manner  at 

Fig.  71  • 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  187 

Rephidim,  to  contain  the  two  later  stones,  which  the  leader  is  said  to  have  taken  up 
to  "  the  Jhavh  "  to  be  engraved  by  him,  and  also  probably  to  contain  the  previously 
worshipped  or  revered  articles — viz.,  the  Ecluth,  or  first  testimony  of  Exodus  xvi.  34;  the 
pot  of  manna  ;  rod,  or  Baton  ;  the  sprig  of  almond  tree,  and  other  articles  of  divina 
tion.  Bishop  Colenso  makes  it  abundantly  clear1  that  we  had  no  grand  ark  and 
paraphernalia,  as  alluded  to  in  the  closing  chapters  of  Exodus  by  some  interpolating, 
though  no  doubt  pious  and  zealous  adherent  of  a  later  faith ;  all  this  is  foreign  to  the 
ideas  and  knowledge  of  the  first  Elohistic  writer.2 

The  Bishop  truly  says,  "  There  is  no  record  of  the  construction  "  of  any  such 
article  as  Jews  and  Christians  commonly  believe  in  !  The  original  story,  he  con 
siders,  is  a  very  clear  and  simple  one,  if  we  try  to  see  it  as  given  to  us  by  Elohistic 
writers.  Thus,  when  Moses  required  two  more  stones  to  replace  the  first  heavenly 
ones,  "  the  Jhavh  said  to  me,  '  Hew  tliee  two  tables  of  stone  like  the  first,  and  come 
up  unto  me  into  the  mountain,  and  make  tliee  an  ark  of  wood!  "  This  was  probably 
to  prevent  a  second  fracture.  Moses  replied,  "  So  I  made  an  ark  of  shittim  wood." 
Then  we  are  unceremoniously  told  in  Num.  x.  33  that  they  took  up  this  ark-box  and 
departed  from  the  mount,  with  no  doubt  the  Eduth  and  the  two  stones  in  it.  At 
this  time  it  may  be  inferred  that  neither  Moses  nor  others  knew  of  any  representative 
of  the  terrible  nature-God  of  Sinai,  save  the  two  stones,  the  Eduth,  and  his 
outside  representation — the  "  man  of  God's  "  rod,  baton,  or  Nissi.  I  look  upon  it  that 
the  Jewish  Eduth  represented  the  temple  obelisk,  Moses'  rod,  the  magic  rod  of  Egyp 
tian  priests,  and  the  Nissi,  Bet-el,  Betulus  or  Standard — usually  of  stone,  which  this 
people  erected  and  worshipped  all  over  their  land  as  soon  as  they  settled  down. 

Adam  seems  to  have  been  the  first  God-like  idea,  and  was  naturally  sym 
bolised  in  the  Lingam.  The  word  still  means  a  Lingam,  more  especially  with  Shemites 
and  Mahommedans ;  whilst  Seth  or  Set  became  to  Jews,  as  their  own  special  pro 
genitor,  their  Adam  or  Linga,  which  Greeks  called  Betuli.  Noh  or  Noah  then 
took  the  place  of  Seth,  and  Abraham  and  Moses  followed  Noah.  All  these 
received  in  their  lifetime  intense  reverence,  and  posthumous  worship.  Adam  and 
Abraham  are  still  spoken  of  as  the  intimate  "  friends  of  God,"  and  only  men 
tioned  by  all  Shemites  with  that  reverence  with  which  Christians  allude  to  Christ. 
As  statuary  was  impossible  in  these  ages,  I  have  said  it  was  only  a  natural 
necessity  that  a  lingam  or  column  should  represent  a  male,  and  a  cavity,  ark,  dome, 
or  oval-shaped  object,  a  female  progenitor  ;  so  that  all  worship  of  these  parents  at  once 
became  .arkite  or  lingaite,  and  therefore  exhibited  itself  in  worship  of  these  forms. 
Numerous  old  writers  assure  us  of  the  worship  of  Adam,  Seth,  Noah,  and  others,  by 
which  we  must  understand  the  worship  of  pillars  or  Matsebas  (Bible  "Images"),  as  the 
only  possible  representations  of  these  great  old  fathers,  remembering  that  whatever  may 
have  been  the  meaning  of  pillars  and  arks  (Adam  and  Eve,  Abraham  and  Sarah)  in 

1   "Lee.  on  Pent,  and  Moabite  Stone:  "  Lon.,  1873.    Chap,  xviii.          2    P.  236.      Ex.  xxiv.  ;   Dent   x. 

1 88  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  minds  of  the  first  setters-up  of  these,  the  mass  of  the  people  soon  came  to  lose 
the  original  idea,  seeing  in  them  only  the  emblems  of  generation  and  gestation. 
The  Jews,  say  several  old  writers,  adored  Noah  under  the  emblems  of  a  man,  ark  and 
serpent,  thus  adding  the  necessary  concomitants,  heat,  fire,  or  passion.  There  was, 
says  tradition,  also  a  curious  early  worship  of  blood — the  blood  of  Abel,  which  is  still 
the  worship  of  men  of  the  Moody  and  Sankey  class.  The  Jews  continually  spoke  of  the 
blood  of  righteous  Abel.  It  took  the  place  on  many  occasions  of  the  "  Stone  of  Swear 
ing" — Jhavh  Foederis  ;  all  good  Sethians  swore  on  it,  just  as  they  also  did  on  the  thigh, 
as  we  see  in  the  learned  Gregorie's  Notes  on  Scripture,  page  119  et  seq.,  quoting 
the  erudite  "  Master  Selden  and  others."  Here  also  we  get  the  prayer  which  Sethians 
used  to  "  offer  daily  before  the  body  of  Adam,"  which,  as  the  volume  is  now  rare,  I 
will  give  some  details  concerning ;  but  will  my  readers  kindly  remember  in  reading  it 
— that  which  the  writers  forget,  that  the  word  "  Adam  "  signifies  lingam.  It  appears, 
from  both  the  Sabid  Aben  Batric  and  the  Arabic  Catena,  that  there  existed  the 
following  "  short  litany,  said  to  have  been  conceived  by  Noah  ;  "  and  that  these 
Sethites  used  to  say  their  prayers  daily  in  the  Ark  before  the  body  of  Adam,  and  "  in 
the  name  of  the  blood  "  of  Abel,  so  that  he  was  the  early  Christ.  This  is  given  to  us 
by  tradition  quite  as  good  as  any  on  which  churches  rely. 


"  0  Lord,  excellent  art  thou  in  thy  truth,  and  there  is  nothing  great  in  comparison  of  thee.  Look 
upon  us  with  the  eye  of  mercy  and  compassion.  Deliver  us  from  this  deluge  of  waters,  and  set  our  feet 
in  a  large  room.  By  the  sorrows  of  Adam,  thy  first-made  man  ;  by  the  blood  of  Abel  ,thy  holy  one  ; 
by  the  righteousness  of  SETH,  in  whom  thou  art  well-pleased  :  number  us  not  amongst  those  who 
have  transgressed  thy  statutes,  but  take  us  into  thy  merciful  care  ;  for  thou  art  our  Deliverer,  and  thine 
is  the  praise  for  all  the  works  of  thy  hand  for  evermore.  And  the  sons  of  NOAH  said  Amen,  Lord" 

The  learned  and  pious  Gregorie  then  goes  on  to  account  for  the  body  of  Adam 
being  above  ground  in  this  year  of  the  flood,  said  to  have  been  2348  B.C.  ;  for  even 
allowing  to  him  the  mythical  age  of  930  years,  still  he  had  by  that  time  been  dead 
7j  centuries.1  It  appears,  however,  that  well-established  traditional  history  affirms 
that  the  great  ancestor's  "  dead  body  should  be  kept  above  ground,  till  a  fullness  of 
time  should  come  to  commit  it  to  the  middle  of  the  earth  by  a  priest  of  the  most  high 
God."  2  Now  "  the  priest  who  was  to  officiate  at  the  funeral,  they  say,  was  Melchise- 

1  According  to  Usher  : —  2  We  require  to  accustom  ourselves   to   Scrip- 

Creation     ....      4004  tural   inaccuracies.      Thus,   if  the  figures  in   Gen. 

Adam's  life     ...        930  v.  27  are  correct,  poor  Methuselah  was  swimming 

about   outside  the  Ark  all   the  time  it  was  afloat, 

Adam's  death       .      .      3074  and  wandering  about  in  dismal  salt  water  swamps 

Flood 2348  for  some  1^   months   more,  as  any  careful  calcu 

lator  may  observe  from  Gen.  iv.  27  and  vii.  11. 
726  By  our  calculation,  the  period  of  his  watery  wan 

derings  was  14  years. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  lVorship.  189 

dec  ;  and  that  he  buried  the  body  at  Salem,  which  might  very  well  be  the  middle  of 
the  habitable  world"  (Gregorie,  p.  121).  Further,  Bagster 's  Comprehensive  Bible 
tells  us,  in  the  note  to  Gen.  xiv.  18,  that  noble  Jews  and  Samaritans  held  Melchisedec 
to  be  Shem,  which  Calmet  elaborately  supports,  whilst  our  annotator  informs  us 
that  "  Salem  was  most  probably  Jerusalem  "  !  Gregorie,  quoting  Hebrew  tradition, 
says  "  this  body  of  Adam  was  embalmed  and  transmitted  from  father  to  son  by  a 
reverend  and  religious  way  of  conveyance,  till  at  last  it  was  delivered  by  Lamech  into 
the  hands  of  Noah,  who,  being  well  advised  of  that  fashion  of  the  old  world,  which 
was  to  worship  God  toward  a  certain  place,  and  considering  with  himself  that  this 
could  not  be  toward  the  right,  which  was  the  east,  under  the  inconstancy  and  incon 
venience  of  a  ship,  pointed  out  the  middle  of  the  Ark  for  the  place  of  prayer. "  Here, 
quoting  the  ancient  Caten.  Arab.,  c.  25,  fols.  56  b. — he  says,  "  So  soon  as  ever  the 
day  began  to  break,  Noah  stood  up  towards  the  body  of  Adam  (lingam-pillar),  and 
before  the  Lord — he  and  his  sons,  Sem,  Ham,  and  Japheth,  and  Noah  prayed  ;  " — so  that 
here  we  have  one  of  the  most  perfect  pictures  possible  of  a  Phallic  church — the  men  all 
bowing  down  in  the  centre  of  the  Argha  before  the  lingam-god — the  Argha-Nat — great 
Siva — the  mast  of  the  Ark-boat.  Need  we  ask  what  the  two  stones  of  later  days 
were,  or  how  arranged,  or  what  this  Tebah,  and  its  type  the  pix,  Aron,  or  Ark  meant  ? ! 
Was  it  not  the  abiding-place  of  the  God,  the  "  bread-giver,"  El,  Elohe,  10,  or  he,  the 
great  Egyptian  forefather  Yoosef,  who  reposed,  "  being  personified,"  like  this  Adam  in 
an  ark — Aron,  see  Heb.  of  Gen.  1.  26. 2  The  subject  of  fig.  28,  p,  80.  is  this  Ark  idea,  and 
still  floats  on  Indian  rivers.  The  keeping  of  the  Adamite  lingam,  till  it  could  be  fixed 
deep  into  "  the  centre -navel  of  the  earth,  is  a  thoroughly  Eastern  and  Sivaik  idea. 

The  Ceylonese — Hindoos  and  Boodhists  (see  what  is  said  under  the  head  Meroo) 
say  that  their  Nebo  or  Peor,  the  holy  mount  Adam,  also  sinks  right  into  the  centre  of 
the  earth,  and  so  say  all  those  who  make  continual  pilgrimages  to,  and  bow  before 
this  great  high  central  mountain.  Ignorant  pilgrims  fancy  it  is  called  after  the  first 
Moslem  or  Jewish  Parent — nay  Jewish  god,  and  for  the  most  part  worship  it  purely  as 
a  lingam  and  call  it  Siva,  of  which  more  in  its  place.  The  Delphi  triple-serpent 
column,  was  also  buried  "  in  the  centre  of  the  earth,"  and  the  Maha-Deva  of  Central 
India  is  said  to  be  situated  "in  the  centre  of  the  earth,"  and  so  on.  The  meaning  of 
Ge  and  her  centre  is,  in  all  the  stories,  very  poorly  veiled.  As  connected  with  the 
Jewish  love  of  Stone  or  Rock-worship,  and  confirmatory  of  what  I  have  advanced  as 
to  their  having  early  taken  to  holy  stones,  and  got  their  first  two  from  heaven,  I  may 
mention,  that  we  have  numerous  traditions,  as  well  as  historical  evidence  of  both  Stone 
and  Eock-reverence,  if  not  worship,  by  them,  down  to  even  this  century.  Gregorie,  at 
p.  118,  commenting  upon  Deut.  xxii.  3,  tells  us  of  a  very  holy  stone,  which  could  not  be 
the  rock  or  tomb  over  which  the  "  Mosk  of  Omar"  now  stands.  He  speaks  on  the 
authority  of  the  Talmud — the  Gemara  in  Baba  Metzia,  saying,  "  In  Hierusalem  there 

1   Tebah  is  the  word  used  for  Noah's  Ark,  and  Aron  for  the  Ark-6oce.        2  Note  in  Bagster'' s  Com.  Biblv. 

i  go 

Rivers  of  Life,  or -Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

was  a  stone  of  the  Strays  ;  lie  that  had  lost  or  found  anything  was  to  repair  thither  ; 
he  that  had  found  was  to  stand  there  to  produce  it,  he  that  had  lost,  to  tell  the  signs 
and  marks  ;...'..  the  Jew  is  bound  to  restore  for  the  satisfying  of  the  name 
of  the  Lord"  (Tser  or  Hamor),  so  that  it  is  here  plain  that  we  have  a  stone  acting  the 
part  of  Jupiter  Fcederis,  a  "righteous  Lord,"  and  Presence,  before  which  all  are 
bound  to  act  truthfully  and  honestly.  It  was  probably  a  remnant  of  a  Lingam  or 
Pillar,  such  as  the  good  and  pious  King  Josiah  "  stood  beside  "  and  made  his  compact 
(2  Kings  xxiii.  3),  as  I  am  of  opinion  the  present  fragment  of  the  "  black  stone  "  in  the 
wall  of  Al-Ka-aba  of  Meka  is, — see  my  illustration  under  "-Arabian  faiths." 

The  Jewish  temple  idea  to  the  present  moment  is  still  that  of  a  fetish  or  magical 
idol  which  no  unbeliever  can  understand  .or  should  be  permitted  to  behold.  Up  to 
the  time  when  the  Rabbim  were  expelled  their  city,  they  insisted  on  the  constant  and 
miraculous  interpositions  and  even  sayings  of  their  Jhavh.  Thus  "  flesh  they  said  could 
not  corrupt  on  his  altar,  and  any  woman  smelling  the  offerings  could  not  miscarry  ; 
rain  could  not  put  out  the  everlasting  fire,  nor  the  wind  hinder  the  smoke  from  rising 
towards  heaven  as  of  old  like  a  pillar."  This  is  a  purely  Sivaik  idea ;  it  was  Siva's 
mode  of  proving  himself  to  Vishnoo.  All  Jerusalem  is  so  holy  (on  account  of  "  this 
rock,  my  Elohim,"  2  Sam.  xxii.  3 — Ps.  xviii.  2),  that  "  nothing  that  has  happened  to 
it  from  the  time  of  Solomon  is  capable  of  profaning  it,"  and  so  on,  see  Calmet,  Art. 
Jerusalem.  Can  anything  be  more  superstitious?  Not  Benares,  nor  any  place  or  people  I 
know  of  in  the  East,  seems  to  have  a  more  degraded  idea  of  the  Almighty  Spirit  which 
we  call  God,  than  the  utterers  and  believers  of  such  nonsense.  No  respectable  Hindoo 
of  ordinary  education  would  so  talk  or  think. 

In  regard  to  the  shape  which  the  Eduthmay  have  taken,  I  have  shown  in  Fig. 
76  the  ordinary  lingam  as  standing  on  the  top  of  the  ark — "  the  mercy  seat "  as  we 

have  it  translated,  which  is,  however,  rather  too 
grand  a  phrase,  and  not  at  all  so  appropriate 
as  the  proper  translation,  which  signifies  '  the 
place  of  sacrifice,'  or  the  place  for  making  offer 
ings,  or  '  the  propitiatory  place' " — the  />.a<rr^w 
of  the  LXX.,  in  fact,  the  Argha.  The  step  adjoin 
ing  this  is  where  we  see  worshippers  come  and 
deposit  their  rice,  flowers,  &c.  I  am  half  inclined 
to  think,  however,  that  the  Eduth  of  Moses  was 
feminine,  as  he  seemed  to  prefer  the  Arkite 
symbolism  to  that  of  the  Bull  or  Aarouic  Calf  or 
Cone ;  and  if  so,  this  Egyptian  ark — an  ordinary 
one,  such  as  we  see  in  Kitto's  Pictorial  Bible  at 

Fig.  72. — AN  EGYPTIAN  AUK. 

Exodus  xxv.  and  in  many  other  books — might  possibly  be  what  Moses  would  adopt. 
Whether  male  or  female,  of  course  when  travelling  it  was  shut  up  inside  the  ark, 

Phallic  Serpent  and  Worship. 


together  with  all  the  other  articles  of  the  cult,  as  the  phallic  rod,  almond  sprigs, 
two  stones,  &c.  Nor  would  the  Ecluth  on  all  occasions  be  shown  to  the  public,  for 
we  read  that  it  was  usually  behind  a  veil,  see  Ex.  xxvii.  21,  and  elsewhere. 

The  vase  in  Fig.  72  represents  female  nature — Isis  or  Ishtar,  which  priests  are  here 
seen  carrying,  for  all  people  to  adore.  Its  cover  is  Osiris  or  Asher,  the  Ram  of  the  vernal 
year ;  at  the  door  sits  Apis  or  Siva's  representative,  the  Nanda  or  Bull,  or  it  may  be 
the  tiger  of  similar  salacious  signification  ;  on  this  chest  we  see  also  all  the  symbols  of 
creation  and  fertility;  the  head  bending  over  the  baskets  or  corn-sheaf-looking  objects 
being,  I  believe,  the  Lotus,  though  it  is  customary  to  call  them  feathers,  &c.  Of 
course  wandering  Arabs — encamped,  about  1500  B.C.,  under  the  shadow  of  Mount 
Sinai,  and  led  by  a  Midianite  Shek,  even  though  he  might  be  learned  in  some 
Egyptian  matters — were  n.ot  likely  to  have  had  anything  so  perfect  as  the  subject  of  this 
illustration,  not  to  say  these  wonderfully  developed  ideas  we  read  in  Exodus  xxv.  and 
onwards.  Being,  however,  brickmakers,  and  possibly  artizans  in  Egypt  for  many  years 
(not  400  or  430  but  "four  generations"  or  some  120  years),  we  may  grant  that  they 
saw  the  imagery  of  the  Egyptian  faith,  and  would  try  to  make  the  best  Adam  or 
Adama  their  circumstances  admitted  of.  Moses,  we  know,  gave  very  special  orders 
regarding  a  pot  or  vase  of  manna  being  laid  up  before  the  Eduth  (probably  in  imita 
tion  of  this  Egyptian  vase),  so  perhaps  he  in  this  way  favoured  both  sects  (the 
Lingam  and  Yonites)  of  the  tribes,  for  a  vase  with  bread  in  it  is  a  veritable  God  of 
bread — Betli-leJiem  or  Ephrata,  a  vase  being  a  real  "  house  " — Lady  or  "  Distri 
buter  of  Bread,"  thus  we  have  our  Lord  the  Eduth  and  our  Lady,  the  Eduth — Siva 
and  Sivi. 

Fig.  73.— TI 

I  give  here  another  well-known  Egyptian  ark,  that  usually  called  "  the  Ark  of 
Phile"  in  which  we  see  two  figures,  representing  in  the  language  of  Egyptian  hierogly- 

1 92  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

phics,  simply  Man;  both  are  seated  in  cups  and  surrounded  by  "cherubim  and  seraphim," 
winged  deities,  representing  the  Sun,  and  therefore  fertility  ;  the  upper  one  has  a 
liugam  overhead  ;  the  whole  shrine  is  encircled  by  a  band  proceeding  from  two 
lotuses.  The  steersman  of  this  sacred  boat  is  Passion,  or  the  Serpent,  and  on  stem  and 
stern  sits  the  Solar  Virgin,  while  a  phallo-serpent  deity  worships  in  front,  and  over 
all  is  extended  the  beneficent  wings  of  "  the  Sun  of  Eighteousness,"  out  of  whose 
orb  spring  two  upreared  serpents.  On  one  side  of  this  Ark  of  Phile,  I  have  shown 
for  clearness  the  real  figure  of  the  inner  deity — D.,  as  he  sits  in  his  cup  or  argha,  the 
personation  of  Siva,  the  Argha-Nat;  it  is  so  minute  inside. his  ark  as  otherwise  likely 
to  escape  notice.  Mark  the  phallic-fire  which  precedes  the  Boat  of  Life. 

All  these  figures  of  men  are  shown, as  sitticg  with  knees  doubled  up  in  a  very 
peculiar  position,  thoroughly  Asiatic,  but  thoroughly  symbolic,  and  not  without  pre 
cedent  in  regard  to  double-entendres  and  banter,  of  which  this  faith  is  most  prolific. 
I  have  therefore  shown  on  the  left  hand  of  the  ark,  the  two  hieroglyphs  for  man  and 
woman  (M.  and  W.),  which  makes  my  surmise  still  more  probable,  the  woman  being 
shown  as  so  very  different  from  the  man,  the  knees  down,  and  holding  the  holy  cross, 
the  symbol  of  life  and  the  faith.     In  some  drawings  the  symbols  spring  from  the 
centre  of  the  figures.      Now  Asiatics,  male  and  female,  are  not  so  diverse  in  sitting. 
In  fact,  women  are  to  be  seen  more  commonly  than  men  sitting  in  the  position  here  as 
signed  to  man  only,  so  I  can  see  no  reason,  on  the  ground  of  the  ordinary  attitudes  of  the 
sexes,  for  this   extraordinary  and  marked  difference  in  this  single  respect.     In  the 
hieroglyphic  man  also,  we  are  invited  to  see  other  Phallic  ideas — the   Tau  T.  ancient 
cross,  and  Crux  Ansata  ;  thus  the  arms  are  spread  out  as  far  as  is  generally  practicable, 
so  that  the  head,  which  is  always  the  Sun,  forms  the  yoni  or  circular  handle-idea  of  the 
(J.  Ansata.     An  ark  with  any  images,  but  especially  with  such  as  we  see  here  and  in 
the  previous  illustration,  is  a  most  complete  and  potent  symbol ;  it  was  once  the  com 
monest  in  all  faiths,  for  it  is  the  boat  by  which  all  creation  sails  into  life.      In  Egypt 
it  was  the  Tebah  ran,  the  same  name  as  this  people  gave  to  their  capital,  and  which 
the  wise  LXX  translators  gave  to  Noah's  ark,  as  already  noted.     The  widely  different 
purpose  of  the  Sinaitic  ark  made  them  call  it  an  Aron  jn«,  which  I  believe  may  mean 
merely  a  Sun  or  Phallus-box — Ar  and  On  tending  towards  this  signification.     Even  if 
.  we  hold  to  Parkhurst's  first  meaning  of  Ar  is,  the  river  or  flood,  we  have  a  name  of  Siva, 
the  On  or  Sun  of  the  flood  or  female  energy,  and  this  was  Jah's  box,  who  was  the  Sun 
our  righteousness.     All  the  Arabs  probably  called  such  Arks  by  this  name,  and  they 
usually  had  articles  in  them  very  like,  if  not  quite  an  !A,do?ov.     We  read  that  the 
"  Egyptians  placed  the  truncated  symbol  of  the  generative  or  productive  principle  im 
manent  in  nature  "  on  the  lid-cover  with  cherubim  wings,  so  that  these  arks  or  boxes 
—most  important  articles  with  nomads— really  formed  the  pedestal  for  the  Aidoion, 
or  Lingam,  as  well  as  a  safe  place  for  its  conveyance  when  on  tour.     All  these  tribes 
dealt  largely  in  necromancy  and  divination  of  all  kinds,  and  these  chests  had  therefore 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


to  carry  the  divining  rods,  wands,  almond  sprigs,  "  stocks  "  and  staffs,  Teraphim  and 
Seraphim,  Urim  and  Thumim,1  and  Ephods,  and,  in  short,  all  the  paraphernalia  of 
wild  superstitious  races,  who  were  just  emerging  from  the  grossest  fetish- worship. 

Mr  Rawlinson  in  his  3d  Vol.  of  "  Ancient  Monarchies  "  (p.  130  et  seq.},  shows  us 
that  the  rods  of  Aaron  and  Moses  had  their  exact  counterpart  in  those  of  Egypt,  in 
in  the  magic-working  willow-wand  of  the  Skyths,  and  in  the  Tamarisk  rods  of  the 
Magi  and  present  Tatars.  Hosea  tells  us  of  the  stocks  and  staffs  of  Jhaveh's  "  holy 
people,"  and  Ezekiel  of  "the  branch"  which  they  put  to  their  nose  (viii.  17).  Joshua 
was  chosen  "  according  to  the  judgment "  of  such  articles  as  were  contained  in  the 
holy  chest,  and  this  was  called  com 
ing  "  before  Jehovah." 

Samuel  and  Saul  greatly  revered 
conical  hills  and  stone  circles,  and  Saul 
was  careful  to  seek  his  Deity  near  to 
stones,  the  conical  Carmel,  or  gilgals. 
David  was  more  partial  to  the  Ephod 
or  Sakti  emblem,  as  arks  and  such  like ; 
see  1  Sam.  xxiii.  and  xxx.  Stone  circles 
like  these,  however,  which  Dr  Inman 
gives  from  India  and  Ireland  under 
the  word  Beth-gader  or  "Enclosed 
Temple,"  or  circle  of  stones,  so  fami 
liar  to  us  all  over  the  world,  were  the 
undoubted  holy  shrines  of  all  these 
tribes  down  to  a  very  modern  date. 

The  severely  orthodox  and  pious 

Fig.  74.—  •nvizEL  MOOR,  IRELAND. 

annotators  of 



Fig.    75.— DEKAN— W.  IXDIA. 

liensive  Bible"  confess  that  the  grand  ark,  tabernacle,  and  tent,  so  magnificently  described 
in  various  chapters  from  xxv.  to  end  of  Exodus,  had  an  exact  counterpart  in  the  Phenician 
temples  to  Herakles,  which  is  as  we  should  expect;  the  rude  Highlanders  would,  of  course, 
copy  as  they  best  could,  the  structures  of  the  lowland  and  more  advanced  commercial  sea 
board  people.  Bagster's  marginal  reading  against  Ex.  xl.  is  that  the  Pheuician  temple  to 
Herakles  at  Cadiz  (Cedes)  was  a  complete  imitation  of  the  Jewish  temple  and  its  ser 
vices.  Plan,  structure,  rites,  and  customs  were  all  here  just  as  the  wandering  Edume- 
ans  had  afterwards  heard,  and  no  doubt  copied  ;  the  contrary  is  the  orthodox  inversion 
of  history,  and  oversight  of  the  fact,  that  no  such  tabernacle  or  ark  of  gold,  &c.,  was 
constructed  as  related  in  Exodus,  but  possibly  a  simple  ark-box  as  the  Deuteronomist 
tells  us  in  x.  1  to  5,  and  as  Bishop  Colenso  thoroughly  establishes  in  his  lecture  No. 
XVII.  on  "  Pentateuch  and  Moabite  stone." 

1  Ur  or  Or  is  light,  and  in  Sanskrit  Turaas  is  darkness,  but  see  f<age  29  ante. 
I.  2B 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

We  must  remember  that  besides  all  the  Phallic  lore,  and  divination  or  fortune-telling 
apparatus  of  the  Jewish  tribes,  their  "holy  of  holies  "  had  also  a  most  brutal  shamble.' 
or  altar,  where  cattle  and  sheep  were  daily  killed  and  hacked  to  pieces,  and  roasted  ;  at 

least  one  bullock  and  lamb  every  morning, 
and  a  lamb  in  the  evening.  This  was 
the  ordinary  prescribed  ration  of  the  deity, 
together  with  a  lighter  repast  to  flavour  the 
same,  as  twelve  flour  cakes,  olive-oil,  salt 
and  spice.  To-  regale  his  sense  of  smell, 
which  is  often  particularly  dwelt  on  as 
most  pleasing  to  him,  delighting  as  he  did  in 
burning  fat  and  blood,  there  stood  near  by 
an  "  altar  of  incense,"  which  Aaron  AVUS 
ordered  to  burn  when  he  dressed  the  lamps, 
and  at  even  when  he  lighted  them,  for 

Fig.  76. — THE  JET 


there  it  was  that  Jehovah  was  to  give  the  children  of  Israel  to  know  that  he  was  their 
God  through  all  their  generations,  and  ever  dwelt  in  their  midst — a  matter  which 
seems  to  have  been  overlooked  for  some  thousands  of  years. 

In  order  to  help  my  readers  fully  to  realise  the  whole  horrid  scene,  I  give  here  a 
sketch  of  its  principal  features  ;  the  ark  and  cherubim  forms  our  Eduth,  manna, 
almond-sprig,  and  poor  bleeding  ox,  whose  flesh  and  fat  is  soon  to  rise  "  as  a  sweet 
savor,"  and  burn  and  crackle  on  and  around  the  bloody  shamble.  Without  drawings 
and  full  details,  I  fear  Christians  will  fail,  as  for  many  long  years  I  did,  to  realise  the 
barbarous  scenes  which  this  people  daily  gloated  over.  It  requires  colour  and  an 
artist  to  do  "  the  holy  place  "  justice. 

Yet  this  people  were  not  worse  than  others  in  the  early  times  we  are  speaking  of, 
but  neither  were  they  better.  I  doubt  not  but  that  where  this  bullock  -lies,  many  "  a 
first-born  "  had  been  cherim  or  devoted  to  their  fierce  deity ;  and  I  fear  we  must  say 
that  such  was  not  unknown  down  to  the  fourth  or  third  century  B.C.,  as  other  parts 
of  this  work  will  establish.  In  their  worship,  rites,  and  paraphernalia,  then,  the 
Jewish  people  were  only  like  their  great  neighbours  the  Phenicians,  though  un 
doubtedly  a  little  less  advanced,  partaking  more  of  the  Arabian,  Hivite,  and  Perizite 
tribes.  In  those  days  all  peoples  believed  in  divination  by  cups,  rods,  serpents,  hands, 
fire,  smoke,  stars,  &c.,  also  in  the  sanctity  of  particular  spots,  as  rocks,  hill-tops  such  as 
Hermon,  Mount  Zion,  and  Moriah  or  Meroo,  which  two  last  were  the  Jewish  Pal-a-tine 
and  Caput-oline.  Their  early  Judo-Egyptian  patriarch  of  the  shrine  of  ON,  called  the 
"Increaser"  or  "Supplier"  (loseph),  who  gave  them  bread  in  their  extremity,  is 
described  as  prominently  leading  the  way  in  divination  arts.  He  began  in  his  youth  by 
foretelling  dreams,  and  is  described  as  owing  all  his  wealth  and  position,  and  as  saving  the 
lives  of  all  his  tribe,  and  therefore  enabling  their  deity  to  keep  his  covenant  with  Abram, 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  195 

solely  through  divination  or  the  so-called  interpretation  of  dreams.  The  cup  or  Egyptian 
vase — that  same  Ismian  idea  which  we  see  on  the  Ark  in  page  190,  Fig.  72,  and  very 
often  in  the  sky  over  Christ — the  rising  "  Son  "  (Sun),  and  surrounded  by  the  Thorny  or 
Tri-sool  god  (page  202),  was,  said  Joseph's  servants  who  pursued  the  brothers  (Gen.  xliv.), 
"  My  Lord's  divining  cup."  All  Shemites  divine  by  cups,  and  later  legend  says, 
that  this  cup  which  the  ancient  Persians  called  Jo/mi  Jamsheed,  or  the  cup  of  Jam- 
sliced  (a  phallic  term),  was  found  afterwards  filled  with  the  elixir  of  immortality,  when 
digging  to  lay  the  foundation  of  Persepolis  :  the  margin  of  Bag 'ster's  Comprehensive 
.Bible,  from  which  I  take  the  above,  adds,  that  the  Mahommedan  patriarchs  practise 
divination  by  cups.  Most  of  us  have  heard  of  the  Poculum  Boni  Demonis  of  the  Bacch 
analian  orgies,  which  was  contained  in  the  Bacchic  Ark  or  Basket,  just  as  a  similarly 
holy  and  highly  ornamented  cup  is  kept  adjoining,  or  on  the  Christian  altar.  The  Bacchic 
cup  was  passed  round  to  the  votaries  and  called  "the  cup  of  the  good  demon,"  and  was 
adorned  on  rim  and  cover  with  serpents  and  the  Bacchic  head,  or,  as  used  to  be 
thought,  Medusa's  head,  because  it  was  encircled  with  serpents.  This  cup  is  held  to 
have  been  dedicated  to  the  Tria  Numina,  one  of  whom  was  Agatho- Demon.  It  was 
one  of  those  mysteries,  afofaxov  titya  *«;  pvsTJjpun,,  which  all  ancient  peoples  kept  in 
their  holy  of  holies  or  sacred  ark,  and  for  which,  says  the  Kev.  J.  Bathurst  Deane, 
"Every  nation  upon  earth  had  some  holy  receptacle  "  (p.  193),  and  made  as  sym 
bolic  as  possible  of  their  meaning,  viz.,  of  the  dread  mysteries  of  creation  and  gestation. 
Did  not  the  wise  Minerva  hide  the  great  Erekthonius,  fourth  king  of  Athens,  in 
an  ark,  and  warn  Kekrops  never  to  open  the  box  ?  And  where  could  be  have 
found  a  more  appropriate  place  for  such  a  man-god  ?  for  we  are  told  "his  extremities 
(?)  were  all  serpents."  The  Greek  tales  remind  us  of  similar  and  probably  much 
older  ones,  which  we  may  safely  say  came  from  the  east ;  Greeks  taught  Eomans,  and 
Romans  and  Greeks  taught  Europe  and  later  Christians,  and  so  Europe  learned  to 
cling  fondly  to  such  fables,  and  to  arkite,  phallic  and  solar  mysteries. 

That  there  should  be  no  mistake  as  to  Joseph  divining  l>y  serpents,  the  two 
orthodox  savants,  Faber  and  Deane,  accurately  consider  the  literal  meaning  of  the  Old 
Testament  words  "divining"  and  "divination"  and  show  us  that  BTU  Nachash,  is  properly 
translated  as  o/«w{,  and  really  signifies  divination  by  serpents.  •  Mr  Faber  adds,  "  Gen. 
xliv.  15,  implies  the  worship  of  Nachash"  and  "therefore,"  justly  says  the  Kev.  J.  B. 
Deane  (p.  153),  "I  argue  that  the  serpent  was  an  object  of  veneration  in  Egypt  before 
the  Exodus,"  meaning  the  fifteenth  century,  when  the  reverend  gentleman  imagined  that 
some  three  millions  or  more  of  Jews  came  out  of  Goshen.  Such  divination,  which  we 
may  call  Ophiomancy,  was  a  very  important  matter  in  early  days.  Hebrews,  Arabs, 
and  Greeks,  alike  denoted  this  by  a  word  signifying  serpent,  as  Nachash,  Alilat,  and 
oluovifyddai  from  oiuvts  a  snake  ;  this  shows  us  that  the  Arab  goddess  Alilat  was  of  Ser 
pent  root.  We  may  remember  the  case  of  the  serpent  which  climbed  a  tree  and  ate 
up  the  sparrows,  and  was  turned  into  a  stone  before  the  confederate  chiefs  of  Troy  at 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands, 

Aulis  in  Beotia  under  the  divination  of  "  Calchas"  (Kal-ka  ?)  a  priest  of  the  ophite  god 
or  Apollo.1     Serpents  often  changed  to  stones,  and  occasionally  to  vases. 

We  have  a  recorded  case  in  Milner's  Church  History,  of  Christians  turning  a 
golden  serpent  into  a  vase  which  also  seems  to  connect  the  worship  of  serpents,  and 
vases  or  arks,  with  the  far  older  Tree-faith. .  It  appears  from  this  ecclesiastical  history 
(III.  113)  that  a  Christian  bishop,  Benevento,  found  the  Lombardians  in  688  worshipping 
a  tree  on  which  was  a  golden  serpent  and  a  wild  beast's  skin,  which  thus  completely 
identified  the  cult  with  the  Asiatic  Maha-Deva  and  Hercules.  The  pious  bishop  at 
once  cut  down  the  tree  and  melted  the  serpent  into  a  sacramental  chalice,  by  no 
means,  however,  thus  effacing  the  old  faiths  or  ideas ;  for  serpents,  cups,  horns,  vases, 
arks,  and  chalices,  especially  sacrificial,  ones,  have  on  eastern  altars  precisely  the 
same  religious  signification ;  and  however  angry  the  Lombardians  may  have  been  in 
the  first  instance,  they  had  reason  here  for  being  content  in  seeing  their  serpent  in  the 
cup  under  a  cross,  and  at  an  eastern  window.  An  ark  or  sacred  boat  or  cist,  is  still 

maintained  in  the  Roman  Church  under  the  name  of  the 
Pyx,  in  which  they  say  is  the  body  of  the  Saviour.  Arka, 
in  Sanskrit,  signifies  "a  ray  of  light,"  and  it  is  also  one 
of  the  names  of  Osiris  the  sun-god.  Argheia  was  the 
name  of  the  celestial  mother  Juno  (lOna)  and  of  many 
great  persons.  Juno  was  the  wife  of  Argos  the  builder  of 
Argos,  a  capital  of  great  serpent-worshippers.  I  give 
in  Fig.  77,  adjoining,  the  ordinary  Pyx  case,  which  it 
will  be  seen  is  highly  emblematic,  and  would  equally  suit, 
in  section,  the  summit  of  a  Christian  church  spire,  or  iii 
plan,  the  usual  Christian  altar;  see  the  orthodox  church 
plan,  further  on.  As  a  spire,  it  is  a  very  good 
approach  to  the  obelisk  which  is  "  the  ray  of  light,"  as 
this  phallic  cross  is  in  mythology,  and  which  the  little 
burning  torch  at  the  summit  of  all  obelisks  (see  Fig.  52, 
page  133)  is  held  to  symbolise.  In  the  upper  centre  of  this 
figure  I  also  show  the  other  Roman-Catholic  vessel,  the 
Monstrance,  as  this  is  found  depicted  in  our  popular 
Webster's  English  Dictionary.  In  this  decidedly  Phallic-looking  article,  is  the  sym 
bolic  "  Body  O/"THE  LORD"  kept;  and  by  "phallic  article"  throughout  this  work,  my 
readers  are  requested  not. to  understand  me  as  only  speaking  of  a  male  object. 

Thus  then  we  have  even  here  in  our  own  century  and  in  the  centre  of  all  civilisa 
tion,  the  old. faiths  repeated.  True,  the  symbol  of  "  the  Lord  "  is  not  now  a  lingam,  as 
in  all  Jewish  and  ancient  arks,  because  it  is  now  the  "  Sun  of  Righteousness ; "  neither 
Flesh,  Basar  IBQ,  only  Dough,  though  this  also  is,  we  are  told,  "  the  GOSPEL  "  or  "  good 

1  Deane,  quoting  others,  228. 

Fig    77.  -  PYX,  MONSTRANCE,  ETC. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  IVorship.  1 97 

tidings  "  neao  (Isa.  xl.  9  ;  2  Sam.  xviii.  26),  "which  was  made  Basar"  Flesh  01  Phallus, 
"  for  us  ;  "  for  the  <tdp%  sarx,  or  flesh,  of  John  i.  14,  is  in  the  Bible,  the  Greek  equivalent 
for  the  word  anciently  used  for  the  Phallus  ;  so  we  very  plainly  see  that  in  the  times 
when  the  Old  and  New  Testaments  were  translated,  there  was  but  a  very  hazy 
distinction  between  "  the  Logos,"  Phallus,  Flesh,  "  Gospel,"  and  "  Sun  of  Righteous 
ness,"  or  the  words  Basar,  Zakar  -or,  M  chaser,  and  such  like.1  Strange  that  educated 
men  cannot  even  now  free  themselves  from  such  gross  fleshy  fetishes,  embracing  the 
low  animal  ideas  of  phalluses,  crosses,  arks,  or  wombs,  &c.  Looking  back  over  only 
the  last  two  thousand  years,  we  see  the  painful  fact,  that  we  have  not  even  in  Europe, 
freed  ourselves  at  the  rate  of  one  little  fetish  in  three  hundred  years.  Thus  Spencer, 
in  his  L.  Heb.  p.  145,  names  seven  fetishes  as  the  usual  accompaniments  of  every  ark. 
His  words  are,  "  there  were  laid  up  usually  in  arks,  Indian  Wheat  Pyramids,  pieces  of 
dressed  wool,  cakes  or  wafers,  made  of  oil  and  honey,  for  use  in  sacrifice  (our  Roman 
Catholic  fetish,  and  studded  with  bosses  like  navels'),  a  serpent,  Persian  apples,  and  a 
Thyrsus;"  so  that  here  we  have  seven  fetishes,  the  Eduth  or  Phallus,  manna  as  the 
wheat  bread,  cakes  or  wafers  for  "  Showbread;"  Apples,  very  fit  representatives  of  the 
first  god-given  stones  (see  Inman's  Ancient  Faiths),  and  pyramids  and  bosses  or  little 
lingams  and  omphi.  This  result  of  the  orthodox  and  learned  Spencer's  investigations 
as  to  the  use  and  contents  of  arks  ought  surely  to  convince  the  most  bigoted,  and 
also  show  them  why  altars,  with  bread  and  wine,  a  Pyx  and  Monstrance,  a  Lord,  a 
Cross,  with  candles  and  fleurs-de-lis,  have  come  down  to  us.  Mr  C.  W.  King  in  his 
History  of  Gnosticism,  tells  us  that  in  Egypt's  most  sacred  ark — that  of  Isis,  "  was 
carried  the  distinctive  marks  of  both  sexes,  the  Lingam  and  Yoni  of  the  modern 
Hindoos,"  whilst  Spencer  shows  us  that  the  lingam  was  that  of  the  Sun,  saying  (De 
Leg.  Heb.  45):  "  In  this  mystic  ark  was  only  deposited  the  privy  member  of  Bacchus," 
for  looking  on  which  quite  as  severe  punishment  was  awarded,  as  that  which  befel 
Ham  for  gazing  on  his  patriarchal  "  stock  "  (Gen.  ix.  22) ;  but  I  am  digressing  from 
the  modern  Christian  Ark,  the  Catholic  Monstrance,  or  Protestant  Altar. 

These  carry  metaphorically  "the  body  and  blood  of  the  Lord,"  and  are  undoubted 
remnants  of  the  gross  superstitions  of  far  back  ages  ;  Ark,  Altar,  and  Pyx  are  of  course 
the  same  in  the  eyes  of  the  pious  searcher  out  of  the  roots  of  faiths.  The  symbolism  is 

1  From  ParJchurst  and  Furst  we  learn  that  ")£'2  appears  from  the  word  Basar  being  used  in  Gen. 
Basar  is  that  which  spreads  itself  out,  swells  out,  as  xvii.  11;  -Exodus  xxviii.  42;  Ezek.  xvi.  20, 
Flesh,  &c.,  is  carnal,  utters  sounds,  gives  good  (that  xxiii.  20.  "  The  fleshy  object  "  might  be  that  of 
is  intelligence),  and  hence  is  used  for  the  Phallus  men,  beasts,  birds,  fishes,  or  reptiles  (Parkhurst), 
and  gospel,  but  this  last  rather  as  the  sing.  masc.  and  the  New  Testament  translators  considered 
part.  "15JQO  mebaser,  as  in  2  Sam.  xviii.  26,  and  in  therefore  that  the  Greek  equivalent  to  be  used  for 
the  form  mBGD  mebasereth,  in  Isa.  xl.  9,  where  it  "TB>1  in  John  i.  14  was  odp%.  The  word  Zakar 
signifies. a  messenger  of  good  tidings;  we  are  justi-  13T  then,  is  that  used  for  a  male  object,  lite- 
tied  therefore  in  saying  that  the  new  LOGOS  has  rally  "sword"  "pin"  or  "piercer,"  see  Gen.  i. 
taken  the  place  of  the  old  god  "IE>2,  who  was  cir-  27,  but  Zakar  has  also  the  idea  of  Sun  and  Fire 
cumcised,  and  is  "  the  secret  parts  "  as  very  clearly  (Ancient  faiths,  i.  303). 

198  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Alan  in  all  Lands. 

indeed  boldly,  yet  quite  safely,  I  mean  safe  from  discovery,  set  before  Europe,  for  not 
one  European  in  ten  thousand  understands  it,  and  I  include  almost  every  one  of  the 
innocent  leaders  of  the  worship.  Of  course  Hindoos  of  ordinary  education  would  very 
soon  see  through  it  all. 

The  Lord  here  is  of  course  the  Lord  -of  Hosts,  or  "  Sun  of  Righteousness,"  and 
here  as  usual  the  symbolism  is  reduplicated.  He  is,  we  observe,  in  the  TOni,  or  this 
Yoni-shaped  Monstrance,  but  he  is  also  the  Sun  or  "  Wafer,"  or  Cross  in  Luna,  here 
shown  in  crescent  form  beneath.  Unmistakeable  fleurs-de-lis  complete  the  side  gar 
niture  of  this  very  quaint  shrine,  whilst  over  all  is  a  Linga-in-Yoni.  Below  the  Pyx 
I  show  the  Hindoo  idea  of  the  same,  Siva  being  here  also  the  Solar  orb  over  the  Delta 
of  Life.  The  fish  or  mitre  ideas  are  shown,  on  each  side  of  the  monstrance,  and  the  ordi 
nary  Gothic  and  very  lOni  like  window  which  usually  adorns  such  shrines,  is  given  on 
the  right  of  the  Pyx.  The  "cornucopia"  or  "horse  of  plenty,"  also  so  common,  with 
the  sacred  trifoil  leaf,  Rose  and  Thistle,  are  here  given  as  very  much  in  keeping  and 
abounding  in  most  of  the  ecclesiastical  sculpturings  and  architecture  of  these  islands. 

All  such  Pyx  and  Ilostie-carrying  vessels,  then,  are  Arks ;  and  arks  and  boats 
were  synonymous  terms  in  Phallic  lore.  Lucian  describes  a  procession  of  Isis  in  which 
the  chief  Priests  carry  a  brilliant  boat-shaped  lamp  of  gold  "  from  an  aperture  in  the 
middle  "  of  which  a  great  flame  rises  ;  another  "  bore  a  palm  tree  ; "  another  "  carried 
a  golden  vessel  like  a  Mamma,  from  which  he  poured  milk  on  the  ground,"  a  very  speak 
ing  symbol,  and  always  denoting  Arkite  and  Ceres- worship.  Notice  also  the  lamp  with 
Jiame  passing  through  it,  for  we  shall  see  that  lamps  are  still  important  in  Roman 
Catholic  processions.  "  Another,"  says  Lucian  "  carried  a  Chest  containing  the  secret 
utensils  of  this  stupendous  mystery;"  yet  elsewhere  he  adds  that  "the  insignia  of  the 
Mighty  God  were  exposed  to  full  view,"  wiiich  corresponds  to  what  Aristophanes 
writes  : — "0  Xanthias,  you  must  hold  the  Phallus  erect  behind  the  basket  (Ark)  bearer, 
and  I  following  will  sing  the  Phallic  hymn"  (Inman's  Ancient  Faiths  I.. 288)  ;  so  that 
probably  Lucian's  ark  writh  centre  fire-pillar,  as  representing  boat  and  mast,  must  be 
here  considered  as  exhibiting  all  the  necessary  insignia.  It  is  explained  by  those  try 
ing  to  account  for  such  an  indecent  faith  that  this  symbol  was'exhibited  by  "  a  grateful 
people,"  because  it  replaced  by  a  model  what  had  been  lost  of  their  great  god,  for  Isis 
recovered  all  save  one  part  of  her  lord ;.  more  regarding  this  will  appear  further  on. 

The  Jews  had  similar  processions  and  exhibitions  as  Amos  regrets  (v.  26)  in  the 
matter  of  Molok  and  Kiun,  which  last  signifies  simply  the  Sakti  of  a  god.  The  accom 
paniments  of  the  Jewish,  ark,  whether  the  real  one  of  Deut.  x.  1,  or  fanciful  one  of 
Exodus,  were  even  more  symbolic  than  the  vessels  and  paraphernalia  of  the  Catholic  altar 
which  takes  -its  place.  Arks  and  altars  require  lamps,  candles,  and  huge  candlesticks, 
poles,  and  banners ;  and  in  times  of  old,  serpents ;  and  both  must  be  "  ever  in  the  presence 
of  their  Lord,"  which  the  east  window  represents,  as  we  do  not  now  see  him  face  to  face 
as  the  ancient  Stonehenge  worshipper  did.  No  priest  of  ark  or  altar  would  have  ever 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


presumed  to  put  the  ark  or  altar  away  from  the  Lord's  presence" — the  orient  window, 
any  more  than  he  would  presume  to  separate  husband  and  wife  ;  and  so  inseparable  are 
these — the  ark  and  her  Lord,  that  as  the  faith  advanced  in  literature,  and  to  a  somewhat 
purer  phase,  we  find  that  the  presence  of  the  ark  is  held  to  be  the  presence  of  the 
Lord  himself,  and  its  oracle  may  be  trusted  to  be  his,  just  as  we  often  accept  the  wife  oi 
lier  sayings  for  those  of  her  husband.  Nevertheless,  we  observe  in  several  lOnik  shrines 
of  Syria  and  Mesopotamia,  as  that  of  Juno  at  Emesa  and  elsewhere,  that  none  presumed  to 
sit  on  Sol's  throne  ;  it  is  ever  vacant,  none  daring  even  to  put  an  image  in  that  almighty 
one's  vacant  chair,  be  it  one  of  his  female  energies  or  of  himself  as  great  Serapis  or  Siva , 
for  Sar-Apis,  or  Soorya  (Sun)  and  Apis — the  rider  of  the  Bull,  is  a  true  name  for  him. 
The  pious  and  orthodox  but  honest  Kitto  tells  us,  though  regretfully  of  course,  in  his 
Pictorial  Bible,  (I.  240)  that  biblical  scholars  started  with  pain  when  the  "  eminently 
learned  Spencer,  in  his  great  work  De  Legibus  Ilebrceorum  "  followed  by  many  others, 
showed  that  the  poor  wandering  Edumeans  had  only  badly  copied  the  great  faiths 
around  them.  Kitto  says  justly  that  Christians  "appear  to  be  utterly  unconscious  of 
the  new  sources  of  evidence  which  have  been  opened  within  the  present  century,  and 
by  which  the  state  of  the  question  as  to  the  religion,  rites  and  ark,  &c.,  of  the  Jews 
and  those  of  their  neighbours,  have  been  entirely  altered  from  one  of  argument  to  one  of 
fact ;  "  so  that  it  is  now  clear1  "  beyond  all  further  dispute,  that  very  important  similar 
ities  do  exist,  and  which  can  be  denied  by  no  one,  without  betraying  great  ignorance  of 
plain  matters  of  fact."  This  is  pretty  well  for  a  very  orthodox  D.D.  of  the  English 
Church  to  admit,  and  highly  orthodox  churchmen  to  publish,  but  it  is  honest  so  far  as 
it  goes,  which  is  not  of  course  nearly  far  enough ;  still  it  is  a  great  step  for  churchmen  to 
face  " 'facts,"  and  if  they  would  only  do  this  towards  all  faiths,  and  leave  the  results  in 
the  hands  of  God,  we  should  soon  agree  with  each  other. 
With  reference  to  those  quaint  little  figures  of  man 
and  woman  in  my  illustration,  No.  73,  p.  191,  I  wish  to 
draw  attention  to  what  I  consider  is  their  reappearance 
in  the  rays  of  the  Egyptian  Sun — a  very  natural  place 
for  them,  as  well  as  for  Cruces  Ansatce,  especially  during 
the  time  of  Linga  and  Yoni- worship,  which  we  have  in 
this  Fig.  78  from  Mr  Samuel  Sharpe's  very  excellent 
book  on  Egyptian  Mythology.  Here  the  Sun,  upheld 
by  serpents  on  each  side,  is  shedding  hand-like  rays 
which  appear  to  me  the  ark  deity  of  my  Fig.  73  re 
versed;  and  here  we  have  man  and  woman  engaged 
in  worshipping  the  procreative  symbols,  or  as  we 
say  in  India  "  at  Lingapooja " — the  Supreme  Sacrifice  of  creation,  in  the 
immediate  and  active  presence  of  the  Sun,  for  the  serpent  and  hand  denote  the 

1  Kitto's  Pic.  Bible,  I.,  Ex.  xxv. 

Fig.    78.  — THEBAN  WOKS 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  .FaitJis  of  Alan  in  all  Lands. 

activity  of  Sivas  nature,  which  the  Lotuses  crowd  upwards  to  receive.  The  sacred 
vase  (woman)  is  here  also  being  presented  to  the  Lingam  and  to  the  holder  of  the  Crux 
Ansata.  The  ray  of  the  Sun  is  the  Darter,  Enlivener,  Spiritualise!,  or  Life-Giver  and 
so  are  hands,  as  well  as  all  goads,  thorns,  or  horns,  whether  those  of  Isis,  Dionysus,  or 
Moses.  Horus  as  "  the  vault  of  heaven"  is  often  seen  stretching  forth  his  hands  to 
quicken  all  life,  and  the  ends  of  Isis'  horns  were  also  often 
shaped  with  hands  if  her  energies  were  meant  to  be  con 
sidered  in  activity.  In  this  other  illustration  from  Mr 
Sharpe's  volume  we  see,  I  believe,  a  king  worshipping 
Isis  or  the  Yoni,  as  the  sealed  and  embattled  tower,  with  orbs 
of  eternal  vision  over  it,  and  the  Sun  shedding  forth  his 
hand-like  rays  from  which  Cruccs  Ansatce  are  issuing  to 
fly  over  the  ark  and  its  worshipper ;  man,  is  here 
asking  to  be  blessed  with  all  the  good  that  he  desires — no 
doubt  progeny.  Mr  Sharpe  holds  this  to  be  a  King  Adon- 
Ea-Bakan  worshipping  the  Sun,  but  it  is  as  clearly  Yoni- 
worship,  as  the  last  figure  is  Lingam  ;  the  woman  being 
there  the  vase-holder,  the  figure  abounds  with  lotuses 
•presented  to  a  manly  quiescent  person,  whom  Mr  Sharpe 
takes  to  be  a  Thebau  king  worshipping  Amon-Ra.  He  evidently  sits  before  his  symbol 
— the  Lingam,  on  the  tall  palm- like  stem,  to  receive  the  adoration  of  women,  as  Krishna 
Maha  Rajas  still  do  at  the  shrines  of  the  eastern  Apollo. 

It  of  course  took  time,  probably  a  vast  period  of  time,  for  the  grand  arks  of  Egypt 
and  Solomon  to  develope  from  the  little  "  chest  "  or  Aron,  which  wanderers  like  those  of 
Sinai  constructed  for  their  gods  and  divining  tools,  and  how  much  longer  to  grow  into 
little  dark  adyta,  and  then  buildings  worthy  of  the  name  of  temples ;  for  I  conceive 
there  is  no  doubt,  that  as  from  the  Nomad's  hut  we  have  risen  to  palatial  domi 
ciles,  so  ecclesiastically,  from  the  grove  we  rose  to  arks  or  itinerating  sanctuaries,  then 
to  fixed  abodes  or  natural  caverns,  and  so  on,  by  little  and  little,  till  our  gorgeous 
cathedrals  are  the  outcome  of  the  cultivated  religious  idea.  The  Greek  borrowed  his 
faith  and  learning,  if  not  his  very  blood,  from  his  great  predecessors  of  whom  we  yet 
know  so  little — the  Phenicians  ;  and  we  first  hear  of  Greeks  bowing  down  in  the  pre 
sence  of  sacred  groves,  and  then  claiming  reverence  for  their  sacred  stories,  regarding 
the  Beotian  boat  or  Argos,  and  afterwards  busying  themselves  about  arks  and 
Argonats,  with  which  the  people's  whole  early  history  is  so  intimately  mixed  up  ; 
Beotia  means  "  the  country  of  the  Boat."  Arkites  have  in  all  nations  contributed 
a  very  important  part  to  the  world's  history,  and  amongst  them  Jews  may  indeed 
be  proud  to  appear, -not  only  in  ancient  days,  but  at  present,  and  to  class  their 
faith  with  the  modified  Arkite  ones  which  Europe  has  for  the  most  part  adopted. 
Her  "  Queen  of  heaven,'.'  and  mother  of  her  god,  is  the  "  Immaculate  sailing  Venus, 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 

20 1 

or  Kubele — "  MARIA  DE  NAVICELLA,"  she  of  yon  crescent-shaped  boat  of  Venus,  whom 
we  may  see  in  the  British  Museum  as  hung,  and  very  properly  so,  on  THE  TREE  OF  LIFE'?I 
or  "  Life-giving  Tree,"  a  common  position  for  Bells,  and  metaphorically  for  Venuses. 

I  must  then  ask  my  readers  to  dismiss  altogether  from  their  minds  the  later  idea 
that  Egyptian,  Jewish  or  Greek  arks  or  boats  were  for  looks,  codes  of  laws,  or 
"  Testimonies,"  as  we  now  understand  this  last  word,  and  to  see  in  Arks  only  sanc 
tuaries  -for  quite  natural  elements,  or  the  elements  required  for  that  faith  which 
we  now  veil  under  the  cognomen  of  "  Nature-  Worship."  As  Jews  advanced 
in  knowledge  and  enlightenment,  they  of  course  saw  that  the  idea  of  their  early 
Eduth  or  Gehduth  (so  pronounced  if  the  Oin  is  Ghain),  was  a  very  crude  and 
lowering  one,  which  falsified  the  name  they  later  sought  to  acquire,  of  having 
all  along  been  good  monotheists  ;  and  so  a  real  "  Testimony,"  or  Law  of  their  Jhavh 
was  no  doubt  placed  in  their  ark,  but  not,  I  think,  prior  to  the  days  of  Josiah,  when 
Helkiah  (whose  son  was  probably  the  Deuteronomist  Jeremiah)  suddenly  pronounced 
they  "  had  found  a  book."  There  is  certainly  not  a  shadow  of  proof  that  such  a 
"  testimony  "  was  known  until  the  tribes  were  tolerably  settled  in  Canaan,  as  Bishop 
Colenso  makes  indubitably  cle<ir,and  as  I  shall  enlarge  011  under  Jewish  faiths.  It  is  very 
unlikely,  also,  that  David  would  have  danced  naked  before  any  literary  production, 
but  it  has  always  been  the  custom  at  certain  solar  periods  to  do  this  before  the  Linga- 
in-Yoni,  or  an  ark  with  a  "  Jaliveh  Nissi"  Dionysus,  or  Osiris  in  it.  I  here  give  such 
an  ark,  well  known  as  the  shrine  of  Amon  or  Osiris,  in  which  the  Adama,  Mast,  or 
Deity,  is  shown  more  presentable  than  I  suspect  the  original  authorises.  It  is  often 

called  the  Ismian  Car,  or  Omphe,  and  the  Ark  of  the  Sun,  Passion,  or  Fertility.  At 
all  great  solar  phases  or  fetes,  this  ark  boat  itinerated  the  towns  and  villages  of  Egypt, 
when  love  and  matrimony  were  more  especially  the  themes  of  the  people.  It  was  always 
carried  on  the  shoulders  of  Nudes,2  and  to  touch  it,  not  to  say  look  into  it,  would  not 
only  have  caused  some  awful  affliction  to  the  offender,  as  in  the  case  of  the  Emerods, 

1  See  details  note  p.  9.     Idolomania  2  The  symbol  in  rear  is  the  Glans,  see  Figs.  87,  88  following. 

i.  2  c 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Fait/is  of  Alan  in  all  Lands. 

Fig.  81 — AFIIIIOWTE. 

and  the  offending  Bethshemites  (1  Sam.  vi.),  but  been  undoubtedly  visited  with  death, 
as  in  the  case  of  Uzziah  (2  Sam.  vi.). 

\Yc  have  the  same  Arkite  ideas  in  the  cradles  of  all  gods.  Moses,  in  his  basket 
floating  on  the  wTaters  (Salacia)  is  such  an  idea,  and  so 
is  this  lovely  Aphrodite  in  her  shell,  with  Love 
or  Cupid — the  only  privileged  individual — peering  into 
it.  This  is  the  ancient  and  original,  though  disowned, 
Maria  de  Navicella,  in  the  holy  naus,  and  a  very  femi 
nine  and  salacious  idea  it  is,  which  has  been  repeated 
again  and  again  in  all  the  religions  of  man.  In  Christi 
anity  we  generally  have  it  as  a  male  idea,  as  in  Fig.  82, 
where  Horus  lies  in  a  cradle  (emblem  of  the  Yoni)  and  is 
called  the  "Ilostie  Sainte,"  or  Jesus  the  Sunof  Right 
eousness.  Notice  that  he  springs  from  the  Cross  or  Tree  of  Life,  and  holds,  to  his  breast, 
another  cross  on  a  solar  disc,  as  does  Minerva  the  Gorgon  figure  of  the  Child  or  Passion, 

^  which  denotes  eternity  or  continuity,  and  as  the  Chinese 
Queen  of  Heaven  holds  the  Lingam  (see  fig.  38,  p.  116), 
which  is  too  gross,  however,  for  Europe,  though  the 
meaning  is  the  same  in  both  cases,  and  equally  clear  to 
the  initiated.  If  the  Chinese  Maya  or  Mary,  rests 
upon  a  veritable  tempestuous  sea  of  passion,  so  does 
Horns'  Cross,  and  Minerva's  Gorgon — fit  name  for  our 
oft-disordered  minds  and  breasts,  the  seat  of  those 
natural  emotions,  which  the  mind  or  soul  has  such 
trouble  in  controlling.  The  Virgin  mother  seems  here 
at  no  pains  to  restrain  hers  ;  for  see,  she  presents  to  the 
rising  Horus  or  Phallic  Cross-in-  Yoni,  just  as  we  daily 
see  Indian  maids  and  mothers  do,  her  whole  heart — Ain 
orAit,  that  burning  seat  of  heat  and  love  in  the  estima 
tion  of  all  faiths  and  peoples ;  and  mark  that  she  has 
carefully  entwined  around  it  the  thorny  irritator,  ac 
knowledging  in  it  a  symbol  of  divinity,  and  rejoicing  in  the  bleeding  heart  as 
symbol  of  her  love-God,  who  pierces  and  thrills  her  with  varied  emotions  :  in  all 
nations,  but  especially  in  Southern  Europe  and  India,  have  women  treasured  such 
symbols  and  devices  as  thorns,  hearts,  fascinse,  &c.  In  India,  the  Ankoos,  or  goad  and 
guider  of  the  elephant,  is  one  of  many  favorites  :  it  is  a  spear-headed  shaft,  with  a 
crook  or  cr-ozier  springing  from  the  base  of  the  spear.  Gen.  Cunningham,  in  his 
Archeological  Survey  Report  of  India  for  1873-74,  tells  us  that  "  the  Ankoos  is  the 
favorite  ornament  "l  on  the  elaborate  sculptures  of  even  the  Boodhist  ladies,  at  the 
1  See  Proc  :  As  :  Soc.  Beng :  May  1874.  Bharahut  is  nine  miles  S.E.  of  Satna  Railway  Station. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  203 

latest  discovered  shrine — Bharafiut ;  that  it  "  is  placed  at  intervals  in  the  long  necklace* 
of  the  ladies.''  Lingams,  Ankooses,  and  such  like,  are  to  be  found  on  the  arms  or  necks  of 
most  gently  brought-up  Hindoo  children,  and  we  see  it  on  the  state-collar  of  the  Asyriau 
kings.  The  Ankoos,  like  the  Serpent,  sometimes  denotes  a  Basileus,  as  well  as  the  faith 
of  the  wearer,  just  as  does  the  priapic  cap  or  helmet  of  Mars,  and  Mitre  of  Dionysus  and 
ancient  Bishops.  We  must  not  here  overlook  the  Queen  of  Heaven  in  the  Sky,  from 
whence  our  baby-boy  really  sprang,  though  through  an  earthly  maid.  She  is  here  the  Cup 
or  Chalice  pouring  down  riches  on  her  child,  as  Ceres  often  does  upon  the  thirsty 
earth.  At  times  she  is  the  Chalice  d'  Amertume,  and  like  the  heart,  surrounded 
by  her  Lord — the  king  or  crown  of  thorns ;  but  the  Aureole  of  refulgent  light  pro 
ceeding  from  Apollo's  cradle  is  here  dimming  all  around  it,  and  the  Cup  and  its  own 
nimbus  is  sinking  into  mere  lunar  glory,  of  which  it  is  the  almost  universally  accepted 
symbol.  It  is  surpassingly  strange  that  the  designers  of  this  beautiful  picture,  of  which 
my  woodcut  merely  pretends  to  give  the  prominent  outlines,  were  in  all  probability 
entirely  ignorant  of  the  old,  old  truths  which  are  here  pourtrayed  ;  for  the  picture,  even 
as  we  may  pick  it  up  in  any  Roman  Catholic  book-shop,  is  one  of  great  beauty,  and 
when  worked  up  hi  color  with  artistic  skill — as  it  has  been  a  thousand  times,  and 
will  no  doubt  ever  continue  to  be — is  artistically,  mythologically,  and  as  many  of 
our  brethren  would  add,  religiously  grand.  It  is  an  idea  the  Churches  are  never 
tired  of  elaborating,  and  probably  never  will  be.  But  a  word  more  regarding  holy  or 
sacramental  cups,  chalices,  bowls,  or  vases,  and  from  the  learned  and  orthodox  Christian 
writer  of  Idolomania  rather  than  myself.  At  pages  39,  40  he  says  :  "Whatever  has 
the  property  of  receiving,  containing,  and  producing  (the  adhara  sakti,  or  literally  the 
Mouth-power  of  the  Sanskrit)  is  symbolical  throughout  Asia  (aye  the  world)  of  the 

female  nature hence  cups,  chalices,  vases,  helmets,  and  hollow  things  in  general, 

are  found  with  interpreting  devices,  upon  coins.  In  the  Doorgapooja  (worship  of  the 
earth-goddess),  the  sacred  chalice  is  marked  with  triangles,  and  a  cup  or  vase  is  held 
in  the  hand  of  the  Trimoorti  or  three-faced,  but  one  God — the  Hindoo  Trinity.  When 
the  priest  of  Mithra  converted  the  Haum  into  the  material  substance  of  the  invisible 
God  (that  is,  consecrated  '  the  elements '),  he  held  the  consecrated  chalice  in  his  hand, 
and  assured  the  people  that  whoever  should  eat  of  it,  would  receive  new  life,  because 

he  would  then  be  eating  the  god  of  life Much  the  same  takes  place  in  the 

Hindoo  rite  of  Agni — God  of  Fire,  in  his  form  of  Jivani  or  Lord  of  Life.  In  this  case 
the  Soma  is  the  subject  of  the  priestly  conjuration,"  so  that  Protestants  must  appreciate 
at  its  due  worth  the  mysterious  cup,  which  I  fear  they  fancy  may  be  any  cup,  and  their 
bread  be  any  bread.  The  Romish  Church  knows  better,  and  its  southern  and  eastern 
leaders  probably  better  also,  the  baselessness  of  that  fiction  which  fancies  the  bread  is 
merely  'to  typify  that  supper  which  the  poor  Gallileans  are  thought  to  have  partaken 
of  for  the  last  time,  ere  the  Sanhedrim  pronounced  their  doom.  At  page  196  we  have 
seen  that  the  Monstrance,  in  which  the  holy  bread  is  kept  is  a  .solar  circle  of  white  in 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

the  crescent  moon  ;  and  here  I  give  a  larger  view  of  the  same,  as  generally  presented  to 
"  the  faithful."  There  is  no  mistaking  the  solar  origin  of  this  myth,  for  here  is  clearly 
Horus  springing  from  his  grassy  bed,  in  the  vernal  year,  surrounded  with  "  ten  thousand 

angels,"  and  therefore  he  was  held  up  to  the  anxious 
and  wistful  eyes  of  his  children,  whose  very  life  depends 
upon  his  now  dominant  sway  ;  so  the  Roman  Catholic 
priest  raises  it  aloft  before  the  Mystic  Cross,  and  against 
the  soft,  rich,  light  of  that  orient  window,  and  proclaims 
it  "LJ  Hostie  de  Noel — the  emblem  of  eternal  life," 
when  down  sink  the  adoring  multitude  on  their  knees, 
and  tinkle  go  the  little  bells  to  add  to  the  adoration, 
and  scare  away  all  evil  from  the  hallowed  symbol. 
Before  this  superstition  we  have  long  seen,  and  will  long 
continue  to  see  some  of  the  greatest  power  of  reason  and 
intellect  sink  down  humbled, incapable,  and  abashed;  but 
do  not  let  us  on  this  account  follow  the  multitude,  nor 
those  men,  though  of  varied  genius  and  great  powers, 
whom  we  occasionally,  nay  often,  find  in  all  faiths 
meekly  kneeling  with  hierophants  and  their  docile 
rig.  as.  VF.RXAI.  HOUI  s.  herds 

There  is  no  appearance  in  these  fetes  of  L'  IJostie,  of  any  forgetfulness  or  disrespect 
of  Sol.  Although  a  Jewish  child — the  real  and  Eternal  Father  is  the  ostensible 
worship,  yet  we  see  the  Sun  in  every  corner  of  the  fretted  roofs  and  pictured  walls, 
and  we  notice  that  only  on  Sol's  holy  days  this  spnbol— the  Solar  wafer — "  the  bread 
of  life"  is  raised  aloft  towards  "the  Bread-Giver,"  and  worshipped  by  multitudes  crying, 
"  Give  us  this  day  our  daily  bread."  Those  who  know  well  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of 
the  present  and  ancient  Catholic  Churches,  will  be  better  able  than  I  to.  point  out  how 
near  these  come  to  the  ancient  ones  which  she  now  ignores  throughout  Europe  and  Asia. 

The  Church  name  for  the  wafer  shows  exactly  how  and  why  the  idea  of  Redemption 
and  Atonement  arose,  for  a  Ilostia  is  the  Victima  or  ?epnov,  the  smoke  of  whose  burning 
gave  such  pleasure  to  all  ancient  gods.1  We  are  told  that  the  Jewish  Jliavli  delighted  in 
the  smell  of  burning  fat  and  blood  ;  but  I  must  not  anticipate  my  chapter  on  Solar  faiths, 
and  I  trust  my  readers  will  forgive  this  digression,  seeing  how  difficult  it  is  to  keep 
;ipart  the  first  five  potent  roots  of  the  faiths  of  man ;  especially  is  it  difficult  to 
avoid  bringing  in  Sun  or  Serpent  as  the  energetic  agents  of  what  would  otherwise  be 
passionless  and  emotionless  nature. 

As  most  closely  connected,  though  not  identical  with  Arks,  Cradles,  the  Pyx  and 
Monstrance,  I  must  here  add  a  few  words  to  make  the  "  Door  of  Life  "  into  these 
Sanctuaries — viz.,  the  lOni  or  Yoni — quite  clear.  The  cradle  with  the  baby-boy,  the 
1  Greek  and  Roman  Antiquities,  art.  Sacrificium.  . 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  205 

lozenge-shaped  window  with  its  tinted  lights,  in  which  the  Virgin  and  Child  stand,  is 
to  be  seen  pictured  as  an  object  of  the  intensest  adoration  in  every  Catholic  Church, 
Salon,  and  Gallery  throughout  the  world,  and  not  seldom  in  the  sacred  place  of  all 
Faiths.  The  Earth,  as  Ge  or  Terra,  as  Egyptian  Cytnbium  and  Sanskrit  Boomi,  is  the 
great  primitive  Yoni  or  Argha,  into  which  the  Sun  shines,  and  so  fertilises ;  in  it  is  the 
"Lord-Linga"  his  emblem,  and  hence,  whether  "in  Yoni"  or  not,  called  the  Sun-stone. 
Many  a  day  have  I  stood  at  early  dawn  at  the  door  of  my  tent  pitched  in  a  sacred  grove, 
and  gazed  at  the  little  groups  of  females  stealthily  emerging  from  the  adjoining  half- 
sleeping  village,  each  with  a  little  garland  or  bunch  of  sweet  flowers,  and  perhaps  costly 
oil,  wending  their  way  to  that  temple  in  the  grove  or  garden  of  the  God  and  Goddess 
of  creation,  and  when  none  were  thought  to  see,  accompanying  their  earnest  prayer  for 
Pooli-Palam  (child-fruit)  with  a  respectful  abrasion  of  a  certain  part  of  their  person 
on  Linga-jee,  and  a  little  application  of  the  drippings  which  are  ever  trickling  from 
the  orifice  of  the  Argha. 

The  Sanskrit  word  Yoni  is  rendered  in  Greek  %5ip og  ffd^urrog  and  ^og  which  curiously 
enough  are  masculine  nouns ;  whilst  the  Latin  words  Virga  and  Mentula,  signifying 
the  Phallus,  are  feminine.  It  is  note-worthy  that  Virgaalso  means  a  ''scourge"  or  "whip  " 
which  urges  to  duty,  and  many  Phallic  deities  are  therefore  shown  with  whips. 

1  here  give  the  well-known  gem  discovered  by  Layard  amidst  the  ruins  of  Nineveh, 
which  is  held  to  be  Harpokrates — a  form  of  Dionysus — sitting  on  a  Lotus, 
adoring  the  too  mundane  organ  of  creation.    This  same  "  silent  god  "  is 
really   Bacchus,    in   no    inactive   capacity,    and    Cupid   often    sits   thus 
with  finger  on  or   before  the  mouth,   when  most  bent  on  wickedness. 
The  Yoni  is  everywhere  the  sign  of  health,  and  the  driver   away   of  all  ng.  84.-wc 
evil,  as  the  Churches  of  Spain  and  Ireland  still  depict  this  object.     At 
Servatos  in  Spain,  "  a  rude  image  of  a  woman  shamelessly  exhibiting  herself  stands 
over  one  side  of  a  door,  with  an  equally  conspicuous  man  on  the  other,  and  the  same 

has  been  found  in  Mexico,  Peru,  and  North  America Baubo  cured  the 

intense  grief  of  Ceres  by  exposing  herself  in  a  strange  fashion  to  the  distressed  god 
dess  ;"  see  p.  66.  of  Inman's  Symbolism,  quoting  Arnobius  Op.  Cit.,  from  which  I 
quote  the  above,  almost  word  for  word.  The  exhibition  was  a  Yoni  denuded  as  is 
customary  in  this  faith,  the  sight  of  which  consoled  Ceres,  and  enabled  her  to  take 
food.  Arabia  and  Africa  still  commonly  put  the.  emblems  of  mares  and  cows 
over  their  doors  as  charms,  and  in  France  as  late  as  the  16th  century  such 
Yonis  were  used.  Europe  now  contents  herself  with  horse-shoes,  and  the  Barmese 
Boodhists  with  a  lozenge,  which,  by  a  strange  hallucination  or  oversight,  the 
British  Government  in  annexing  Banna  selected  as  the  form  of  their  official  seal ; 
and  hence  all  British  mandates  and  state  papers  now  go,  and  have  done  so  for  nearly  a 
quarter  of  a  century,  as  well  to  foreign  Potentates  as  to  our  own  subjects,  under  this 
free  and  easy  "health-giving  charm."  As  I  have  used  it  myself  in  Government  offices- 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

in  Banna  for  many  years,  I  can  testify  to  the  fact  of  our  Boodhist  officials  thoroughly 
understanding  it,  having  observed  many  a  smile  and  jocose  remark  passing  as  the 
young  office-hands  daily  stamped  the  various  documents  with  "the  charm,"  before  pass 
ing  them  out  in  the  evening. 

Siva  is  in  India  called  the  holder  or  owner  of  theBhdga,  which  is  one  of  the  names  of 
the  Yoni  or  Bag;  hence  he  is  Bhagha-van,  or  Bhagha-vari,  and  his  consort  is  Bhaga-vani, 
or  shortly,  Bhavani.  In  the  Mahomedan  "Dahistan,"  a  Persian  work  of  the  1 7th  century,} 

a  man,  who  understood  well  the  lore  of  those  very  prac 
tical  Phallic-worshippers — the.  Saktis,  says  that  the  high 
altars  of  the  Mosks,  are  Bhagas  or  Yonis  (he  might  have 
said  the  same  of  Christian  altars),  and  the  minarets 
Lingas — here  too,  he  might  have  added,  corresponding 
to  our  altar  candles.  This  observant  Sakti  here  accounts 
for  what  has  often  puzzled  me  in  Synagogues,  Mosks,  and 
Masjeeds  (places  of  prayer),  viz.,  the  ovicular  bulge,  always 
given  to  the  back  wall,  just  opposite  the  raised  pulpit. 

Nor  is  Boodhism  free  from  phallic  forms  and  ideas.  In 
this  figure  85,  which  Dr.  Inman  gives  us2  from  the  Jour. 
R.  As.  Socy.,  xviii.  394,  taken  from  the  monastery  of  Go- 
pach  in  Nepal,  we  see  a  Boodhiswata  in  the  same  charmed 
symbol,  the  mare's  shoe,  or  it  may  be  a  cow's  or  donkey's, 
all  or  any  being  sufficient  to  ward  off  the  evil  eye,  as  well 
in  the  further  Himalayas  as  in  our  own  "  Green  Isle." 

This  figure  87,  also  from  Layard  and  Inman,  is  a  com 
panion  one  to  Layard's  gem  from  Nineveh,  my  No.  84,  in  which 
we  see  the  Linga  and  Yoni  on  the  same  altar  with  the  reduplica 
tion  of  a  Yoni  and  palm-tree,  and  the  Sun  and  Moon  above.  The 
barred  Sistrum  explains  to  us  the  origin  and 
meaning  of  "  the  ladder  to  heaven  "  which 
so  long  puzzled  us  all,  and  which  is  made 
doubly  clear  in  this  figure  86,  from  the  same 
author,  to  whom  we  are  all  so  much  indebted. 
Over  this  "  ladder  '*  is  a  seven-rayed  star, 
emblem  of  virile  power,  and  a  very  peculiar 
hand  at  the  junction  of  the  two. 

Any  generating  part  of  either  sex  is  often,  as  I  have  before 
urged,  used  to  signify  all  the  parts,  and  even  both  sexes ;  and  so 
-any  characteristic  part,  especially  of  a  symbolic  animal,  often 


Fig.  87. — WORSHIP  OF  LI> 


Fig.  Sfi. — WORSHIP  OF  VIRGO 

stands  for  the  whole  Arbil;  and  I  think  Dr  Inman  may  be  right  in  what  he  states  at  page 
1  Translated  by  D.  Shea  for  Or.  Ti-ans.  Fund.,  3  vols.,  Allan  &  Co.,  London..          2  Symbolism,  p.  78. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  207 

100  of  his  volume  on  Symbolism,  as  to  the  figures — somewhat  like  squares  within  squares, 
into  which  the  Tortoise's  shell  is  divided,  often  standing  in  hieroglyph  for  the  whole  Tor 
toise-idea  ;  and  in  the  same  way  a  portion  of  a  curly  fleece  of  a  Ram,  standing  for  the 
whole  of  that  rampagious  animal,  on  which,  says  Pausanias,  "  Venus  is  as  often  seen 
standing,  as  on  a  Tortoise."  We  are  now  commonly  told  that  "  the  Golden 
Fleece"  was  held  to  be  a  euphemism  for  that  which  over-shadowed  the  "Grove," 
and  for  that  in  which  the  "  Tree  "  was  buried — the  Lanugo  ;  and  so  Mr.  New 
ton  in  the  Appendix  assures  us  that  the  glans  of  the  Phallus  stands  for  the  whole, 
and  its  shape — so  different  from  that  of  the  column— is  the  reason  of  our  constantly 
having  the  cone,  triangle  or  pyramid  as  the  representation  of  Priapus.  The  curious  squares 
on  the  back  of  the  Tortoise  may  be  the  cause  why  labyrinths  have  been  so  common 
about  holy  places,  and  why  we  still  see  in  the  East  at  doors  of  temples  and  houses 
such  quaint-looking  labyrinthic  figures.  They  possibly  had  to  do  with  the  coils  of  the 
Serpent ;  surely  they  were  not  meant  to  pourtray  those  social  tanglements  which  sexual 
matters  usually  evolve.  We  see  the  Tortoise  over  a  closed  ark  covered  with  rectangles 
on  the  glans  of  that  wondrous  phallus  which  Mr.  Newton  so  clearly  explains  to  us  at 
page  125  of  Dr.  Inman's  Symbolism,  and 
also  very  cogent  reasons  for  calling  a 
phallus  a  "  Sun-Pillar  or  stone  ; "  for 
here  it  is  crowned  with  Suns,  whilst  all 
round  the  glans  are  Arks  with  solar-like 
summits,  Serpents,  an  excited  Cock,  &c. 
I  give  here  Dr.  Inman's  drawing  of  the 
glans  of  another  Phallus,  on  which  we 
also  observe  that  Suns  surround  the 
apex,  whilst  "  beneath  (says  Mr  New 
ton)  is  the  horse-shoe-like  head-dress  of 
Isis,  and  two  altars  marked  with  the 
tortoise-emblem  in  front.  Over  both 
rises  the  erect  serpent,  and  upon  one. 
the  arrow-headed  cuniform  cipher  or 
dart,  both  male  symbols."  The  Phallus 
which  appears  in  the  British  Museum 

.  t  .        .  .,  Fig.  88.— GL 

opposite  to  this,  is  a  valuable  contribu 
tion  to  the  study  of  the  subject,  and  will  well  repay  scrutiny.  Its  "  Column  of  Life  "  is 
formed  in  all  its  length — two  and  a  half  feet — by  a  majestic  man  armed  with  a  bow  and 
two  arrows,  whose  dress  is  elaborately  studded  with  Yonis  and  Asyrian  "  Trees  of  Life." 
A  prominent  St.  Andrew's  Cross  is  shown  over  his  chest,  into  the  centre  of  which  point 
two  Phalli  in  conjunction  with  two  ovals.  Rampant  winged  lions  are  seen  adoring 
another  Sri-Linga  on  his  phallic  head-dress,  and  his  triangular  arrow-heads  are  clearly 

208  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

more  in  keeping  with  that  of  a  Krishna  or  Solomon  than  a  Toxophilite.  The  arrows, 
which  are  in  pairs,  remind  us  that  all  Temple  pillars  used  to  be  so  too,  as  also  stones 
inside  arks  (like  that  of  Israel),  caves  or  niches  ;  and  that  the  ancients  held  that  one 
side  of  us  produced  male,  and  the  other  female,  and  inasmuch  as  one  sex  could  be  of  no 
use  in  nature,  so  neither  was  one  column  or  stone  considered  a  perfected  structure. 

In  "  Montfaucon," T  we  have  a  very  true  idea  of  a  Phallus,  and,  from 
the  best  of  all  authorities,  "du  tempe  de  Minerve  d' Athene"  It  is  an  obeliscal 
column  with  the  glans  very  distinct,  from  which,  instead  of  the  usual  flame,  issues  a 
child,  which  all  Egyptologists  well  know  was  a  common  symbolism  in  Egypt. 
On  the  very  rounded  head,  a  half-nude  female  rests  her  hand  and  blandly  smiles  ; 
whilst  another,  in  a  dancing  attitude,  stands  on  the  other  side.  In  the  same  volume, 
plate  cxx.,  we  also  get  a  rather  uncommon  Phallus,  which  was  the  arms  or  symbol 
of  the  Greek  town  of  Prusa  or  Brusa,  situated  on  the  north  side  of  Mount  Olympus, 
and  which  may  be  Kieros  of  Solar  proclivities.  It  is  a  nude  female  with  dishevelled 
hair  and  raised  arms,  standing  by  the  side  of  a  conical  mountain,  which  embraces  her 
whole  figure :  at  her  foot  crouches  "  a  marine  monster,"  and  the  whole  may,  as 
Montfau9on  suspects,  be  Andromeda,  but  none  the  less  Siva  and  Parvati. 

It  has  been  commonly  supposed  that  Phallic  faiths  are  young  in  Europe  in  com 
parison  with  Asia,  but  we  "have  lately  found,  in  a  bone  cave  near  Venice,  a  Phallus  of 
baked  clay,  together  with  a  bone  needle  under  a  bed  of  Stalagmite  ten  feet  thick  ;2 
and  we  have  yet  to  find  out  whether  this  is  5000  or  50,000  years  old. 

The  Israelitish  Yoni  was  of  stone  or  wood,  and  that  which  Gideon  cut  down  was  so 
large,  that  it  is  said  he  was  able  to  offer  a  bullock  as  a  burnt  sacrifice  from  the  wood 
of  it.  I  can  recall  to  mind  somewhat  similar  huge  and  highly  sexual  wooden  figures 
often  standing  by  themselves  in  groves  and  sometimes  desert  places  in  India,  which  I 
regret  to  say  I  have  negligently  neither  sketched,  nor  inquired  into  the  history  of.  We 
may  observe  from  the  Vulgate  and  LXX.  translations  of  2  Chron.  xv.  15,  16  and  Jud. 
iii.  7,  that  Asherah,  Astarte,  and  Astaroth  are  indifferently  used  as  equivalents  for  the 
"  Grove."  They  all  seem  to  be  feminine  Ba-als ;  Oth  is  the  plural  affix,  so  that 
me>K,  Asherah  or  Ashtaroth  in  the  plural,  become  Asherahath  and  Ashtoroth  ;  ah 
or  h  being  the  feminine  affix  as  in  Ish  or  Esh,  man,  and  Islia  a  woman.  Asher,  the 
male,  becomes  Asherah,  the  female  organ.  The  Asherah  was,  as  a  rule,  kept  close  to 
Baal,  and  in  real  groves  or  on  "  high  places ;  "  but  in  later  days,  Manasseh  erected  one 
in  the  temple  of  Jahveh,  2  Kings  xxi.  7.  The  "  Grove  "  was  as  popular  as  Baal, 
having  four  hundred  priests,  who  all  ate  at  the  table  of  Queen  Jezebel,  daughter  of 
^^-Ba-al,  King  of  Sidon.  The  Asherim  are  held  to  be  female  emblems  of  Baal,  or 
numerous  emblems  of  Asher,  "IB>K,  whom  the  Phenicians  called  Osir,  TDK,  or  Husband, 
Lord,  Osiris,  or  Phallus.  He  was  "the  prosperous,"  "firm,"  and  "happy  one,"  over 
whom  the  Pompeians  wrote  :  "  Hie  habitat  felicitas."  Mr  Newton  is  of  opinion  that 

1  Tom.  III.,  Part  1,  plate  i. 
z  Inuiau's  Anc.Pagan  and  Mod.  Christ.  Symbolism,  2d  Ed.  1874,  p.  113.     Appen.  by  Mr  Newton. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  209 

these  Asharim,  or  male  symbols,  are  conventionally  represented  in  the  numerous 
budding  branches  which  gods  and  great  men  are  seen  to  carry,  as  in  Figures  5  and  9  of 
my  plate  IV.  In  Fig.  5,  we  have  a  Bacchus,  from  Hislop's  "  Babylon,"  drinking  out  of  a 
vase,  with  a  head  ornament  of  crosses,  and  a  dress  of  three  fleur-de-lis-looking  dots;  and 
in  Fig.  9  we  have  a  priest  or  chief  of  Nineveh  carrying,  besides  his  Arbor  Vitae,  the 
spotted  antelope,  which  very  probably  signifies  Diana — at  all  events  woman.  These 
branches  or  Asherim  of  "the  Tree  of  Life,"  are  commonly  "  figured  on  the  houses  of 
newly-married  couples  among  the  Jews  in  Morocco "  (Symbolism,  p.  3)  ;  so  we  see 
where  the  New  Testament  writers  probably  borrowed  their  ideas  of  the  "Tree  of 
Life  " — "  the  vine  and  branches,"  which  was,  they  said,  the  new  Logos. 

The  ancient  Jews  had  small  Lares  and  Penates,  or  Yonis  and  Lingams,  just  as  all 
the  world  had,  and  as  Hindoos,  and  millions  not  Hindoos  still  have.  We  have  two 
instances  of  such  in  the  "idols  "  of  Rebecca  and  the  queen-mother  Maachah  (1  Kings 
xv.  13),  although  these  "idols"  are  not  called  Asherim  and  Asherahoths ;  that  of  the 
Queen  is  called  a  Miphletzeth,  nv^ao,  or  in  the  language  of  the  Vulgate,  a  "Simu 
lacrum  Pria/pi."  It  is  impossible  not  to  see  the  worldly  wisdom  and  learning  of  that 
great  church  which  refused,  and  still  practically  refuses  to  give  this  invaluable  book — 
the  Jewish-Christian  Bible — to  the  people.  Protestants  in  their  ignorance  "  rushed 
in  where  angels  feared  to  tread,"  and  the  result  is  already  very  clear.  Before  this  cen 
tury  is  over  these  writings  will  be  pulled  to  pieces,  and  churches  and  their  figments 
scattered  much  further  and  wider.  It  is  scarce  two  hundred  years  since  persons,  not 
clerical,  began  to  study  the  New  Testament  in  the  Greek,  and  scarce  a  generation  since 
independent  minds  have  really  set  to  work  to  master  the  Hebrew,  and  travel  therein 
out  of  the  old  orthodox  paths  of  clerical  translators.  Another  generation  or  two — with 
all  the  additional  floods  of  light  which  have  burst  upon  this  one,  and  matured, 
dissected,  and  worked  up  with  the  sound  data  which  now  comes  to  us  from  tablets, 
rocks,  and  monuments,  which  our  fathers  could  not  read  and  never  dreamt  of — and  we 
shall  have  such  a  revolution  in  faiths,  and  we  must  hope  this  time  such  a  wise  and 
peaceful  revolution,  as  the  world  has  never  yet  witnessed.  All  churches  and  nations  can 
scarcely  hope  for  a  perfectly  peaceful  change  ;  but  where  the  paths  of  education  have 
not  been  blocked  up  by  an  interested  priesthood,  and  the  masses  been  allowed  to  learn 
and  think  for  themselves,  we  may  hope  that  when  the  ripening  of  the  upper  middle 
classes  takes  place,  the  higher,  upper,  and  lower  strata  will  have  been  sufficiently 
grounded  in  ordinary  learning  to  follow  their  teachers  with  understanding,  and  to  see 
that  physical  restraint  cannot  curb  the  mind. 

I  have  not  yet  said  all  that  is  necessary  on  Jewish  Phallo-Solar  cult,  for  I 
would  wish  to  trace  this  up  to  the  palmy  days  when  Jews  are  held  to  have  had  a  very 
grand  -and  wonderful  temple,  sacred  rites,  and  a  pure  faith  ;  so  my  readers  must  here 
bear  with  me  a  little  longer.  As  we  all  know  a  great  deal  about  Jews,  or  think  we 
do,  what  I  say  of  them  will  be  better  understood,  though  I  fear  less  appreciated  and 

I.  2  D 

2io  Rivers  of  Life,  or  FaitJis  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

myself  better  abused  (this  matters  little  if  we  speak  the  truth  and  expose  error),  than 
if  I  waded  through  similar  details  of  other  tribes  or  nations,  though  greater  mentally 
and  religiously  beyond  all  comparison  than  the  Jewish  tribes  ever  were  or  could 
become.  Though  Jews  very  early,  often,  and  for  many  centuries  lost  their  ark,  it 
does  not  appear  they  then  lost  their  Serpent  and  Pole,  or  Standard,  Rod,  Banner,  or 
Nissi,  nor  possibly  the  Vase  of  Manna  or  Bread ;  at  least  their  traditions  constantly  speak 
of  the  miraculous  powers  of  the  Manna  and  of  Moses7  Rod,  which  I  fancy  took  the  place 
of  the  Adam  or  Seth,  before  which  Noh  and  his  family  prayed  in  their  Argos",  and 
which  is,  no  doubt,  connected  with  all  the  "  Matsoobas,"  "  Pillars,"  and  "  Great 
Stones  "  of  Jacob,  Joshua,  Adonijah,  and  even  the  pious  Josiah.  None  of  these  idols 
and  no  prophets  or  teachers  supplanted  Baal,  Baalim,  Molok,  Kiun,  or  the  Grove,  nay, 
nor  the  Ephod,  for  destroying  which  the  valiant  Gideon  so  nearly  sacrificed  his  life  ; 
and  but  for  his  father  Joash,  he  would  have  undoubtedly  suffered,  with  all  his  friends, 
"the  wrath  of  the  whole  people."  Let  us  look  at  this  revolution  and  attempted  re 
formation  somewhat  successfully  made  by  Gideon. 

This  was  a  clear  attempt  by  the  Yonites  to  upset  the  worship  of  Baal  or  the  Sun- 
Stone — an  assault  by  the  Ze/2-hand  on  the  right-hand,  sects.  Gideon  was  an  Ephod- 
worshipper,  and  the  later  writer  of  the  events — not  liking  Gideon's  Ephod  which  was 
made  of  the  ornaments  of  Israelites  and  Midianites  (Jud.  viii.  22,  27),  and  hung  up 
in  his  sacred  town  or  place,  Ophrah — says  that  it  was  "a  snare  unto  Gideon,"  for  all 
Israel  went  "  a  whoring  after  it ; "  which  of  course  Gideonites  would  not  agree  to. 
Gideon  himself  was  a  poor  farmer  thrashing  out  wheat,  who,  the  writer  says,  saw  "  the 
Lord"  (Jud.  vi.  14)  sitting  "under  an  oak  in  Ophrah,"  for  whom  he  at  once  prepared 
some  soup,  kid  and  cakes  ;  but  as  it  would  not  exactly  do  to  tell  all  the  world  that 
Jhavh  ate  these  (the  person  is  indifferently  called  "Lord"  and  "angel  of  the  Lord," 
though  clearly  believed  to  be  the  same  God  who  gave  the  tribes  victory),  the  everlasting 
"  Rock,"  Fire,  and  ubiquitous  Rod  is  introduced,  which  demolishes  the  meat  and  soup, 
when  the  charmed  farmer  builds  an  altar  on  the  top  of  the  rock  and  calls  it  Jahveh 
Shalom,  or  his  "  Lord  God  of  Peace,"  a  name  of  Siva.  This  God  then  directs  him  to 
forthwith  demolish  the  antagonistic  altar  and  Grove  of  Baal,  which  he  clandestinely 
accomplishes  at  night.  He  then  likewise  beats  down  the  "Fire-Tower"  (viii.  17) — 
of  Penuel  or  Peniel,  which  we  shall  see  further  on  is  the  tower  of  Phan.  After  this, 
Gideon's  faith  is  said  to  prevail  for  the  time-honoured  number  of  forty  years;  but  "  as 
.soon  as  Gideon  was  dead,  the  children  of  Israel  turned  again  and  went  a  whoring 
after  Ba-alim,  and  made  Baal-Berith  their  God,"  which  the  margin  too  delicately 
describes  (v.  33)  as  "Jupiter  Fcederis,  or  Mercury,"  who  "presides  over  Covenants," 
that  is  "  THE  LORD  OF  THE  TESTIMONY,"  or  Maha  Deva.  Now,  what  was  this  Ephod- 
God  of  Gideon,  but  -the  highly  feminine  symbolism  which  Churches,  but  especially  the 
Romish,  still  adopt.  This  Ephod  had  in  great  prominence  two  golden  Shields, 
or  breasts  with  jewelled  centres,  and  a  breast-plate  with  twelve  stones  or  ova  of  divers 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 


Fig.  89. — NUN  WITH  STOL«. 

colors,  such  as  still  adorn  most  altars,  and  which  here  marked  the  parentage  of  the 
tribes,  who  all  worshipped  the  Stone  or  Rock,  Tsur.  This  breast-plate  was  called 
Shiryon  or  Sirion,  a  name  also  applied  to  Mount  Hermon  (Deut.  iii.  9),  which  must 
have,  therefore,  been  looked  upon  by  these  Arkites  as  an  Omphe, 
though  by  most  Syrians  as  a  phallus ;  or  perhaps  the  idea  is  the  same 
as  that  of  the  Stole  in  which  the  Calvary  or  Calvaria  is  the  head 
— Hermes  or  Sun,  and  the  whole  mass  the  sexual  and  probably 
dual  energies.  Dr  Inman  gives  us  this  as  the  female  stole  or 

o  o 

nun's  dress,  remarking  upon  the  strangeness  of  her  who  is  called 
a  fish  (nun)  having  a  dress  like  a  navis  (Anc.  Faiths,  L,  165). 
The  Ephod  of  the  High  Priest  was  finished  off  with  a  sacred  zone 
(virgin  belt?)  which  the  writer  of  Ex.  xxxix.  always  calls  a 
"  curious  girdle."  The  robe  had  a  hole  in  the  centre  for  the  head, 
and  all  round  the  hem  real  bells  of  pure  gold,  alternating  with 
pomegranates,  the  bells  being  given  to  tinkle  like  the  Sistrums 
of  Isis  and  of  most  churches,  and  so  to  denote  the  movements  of 
the  "Man  of  God." 

The  Ephod  had  all  the  thaumaturgic  powers  of  the  Rod 
of  Moses,  and  enabled  the  Priest  wearing  it  to  speak  with 
God  (1  Sam.  xxx.  7,8).  We  see  that  it  is  a  female  vestment  from 
Samuel  wearing  it  when  a  child  (1  Sam.  ii.  18),  and  by  David  putting  it  on  when  going 
before  the  Ark — a  female  deity  (2  Sam.  vi.,  14).  It  was  an  accompaniment  to  all 
"  houses  "  of  Elohim,  as  when  Micah  "  had  a  house  of  God,  (he)  made  an  Ephod 
and  Teraphim  "  (Jud.  xvii.  5),  which  are  usually  held  to  be  Penates  or  Lingams;  and  if 
so,  Micah  worshipped  both  organs.  Thus  then  we  see  that  the  warring  of  the  Right 
and  Left-hand  factions  among  Jews  or  Syrians  went  on  from  the  very  earliest  times, 
just  as  is  still  the  case  all  over  the  world.  In  India,  Sivaites,  Vishnooites,  and 
sects  within  these,  still  quarrel,  and  if  Government  did  not  interfere,  would  often  kill 
one  another ;  and  so  it  is  with  Christolaters  and  Mariolaters  and  sects  within  these,  as  it 
was  with  "gods  and  Titans."  The  dwellers  on  Mounts  Moriah  and  Zion,  Ebal,  and 
Gerizim,  were  never  at  peace,  and  we  can  trace  their  continual  warrings  in  the  7th  and 
8th  centuries  to  the  philosophic  sects  claiming  Boodha  and  Confucius.  It  was  clearly 
this  great  eastern  wave  of  thought  which  roused  two  such  leaders  that  stirred,  a 
generation  or  two  later,  the  little  Jewish  folds  in  their  Syrian  wilds.  Thus 
a  war  arose  against  ephods,  serpents,  and  idolatry  of  most  kinds  in  the  reign 
of  Hezekiah,  or  about  700  B.C.  He  is  said  to  have  been  a  good  man,  and  to 
have  done  all  that  was  "  right  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord  according  to  all  that  his  father 
David  'had  done  "  (2  Kings  xviii.).  Before  him  there  had  been  many  good  men,  yet 
the  brazen  serpent  that  Moses  had  made  was  still  a  God  in  that  land,  aye,  in  the 
temple  itself,  and  had  been  most  carefully  preserved  according  to  Usher,  over  800 
years  of  grievous  wars  and  troubles.  It  was  then  (720  B.C.),  we  are  told  adored  and 

2 1 2  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

worshipped  together  with  statues  or  figures,  evidently  phcallic,  and  with  Asheroths  or 
"  the  Groves  "  of  earlier  and  later  days.  These  symbols,  we  are  told,  Hezekiah  broke 
and  destroyed,  but  no  purifications  of  one  or  two  temples  and  certainly  not  the  de 
struction  of  spnbols,  can  change  the  faith  of  a  whole  people,  until  the  mind  is  educated 
out  of  these.  Hezekiah's  iconoclasm  lasted  only  twenty-eight  years,  and  then  his  son, 
Manasseh,  King  of  Juda,  went  back  to  the  old  worship  in  698.  "  He  did  that  which 
was  evil  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord,  after  the  abominations  of  the  heathen,  he  built  up 
again  the  high  places  which  Hezekiah,  his  father,  had  destroyed  "  (2  Kings  xxi).  He 
reared  up  altars  for  Baal,  the  phallic  sun-god,  and  made  a  "grove  "  or  asherah,  as  did 
Ahab,  King  of  Israel,  and  "  worshipped  all  the  host  of  heaven."  Nay,  he  built  these 
altars,  and  "  set  up  the  grove  "  even  in  Solomon's  holy  temple,  the  two  court-yards  of 
which  he  consecrated  to  Tsabeanism,  or  the  worship  of  the  host  of  heaven.  He  wor 
shipped  fire,  and  "  made  his  son  pass  through  the  fire  "  ordeal,  yet  he  maintained  his 
kingdom  in  peace,  according  to  the  writer  of  "  Kings,"  during  a  long  reign  of  fifty- 
five  years,  and  the  hosts  of  Senakerib,  King  of  Asyria,  whom  the  weak  Hezekiah 
had  bought  off  (the  narrative  says  the  Lord  destroyed  185,000  soldiers  miraculously 
in  one  night !)  never  returned  in  his  day  ;  he  slept  with  his  fathers,  and  was  buried 
in  his  own  garden,  his  son  Amon  succeeding  him  in  643  B.C.  The  later  writer 
of  Chronicles,  although  -always  anxious  to  paint  highly,  probably  says  truly  that 
Manasseh  was  for  a  time  in  Asyrian  captivity,  but  on  this  point  the  writer  of  "  Kings  " 
is  silent.  King  Amon  and  his  people  were  likewise  sun,  fire,  and  phallic-worshippers. 
The  unknown,  yet  said  to  be  inspired  historian  tells  us  that  he  (Amon)  walked  in  all 
the  ways  that  his  father  walked,  and  served  the  idols  that  his  father  served,  and  wor 
shipped  them  (2  Kings  xxi).  He  forsook  the  worship  of  the  Jhavh,  and  only  reigned 
two  or  three  years  when  he  was  assassinated  by  his  servants,  641  B.C.,  according  to  the 
dates  given  by  Archbishop  Usher  in  the  margin  of  our  Bibles.  Amon's  son,  Josiah, 
seems  to  have  continued  the  same  worship  up  to  the  year  624  B.C.,  or.  for  seventeen 
years,  when,  owing  to  the  rise  of  a  noted  high  priest,  Hilkiah,  the  persecutions  of  the 
old  faith  began  :  for  the  ripples  of  the  Eastern  wave  had  now  reached  Asia  Minor. 

It  was  not,  however,  on  account  of  Manasseh's  faith  that  King  Amon  was  assassi 
nated,  and  that  the  good  King  Azariah  was  smitten  with  leprosy  and  lived  and  died 
in  a  cell ;  nor  yet  that  Manasseh  had  a  long  and  peaceful  reign.  God  does  not  so 
work  out  his  purposes,  though  there  are  those  who  would  still  try  and  persuade  us  to 
this  effect ;  for  Josiah  succeeded  his  father  when  a  child  of  eight  years  old,  and  no 
change  took  place  in  the  worship  of  the  people,  or  in  the  gods  and  altars  of  Solomon's 
"holy  temple"  till  624  B.C.,  by  which  time  the  old  faiths  of  sun,  fire,  and  Phallic 
worship  had  flourished  for  seventy-four  years  (698  to  624  B.C.),  or  during  the  whole 
lifetime  of  the  then  living  race.  No  doubt  Moses  may  be  called  the  principal  founder 
of  this  Faith,  for  he  dearly  cherished  his  fire-ark  .with  its  overshadowing  serpent 
wings,  and  its  box  of.  charms  and  witchcraft  properties,  although  he  much  disliked 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship. 

2  1  3 

"Egypt's  Golden  Calf,"  or  rather  Golden  Cone.  We  may  say  generally  that  these 
tribes  preferred  the  worship  of  the  female  energies,  or  of  the  Grove  or  ,TIB>K  (Ex. 
xxxiv.  13),  just  as  the  Italian,  Spaniard,  and  Gaul,  and  among  ourselves,  the  Irish  do. 
The  latter,  until  the  other  day,  ex 
hibited  this  Asherah  over  some  of 
the  porches  of  their  churches,  too 
grossly  to  be  here  shown.  I  give 
this  very  complete  illustration  of 
Grove- worship  from  the  sculptures 
in  the  British  Museum.  Here 
we  see  the  Priest  pointing  with 
"  phallic  hand,"  in  form  as  the 
Pope  still  adopts,  to  the  Asherah 

situated  under  "the  great  God  who  passes  through  the  circle,"  and  carries  the  bow  and 
arrow.  All  objects  are  here ;  the  four  gods  or  Arba-Al  ^ra-is  whereof  see  details 
which  Dr  Inman  veils  in  Latin,  "Anc.  Faiths,"  L,  89. 

This  was  indeed  such  a  worship  as  Solomon  would  love,  and  accordingly  we  have 
full  details,  in  1  Kings  xi.  and  2  Kings  xxiii.  and  elsewhere,  of  his  "  Mount  of  Corrup 
tion,"  where  was  Chemosh,  Milkom,  Sun  and  Fire  and  the  worship  of  all  the  generative 
energies  of  nature.     Is  it  to  be  wondered  at,  that  with  such  a  "God  of  the  circumcision," 
and  one  so  devoted  to  all  the  procreative  energies  of  "  his  holy  people  Israel,"  who 
accepted  none  but  those  who  satisfied  the  sexual  purposes  of  creation,  that  this  people 
should  prefer  Solomon  and  similar  kings,  and  dislike  their  one  or  two  "  Prophets  "  or 
seers  who  condemned  such  a  faith  ?    No  one  can  study  their  history,  liberated  from  the 
Hind  which  our  Christian  up-bringing  and  associations  cast  over  us,  without  seeing  that 
Jews  were  probably  the  grossest  worshippers  among  all  those  Ophi-Phallo-Solar  devotees 
who  then  covered  every  land  and  sea,  from  the  sources  of  the  Nile  and  Euphrates  to 
all  over  the  Mediterranean  coasts  and  isles.     These  impure  faiths  seem  to  have  been 
very  strictly  maintained  by  Jews  up  to  Hezekiah's  days,  and  by  none  more  so  than 
by  dissolute  Solomon  and  his  cruel,  lascivious,  bandit-father,  the  brazen-faced  adulterer 
and  murderer,  who  broke  his  freely  volunteered  oath,  and  sacrificed  six  innocent  sons 
of  his  king  "  to  his  Jhavh."     Jewish  tribes  were  swept  out  of  Syria  long  before  these 
old  faiths.     Let  us  skim  lightly  over  some  of  the  details  from  Solomon  to  the  dis 
persion  and  slavery.     This  king  devoted  his  energies  and  some  little  wealth,  as  I  have 
said,  to  rearing  Phallic  or  Solo-Phallic  and  Fire  shrines  over  all  the  high  places  around 
him,  and  especially  in  front  of  Jerusalem,  and  on  and  around  the  Mount  of  Olives. 
His  favourite  deities  were  Ashers  and  Asharoths,  but  chiefly  woman,  as  Asherah  or 
Ishtar*— that  Phallic  eye  of  p.  72.    He  was  ever  true  to  Kama  or  Eros,  and  to  Chemosh 
the  glowing  burning  god  of  love,  whom  Aryans  called  Tsoorya,  and  after  whom  pro 
bably  all  Syria  was  called,  though  said  to  be  from  Tyre  which  worshipped  Tsoorya. 

214  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

The  Kama  and  Fire  Gods  whom  Solomon  adored  were  those  of  the  Hindoo  Sakti 
(pronounced  Shrakti)  sect,  viz.  "Cupid  or  the  attractive  power,"  which  draws  the 
votary  to  "the Prakriti — the  female  embodiment,  or  Agni-mandalam,  the  place  of  fire." 
Solomon's  "Holy  Spirit  "was  that  also  of  the  Saktis,  viz.  " Koolna,  or  spirit  of 
enjoyment,"  and  his  whole  "  song  "  is  as  nearly  as  possible  like  that  of  some  of  the 
Hindoo  Tcintras.  " Agni-mandalam "  is  a  euphemism  for  the  muliebre  pudendum; 
see  details  in  Anthro.  Soc.  Jour,  1865-66,  vol.  ii.  269.  The  fuel  of  the  Sakti's  fire,  says 
this  gross  faith,  "  is  collision,  because  fire  is  produced  by  friction,  and  the  Lord-Linga 
is  the  great  high  priest,"  and  not  only  David  and  Solomon,  but  other  Jewish  kings 
were  their  own  high  priests. 

In  Milkom,  no  doubt,  Solomon  worshipped  a  dual  and  androgyne  god  whom  the 
seers  called,  though  in  far  later  and  wiser  days,  "  the  abomination  of  the  children  of 
Amon."  The  temples  of  this  androgyne  god  were  principally  on  the  sacred  Mount,  and 
no  doubt  if  we  could  get  at  some  of  the  architectural  details,  we  should  find  that, 
though  architecture  is  called  "  frozen  music,"  it  was  with  this  very  licentious  people 
no  frozen  mythology.  The  builders  of  the  shrines  of  the  Tyrian  Hercules  were  those 
whom  this  prince  got  in  Hiram  and  his  staff;  and,  seeing  Phallic  and  Sun-gods 
enshrined  on  all  the  mounts  of  "  the  holy  city,"  Hiram  would  not  forget,  in  construct 
ing  Solomon's  temple,  all  the  idolatrous  forms  of  his  own  and  Egyptian  lands,  of  which 
the  best  and  purest  ideas  would  be  those  connected  with  Solar- worship,  as  he  may  have 
seen  this  on  the  Sun-temples  of  Tentyra,  viz.  the  winged  globe  with  serpents,  the 
early  Pythian- Apollo  idea,  and  such  like. 

It  is  clear  from  1  Kings  vi.  32,  35,  and  vii.  13  21  and  elsewhere,  that  many  of 
Hiram's  ornamentations  were  highly  emblematic,  and  we  may  be  quite  sure  that  none  of 
these  were  permitted  on  the  shrine,  without  grave  thought  as  to  their  full  signification 
and  symbolic  character.  On  each  side  of  the  entrance,  under  the  great  phallic  spire, 
which  below  formed  the  portico,  see  fig.  93,  p.  218,  were  placed  two  handsome 
phallic  columns  over  fifty  feet  high,  capped  with  Isis'  and  Paravati's  emblems,  lotuses 
encircled  with  pomegranates — the  fruit  shown  to  be  specially  worshipped  at  Damascus. 
It  was  a  representation  of  the  Queen  of  Heaven  and  of  the  gravid  uterus,  and  the 
symbol  of  a  happy  and  fruitful  wedded  life  :  with  Hebrews  the  Rimmon  "  personified 
Natura  Naturans,  or  the  fertilising  principle  of  nature  ;"  it  was  "  the  blooming  Venus 
Ursina"  and  in  Iledad- Rimmon  and  many  another  town,  the  Sun  was  shown  as  its 
accompaniment,  because  the  Sun  was  its  fertiliser.  On  the  robes  of  the  Jewish  high 
priest  it  was  everywhere  prominent,  and  was  there  united  with  bells,  that  very  speaking 
oracle  of  every  shrine,  as  well  of  ancient  Mylita  as  of  modern  Mary.  In  all  Mary's 
and  many  Protestant  shrines  it  was  and  is  a  conspicuous  and  important  ornament, 
and  in  mythic  story  the  pomegranate  persuaded  Persephone  "  the  seed-vessel " 
to  rejoin  her  husband  Pluto  in  the  realms  below,  an  allusion  doubtless  to  its 
significant  symbolism— the  gravid  uterus,  which  was  also  the  name  of  mother- 

Serpent  and  Phallic  IVorship.  2 1 5 

Terra;  for  classic  story  says  that  the  Po'/a,  Rhoia,  or  pomegranate  was  the  express 
emblem  of  the  Earth  under  her  different  appellations  of  Demeter,  Kubele,  Ceres, 
Rhea,  &c."  (Clas.  Manual  203,  Iliad  ix.  585,);  but  Rhea  is  Ops,  and  "Ops,  Opis, 
Opus  and  Opici  were  all  terms  related  to,"  if  not  actually  meaning  the  sacred  serpent 
(Bryant  v.  308).  The  Agathodemon  which  Egypt  shows  us  as  crowned  with  a  Lotus, 
just  as  Siva  stands  at  Som-ndt,  crowned  with  Luna  the  crescent  moon.  Now  this 
Agatho-demon  was,  says  the  same  learned  investigator,  "  called  Noe ; "  but  Deukalion, 
that  is  Deva  Kali,  "  was  called  Opus,  by  which  is  meant  Deucalion  Serpens,"  *  so  that 
here  we  see  the  whole  signification  is  either  mother  Eve  as  the  Yoni,  the  Serpent,  or 
we  see  an  androgyne  god,  embracing  Kala  and  Kali,  or  Noe  and  Terra  ;  but  this  sub 
ject  has  unduly  enticed  us  away  from  Solomon's  shrine. 

The  Phallic  columns  were,  it  is  written,  profusely  bedecked  with  "  pomegranates 
and  lilies  "  or  lotuses,  and  other  emblems,  and  hung  about  with  wreaths  of  chains 
which  always  denote  serpents.  Thus  we  are  not  surprised  to  learn  that  these  columns 
were  called,  that  on  the  right  JAKIN  or  "  he  that  shall  establish,"  and  that  on  the  left 
BOAZ,  or  "  in  it  is  strength."  Such  poles  and  hangings  with  similar  ornation  abound 
beside  most  Eastern  shrines,  and  the  Venetian  merchants,  following  their  Asiatic  cul 
ture,  placed  somewhat  similar  columns  on  and  around  their  beautiful  St  Mark. 

A  glance  through  the  illustrations  of  even  these  volumes  will,  I  think,  convince 
my  readers  that  the  architects  of  Solomon,  and  the  artisans  of  Tyre  only  did  but 
follow,  although  no  doubt  at  a  great  distance,  the  cult  and  architecture  of  the  richer 
and  superior  shrines  of  the  nations  about  them.  We  must  however  bear  in  mind  here 
that  we  have  not  a  single  historical  record,  on  papyrus,  leather,  or  tablet,  of  either 
Solomon  or  his  temple ;  none  of  the  great  travellers  of  antiquity  say  a  syllable  regard 
ing  either,  and  Herodotus  who  specially  travelled  over  all  these  countries  on  purpose 
to  study  the  cult  of  the  peoples,  never  gives  us  a  hint  even  as  to  the  existence  of  Jews, 
their  religion  or  temples.  From  Lucian  and  others  we  know  that  Syrian  temples,  and 
notably,  that  to  the  great  Dea  Syria,  had  two  huge  Phallic  columns  in  the  vestibule,  so 
that  Jakin  and  Boaz  in  Solomon's  shrine  were 
strictly  in  keeping.  The  constant  recurrence  of  two 
stones,  whenever  stones  are  required,  marks  a 
strange  but  consistent  idiosyncrasy  of  all  Phallic- 
worshipping  races. 

Beside  these  pillars  in  Solomon's  portico, 
there  were  also  placed  here  the  sun  god  Belus, 
and  his  chariots,  and  with  him,  at  the  entrance,  — 


the   symbolic    "  Great   Sea,"   that   holy   symbol 

of  Samoodra,  which  all  nations  worship  from   the   shores   of  Japan   and  Bombay 

to  the  banks  of  the  Neva;  and   those  on  Samoodra 's  shores,   in  proprid  persona. 

1  Homer,  (Liddell  and  Scott)  uses  Drahon  andOphia  indifferently;  see  further,  Inmarfs  Symbolism,  xxxviii. 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

This  Molten  Sea,  Fig.  90,  was,  we  are  assured,  most  correctly  constructed.  As 
it  represented  woman,  so  all  the  females  of  Jerusalem  brought  forth  their  most 
representative  emblem — the  Mirror — which  as  Maya  the  Sanskrit  Aryan  calls  Illusion, 
a  word  I  believe  really  meaning  that  by  which  man  may  reproduce  or  reflect  himself. 
Anyhow,  the  mirror  is  a  most  suitable  and  universal  emblem  of  Maya  over  all  Asia;  in 
this,  Fig.  91,1  show  it  in  the  form  it  is  constantly  found  in  the  palaces  and  temples  of  the 
Nile.  The  head  ornament  or  burden  of  the  woman  is  here  a  Cone,  similar  to  that  which 
Egyptian  women  are  usually  shown  with ;  for  if  Siva  carries  Luna,  and  the  Agatliodemon  a 
lotus,  then  woman  must  so  honour  the  Cone ;  and  I  believe  the 
first  occasion  on  which  they  likewise  came  freely  forward  and 
poured  their  golden  trinkets  into  Aaron's  lap,  was  for  the 
construction  of  such  a  golden  Cone,  and  not  a  Calf  as  the 
LXX.  translators  tell  us.  As  the  Jewesses  of  the  desert  well 
knew  their  own  religion  and  the  object  of  their  affections,  so 
I  think  did  those  of  Jerusalem  know  the  cult  they  were  en 
riching,  and  the  sexual  proclivities  of  their  king  and  his  very 
Sivaik  shrine.  They  knew  well  that  the  large  "bowl"  for 
which  they  were  giving  those  ornaments — so  precious  to  a 
'woman's  heart — was  no  mere  bowl  for  water;  just  as,  I  believe, 
their  ancient  mothers  knew  that  it  was  no  mere  calf  that 
Aaron  made,  and  before  which  they  bowed  down.  The  word 
by,  used  in  Exodus  xxxii.  as  "  Calf,"  signifies,  we  are  told 
by  ParJchurst,  something  "Round"  or  "Orbicular,"  as  a 

"round  ornament;"  even  a  "round  ring,"  "car"  or  " corn-wain,"  &c.  He  particu 
larly  warns  us  that,  as  translated  "  Calf,"  we  are  merely  to  consider  this  "Em 
blematic,"  and  because  such,  "both  to  believers  and  unbelievers  and  heathen,  was 
a  representative  of  FIRE."  "  The  golden  calves  of  Aaron  and  Jeroboam  were," 
continues  this  very  orthodox  Hebraist,"  "set  up  as  secondary  representatives  of 
the  First  Person  (as  we  speak)  of  the  ever  blessed  Trinity,  ivhose  primary  em 
blem,  was  FIRE Both  Aaron  and  Jeroboam  meant  their  respective  CALVES 

FOR  EMBLEMS  OF  JEHOVAH and  each  called  his  respective  calf  ALEIM,"  who 

is  the  Lord  and  God  of  the  Old  Testament ;  so  that  the  conclusion  arrived  at  is, 
that  Fire  and  Apis  or  Aphis  were  true  emblems  of  Jehovah.  In  fact,  we  may  say 
that  this  Jah  was  Fire  and  Apis ;  and  we  need  not  dispute,  therefore,  as  to  whether 
"  the  gold  ear-rings"  of  the  Aaronic  tribes  were  made  into  a  "Calf,"  or,  as  I  think,  into 
an  "orbicular"  object,  or  "mass"  "embryo"  or  "foetus;"  or  into  a  cone  which  is 
visually  called  "  the  breaker  through,"  a  true  meaning  of  by  (Filrst),  and  a  very  proper 
emblem  for  Jah,  whose  name,  says  the  same  great  Hebraist,  signifies  "The  Increaser" 
Mr  Parkhurst  was  probably  not  aware  that  the  Hindoo  called  this  seat  of  "  Fire,"  the 
Agni-Mandalam  \ 

Serpent  and  PJiallic  Worship.  2 1 7 

I  will  now  enter  into  the  details  of  the  construction  of  Solomon's  and  the  second 
temple,  which,  as  a  young  engineer,  I,  a  great  many  years  ago,  tried  to  construct  from 
the  bible,  together  with  such  other  traditional  writings  as  have  come  down  to  us.  The. 
results  were  startling,  and  to  my  then  sealed  eyes,  awakening.  Like  all  edifices  moiv 
or  less  connected  with  Tasbean  or  Sun-Worship,  the  aspect  of  Solomon's  temple 
was  strictly  correct  in  regard  to  His  Solar  Majesty.  The  recent  researches  in 
Palestine  show  (see  an  Edin.  Review  of  1873)  that  "the  sunrise-line  through 
temple  and  altar,  and  through  the  central  western  gate  of  the  mountain,  and  the  great 
east  gate  of  the  sanctuary,  bisects  the  enclosure  of  the  Haram  north  and  south  ;  while 
the  meridian  line,  determining  the  face  of  the  platform,  bisects  the  southern  wall  of  the 
sanctuary."1  Yet  this  writer,  though  mentioning  also  that  "  the  orientation  of  this 
temple  "  caused  it  to  be  thus  placed  obliquely  to  the  other  necessary  enclosure  walls, 
also  that  "  Greek  and  Coelo-Syrian  temples  "  were  so  built  as  of  prime  necessity  to 
face  the  rising  Sun-God,  that  all  Palmyra's  gorgeous  temples  were  similarly  placed, 
and  that  even  Stonehenge  has  a  great  stone  which,  seen  from  the  centre  of  the  circle, 
declares  the  point  of  sunrise  in  the  fertile  summer  solstice  ;  yet,  in  spite  of  all  these 
proofs  of  the  faith  of  these  ancient  worshippers,  this  writer,  like  many  others,  sees 
nothing  in  Solomon's  Pagan  Temple,  but  the  pure  and  spiritual  worship  of  Jehovah 
which  this  century  is  almost  alone  in  grasping.  Strange,  indeed,  are  the  vicissitudes 
of  faiths.  Titus  Cesar  levelled  the  "  Holy  Temple  "  of  Jehovah  in  the  year  70  A.c. — 
the  second  of  the  Emperor  Vespasian  ;  and  Hadrian  drew  a  ploughshare  over  the  con 
secrated  ground,  as  a  sign  of  perpetual  interdiction  (see  Gibbon,  III.  161).  A  few  years 
more  saw  a  temple  to  Venus  on  the  spot  where  it  is  supposed  the  death  and  resurrec 
tion  of  Christ  took  place  ;  and  there  this  latter  stood  for  nearly  three  hundred  years, 
until  the  zeal  of  Constantine  pulled  it  down,  and  reared  in  its  stead  a  Christian  shrine, 
to  which  mankind  made  pilgrimages  as  to  the  former.  Half  a  century  later  and  what 
do  we  see  ? — The  wise  and  philosophic  emperor  Julian  issuing  orders  for  the  rebuild 
ing  of  the  Jewish  temple,  to  counteract  the  'mummeries  which  disgraced  the  Christian 
shrine,  and  which  had  filled  Jerusalem  with  every  species  of  debauchery  and  vice. 

"What  avails  it,"  says  Newman,  in  his  Hebrew  Monarchy  (page  131)  "that 
Solomon  warned  young  men  against  foreign  harlotry,  when  the  Toyal  preacher  himself 
established  far  more  hateful  and  disgusting  impurities,"  and  Christians  apparently  still 
followed  that  fell  example.  We  see  from  various  sources  (1  Kings  xiv.  24  ;  xV. 
12-13  ;  xxii.  46  ;  2  Kings  xxiii.  7,  and  elsewhere)  how  rampant  here  were  the  worst 
features  of  Phallic  Faith.  Solomon's  favourite,  Queen  Maacha,  "made  a  Phallus 

1   See  Drawings  over  leaf.  Lingam-Stone  of   the  second   temple  iu 

T.   Ground  Plan  of  Temple.  lieu  of  the  lost  Ark. 
II. 'A  Block  Plan,    in   which   the   east    and  IV.  A  Transverse  Section  of  Tower  and  Phalli, 
west  line  is  shown  dotted.  V.   A  Landscape    View  as  the  Temple  would 
III.   A  Longitudinal  Section,  giving  the  Great  appear  on  Mount  Moriah  ivhen  first  con- 
Tower  and   One  .Pillar,  with    Serpent  structed,  without  its  after  surroundings, 
hangings,  and  the  Sanctuary  with  the 
I.  2  E 


Rivers  of  Life,  or  Fa  it /is  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

(English,  idol)  for  Ashera,"  and  her  grand-children — no  doubt  like  her — reigned  over 
Juda  for  about  twenty  years  after  Rehoboam,  when  one  of  them,  Asa,  is  represented, 
probably  by  a  too  tolerant  priestly  scribe,  as  putting  away  his  grand-mother,  although 
"he  removed  not  the  high  places;"  and  the  fact  is  now  clear  to  us  that  Solomon's  faith, 
and  the  practices  in  Syrian  Temples  continued  until  education  and  civilisation  drove 
them  away,  about  the  fourth  century  A.C. 

We  read  in  Gibbon  (Vol.  III.,  page  81)  that  Constantino  found  throughout  Syria 

"  every  form  of  prostitution  "  in  full  force  in 
Venus'  temples,  or  others  devoted  to  the  wor 
ship  of  the  female  energies.  The  emperor  at 
least  did  good  in  suppressing  this,  though  he 
frequently  converted  the  worshippers  into 
"  Christian  flocks  "  by  holding  open  their  jaws 
and  forcing  "the  body  of  Christ"  down  their 
throats — a  more  merciful  mode  than  was  pur 
sued  by  kings,  queens,  and  priests  who  followed 
him,  during  ten  long  centuries. 

Solomon's  Temple  appears  to  be  a  very  poor 
imitation  of  the  grand  Egyptian  temple  near 
Edfou,  20  miles  south  of  Thebes,  at  Apollin- 
opolis,  probably  to  the  great  Apollo  ;  see  the 
drawings  given  by  Gwelt  in  his  Encyclopaedia  of 
Architecture.  This  Edfou  temple  was  450  feet 
long,  and  140  broad,  or  upwards  of  14  times  the 
size  of  the  Hebrew  shrine.  Taking  the  "  Sacred 
Cubit "  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton,  which  is  24754 
inches,  and  omitting  decimals,  and  placing  the 
chambers  inside,  as  usual  throughout  the  East,  we 
find  that  Solomon's  Temple  proper  would  only 
occupy  one  of  the  halls  of  the  Egyptian  temple, 
that  it  was  a  very  humble  and  rude  structure, 
and  not  at  all  in  keeping  with  its  great  phallic 
portico.  The  temple  was  only  120  feet  long,  40 
broad,  and  60  high,  in  two  stories;  while  the  porch  was  a  large  tower,  40 .feet  long,  20 
broad,  and  240  high  !  It  may  have  been  gilt  like  the  Boodhist  temples  in  Banna.  The 
"  Holy  of  Holies  "  was  cut  off  with  "  golden  chains  "  from  the  rest  of  the  inner  temple, 
and  was  40.  feet  long  ;  shrouded  and  bedecked  with  two  hooded  Serpents,  called 
Cherubim,. and  with  chains  and  garlands — Serpent  symbols.  The  carvings  on  the 
walls  were  what  we  should  expect,  viz  :  symbolic  palm  trees,  open  flowers,  and  cheru 
bim,  &c.  I  cannot  discover  what  the  portico  tower  was  built  of,  but  as  an  engineer, 
I  should  have  been  very  chary  of  building  a  "  porch  "  rising,  as  it  did,  to  240  feet  in 

Fig.  93.— SOLOMON'S  TEMPLE. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  2 1 9 

height,  from  a  base  of  only  40  x  20.  The  writer  of  Kings  wisely  does  not  venture 
on  a  statement  of  the  height ;  but  that  of  Chronicles  is  here  explicit,  though  he  avoids 
any  statement  of  the  breadth  of  the  base  !  According  to  the  Arabic,  Syrian,  and 
Alexandrian  Bible,  the  Porch  should  be  only  20  cubits  high  ;  but  let  us  stand  to  the 
orthodox  bible.  The  facts  as  related  lead  me  to  suppose  that  the  temple  was  very 
like  the  hundreds  we  everywhere  see  in  the  East,  except  perhaps  that  its  walls  were  a 
little  higher  than  usual,  and  the  phallic  spire  out  of  proportion.  I  give  in  this  Fig.  93, 
the  whole  structure,  drawn  strictly  to  scale  at  2  feet  to  the  cubit.  The  ark-box,  or 
temple — like  an  ark,  with  its  phallic  tower,  is  quite  in  accordance  with  all  I  have  before 
asserted,  as  to  every  part,  and  the  whole  of  a  Sivaik  shrine  being  like  its  holiest  parts. 
The  Jewish  porch,  240  feet  long,  40  broad,  and  20  high,  is  but  the  obelisk  which  the 
Egyptian  placed  beside  his  temple  ;  the  Boodhist  pillars  which  stood  all  around  their 
Dagobas  ;  the  pillars  of  Hercules,  which  stood  near  the  Phenician  temple ;  and  the  spire 
which  stands  beside  the  Christian  Church.  The  little  ark, -120  feet  long,  60  broad,  and 
40  high,  stands  under  the  shadow  of  the  great  spire,  and  beside  the  real  little  ark 
within,  we  have  the  idea  repeated  by  the  presence  of  Jakin  and  Boaz.  Even  Isaiah 
says  that  Egypt  shall  in  her  extremity  again  return  to  the  Pillar,  and  Altar,  or  Ark- 
God  ;  that  five  of  her  cities  will  be  seized  by  the  speakers  of  "  the  language  of  Canaan," 
and  "swear  to  the  Lord  of  Hosts"  (the  Sun-Yahveh),  and  put  "an  altar  to  the  Jharh 
in  the  midst  of  the  land  of  Egypt,  and  a  pillar  at  the  border  thereof  to  the  Jhavh  " 
(xix.  18-19);  so  that  we  see  here  again  the  ark  and  its  pillar  ;  for  an  altar  was  an  ark 
with  a  "mercy  seat,"  or  place  of  fire  and  sacrifice,  and  an  ark  was  woman,  and  "  the 
great  sacrifice"  was  the  conjunction  of  the  male  and  female — Sun  and  Moon.  Amongst 
old  peoples  the  conception  and  liberation  of  new  life  was  "the  great  sacrifice,"  which  it  is 
still  called  among  many  Phallic- worshippers  to  the  present  hour. 

To  try  and  make  clear  to  my  readers  the  ideas  which  guided  the  builders  of  Solo 
mon's  Temple,  I  give  here  a  small  bird's-eye  view  of  Mount  Moriah — its  circumambient 
walls  and  cliffs,  divested  of  all  accessories  in  the  way  of  the  buildings,  priestly  and 
other,  which  thronged  its  precincts  even  before  Solomon  is  supposed  to  have  finished 
it,  showing  merely  the  Sacred  trees,  Palms,  Olives,  and  Cypresses,  which  were,  and  still 
are  there  so  sacred.  It  is,  we  see,  but  the  ark-box  and  tall  stem,  such  as  Tyrian  coins 
show  us,  as  the  Tree-stem,  or  an  upright  man  with  feminine  emblem  adjoining;  see 
Figs.  1,  3,  and  11,  plate  IV.  A  careful  study  of  the  figures  and  details,  which  we  find 
principally  in  Kings  and  Chronicles,  aided  by  tradition,  not  altogether  refusing  even 
orthodox  bible  dictionaries,  and  allowing  only  to  myself  that  amount  of  licence  which 
the  engineer  and  architect  must  have  from  his  unprofessional  and  inexact  client, 
I  have  found  pretty  ready  to  my  hand  matter  enabling  me  to  frame  a  "  specification, 
and  to  'execute  drawings  as  follows  : — 

No.  i.  is  a  Ground  Plan  of  Temple.  This  has  a  total  length  of  1 20  feet,  of  which 
the  Sanctum  is  40  feet,  and  beyond  this,  but  separate,  is  the  Spire  and  Porch,  20  by  40 
feet.  The  MoUen  Sea  (2  Chron.  iv.  10)  and  a  staircase,  appear  to  be  on  each  side  at 

220  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

entrance,  whilst  in  the  Porch  is  placed  Jakin  and  Boaz,  the  Chariot  of  the  Sun,  &c. 
I  am  unable  to  comprehend  the  details  of  windows,  and  doors,  upper  and  lower  storeys 
and  partitions,  owing  to  the  imperfect,  and  often  contradictory  terms  given  in  Kings 
and  Chronicles ;  but  in  the  leading  figures  no  architect  can  make  a  mistake.  Such 
temples  are  especially  common  amongst  the  Phallic- worshippers  of  Southern  India.  A 
lofty  entrance-porch  usually  adorns  the  front ;  on  entering  we  find  Phallic  poles,  with 
altars  for  sacrifice,  &c. ;  and  in  the  innermost  recess  the  sanctuary  or  oracle  of  the  Cultus. 

No.  ii.  is  a  Block  Plan  of  Site,  showing  that  the  shrine  is  to  be  placed  true  east 
and  west,  so  that  the  Ark  or  Altar  may  see  the  morning  sun  of  the  Midsummer  Solstice 
rise  over  Mount  Olivet,  with  a  ray  which  bisects  the  inner  and  outer  walls  of  the 
enclosure,  which  I  take  to  be  trapezoidal -in  form,  owing  to  the  course  of  the  cliffs  that 
bound  the  summit  eastwardly. 

No.  in.  is  a  Longitudinal  Section  of  Temple.  This  gives  details  of  Spire  and 
position  of  the  Phalli,  Jakin  and  Boaz,  and  determines  their  height  as  something 
between  50  and  60  feet,  also  the  elevation,  &c.,  of  the  Sanctum  and  Oracle.  The 
Ark  having  been  ea.rly  lost,  I  place  a  plain  Maha-Dcva  or  Stone,  which  the  Reverend 
T.  Wilson  tells  us  was  all  that  existed  in  the  second  Temple.1 

No.  iv.  is  a  Front  Section  of  Porch.- — This  shows  its  appearance  from  the  front  with 
the  relative  heights  of  temple  in  two  stories ;  but  the  chroniclers  are  here  very  defective ; 
one  making  the  Sanctum  portion  lower  than  the  rest  by  10  feet  or- so. 

As  to  the  scale,  it  has  been  common  to  assume  the  cubit  as  from  22  to  23  inches,  but 
after  much  consideration  which  I  was  once  compelled  to  give  to  this  in  a  lengthened  con 
troversy — which  the  late  Sir  James  Simpson  engaged  in  at  the  Royal  Society  of  Edin- 
1  turgh — as  to  the  measures  used  by  the  ancient  Egyptians,  and  which,  as  regarded  arith 
metical  details,  I  had  to  conduct;  the  cubit  of  Sir  Isaac  Newton  was  the  one  most  generally 
approved,  and  I  have  therefore  taken  2  feet  as  Solomon's  cubit.  Of  course,  whatever  size 
is  taken,  the  proportions  here  shown  will  be  the  same,  unless  the  bible  text  is  corrupt. 

In  chapters  xvi.  to  xxii.  of  2  Kings,  we  have  an  attempt,  and  no  bad  one,  to 
describe  the  grandest  developments  of  Phallo-Solar  Faiths  ;  and  from  the  general 
history  of  these  tribes  might  gather  substance  for  as  complete  and  impressive  a 
description  of  details  as  we  could  get  in  Egypt  or  Asia  Minor.  At  the  entrance 
of  Solomon's  temple,  we  are  told,  stood  the  mighty  Baal,  represented  by  chariots 
with  horses  yoked ;  whilst  ever  around  him,  and  in  the  courts  sacred  then  to  all 
Heaven's  other  orbs,  were  his  Priests,  called  Chemorim,  burning  incense  to  the  Sun, 
Moon,  and  twelve  Zodiac  Constellations.  There  also  sat  the  temple-women  weaving 
"hangings,"  which  symbolised  serpents,  for  the  "grove"  or  Asherah,  and  who  had  dedi 
cated  their  lives  as  well  as  bodies  to  the  sacred  fanes  ;  and,  alas  !  there  also  sat  the  most 
debased  of  men,  who  had  likewise  for  the  gods  consecrated  their  bodies  to  defilement. 
At  the  gate  of  this  "  holy  city  of  David  and  Solomon,"  where  lived  Joshua  the 
Governor,  were  the  tf  high  places  "  to  phallic- worship,  as  Hindostan  so  well  knows 

1    See  his  Archeological  Dicty.,  art.  Sanctum. 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  22 1 

these,  at  the  entering  in  of  all  her  cities.  Though  Jeremiah  was  scourging  with 
angry  wail  and  prophetic  curses,  and  though  Isaiah  had  long  done  the  same  and  prayed 
to  his  people  to  spiritualise  their  faith,  yet  no  phallic,  solar  or  fire-rite  was  here 
omitted.  In  "  the  valley  "  "  of  the  sons  of  Hinnom,"  the  drums  of  Tophim  were  ever 
Bounding,  to  drown  from  the  ears  of  loving  but  fanatical  parents  the  wails  and  shrieks 
of  their  offspring,  consigned  by  ruthless  and  bloody  priests  into  the  red  hot  stomach 
of  the  great  brass  god  Molek ;  or  else  clasped  by  his  horrid  arms  to  his  burning  frame, 
in  which  blazed  a  fire  as  fierce  as  that  which  Christians  are  taught  to  believe  exists,  by 
a  loving  Father's  command,  through  all  eternity  for  us  in  Hell. 

Yet  these  great  old  Faiths,  not  carried  as  by  these  smaller  tribes  of  the  earth  into  the 
barbarities  of  Hinnom,  were  not  the  dwarfed  conceptions  of  rude  people,  but  marked  the 
ascendancy  of  mighty  nations,  and  the  bold,  grand  thoughts  of  strong  men,  manly  and 
full  of  fire  and  vigour.  We  can  read  this  very  clearly  in  the  great  empire  of  the  Asyrians 
and  Egyptians,  in  the  Olympic  ages  of  Greece,  and  down  to  their  conquest  by  the 
Romans ;  also  in  the  brave,  robust  rule  of  Rome,  whether  Imperial  or  Republican,  as 
well  as  in  the  softer,  more  fitful,  but  not  effeminate  kingdoms  of  the  Aryan  conquerors 
of  the  far  East.  These  were  faiths  which  men  fought  for  and  died  to  propagate,  and  loved 
as  dearly  as  devout  Christian  Evangelicals  and  the  Mahommedan  zealots  of  our  own  days 
do  theirs.  For  countless  ages  did  men  and  women  on  this  account  "  make  swift  to  shed 
blood,"  and  freely  permit  their  own  to  be  spilt  like  water.  Nearly  allJewish  history  shows, 
that  Egypt  and  the  countries  to  her  north  and  east  never  disturbed  her,  unless  she  was 
trying  to  upset  these  old  Faiths.  Hezekiah,  king  of  Judah,  began  burning  altars  and  groves 
in  726  B.C.,  when  there  came  up  against  him  in  713  B.C.,  or  as  soon  as  the  heresy  seemed 
to  have  taken  root,  Senakerib  king  of  Asyria,  whom  he  had  twice  to  buy  off.  It  took, 
says  2  Chronicles  xxx.  10,  a  long  time  to  get  the  people  back  to  a  semi-spiritual  faith 
in  J  ehovah,  and  in  their  revered  ancestors ;  for  we  read  here  that  the  people  "  laughed 
to  scorn  "  Hezekiah's  writings  and  fulminations,  "and  mocked"  at  his  messengers. 

Again,  in  610  B.C.,  we  read  that  Josiah,  the  "good  king,"  had  revived  the  reforma 
tion  of  his  great-grand-father  Hezekiah,  which  Manasseh  and  Amon  his  father  and  grand 
father,  had  dropped  for  74  years  ;  when,  as  soon  as  the  "  holy  temple  "  was  prepared, 
up  comes  Neko,  king  of  Egypt  (2  Chron.  xxxv.  20),  Josiah  was  killed,  and  the  good 
Jeremiah  appears  as  one  of  his  mourners.  Jerusalem  after  this  received  her  kings  from, 
and  paid  tribute  to  Egypt,  worshipping  its  orthodox  gods  till  Syria  was  retaken  by 
Babylon  in  599  B.C.  In  588  B.C.  was  completed  the  captivity  of  these  little  tribes  when 
a  change  of  Eastern  Empire  gave  them  a  respite  ;  for  on  Cyrus  finding  himself  strong  in 
536  B.C.,  he  granted  them  permission  to  return  to  their  country,  and  Nehemiah  100  years 
later  succeeded  in  rebuilding  the  walls  of  Jerusalem  ;  so  that  the  people  were  once  more 
at  liberty  to  select  their  own  faiths.  But  we  must  remember  that  this  and  other  captivities 
changed  any  originally  pure  Jewish  blood  which  they  previously  claimed,  and  show  us 
the  stern  fact  that  the  tribes  were  votaries  of  almost  pure  Sun,  fire,  and  phallic  faiths, 
according  to  their  own  records  up  to  at  least  440  B.C.  ;  and  that  the  only  purer  aspiration 

222  Rivers  of  Life,  or  Faiths  of  Man  in  all  Lands. 

they  showed  up  to  this  date,  was  a  tendency  to  worship  their  ancestors  or  "  Peers,"  and 
to  indulge  occasionally  in  some  spiritual  songs  and  prayers  to  Jehovah,  Adonis,  and  Aleim. 
Let  this  suffice  for  the  present  as  to  the  faiths  prevalent  on  the  hills  and  in  the  valleys 
of  Syria  and  Phenicia,  up  to  the  brighter  days  of  the  brave  Maccabees. 

The  French  have  hitherto  always  been  foremost  in  Europe  in  understanding  the 
early  faiths  of  the  world.  A  small  volume  by  various  writers — printed  by  Nichols — 
Loud.,  1785,  called  "A  Comparative  View  of  the  Ancient  Monuments  of  India" — thus 
boldly  opens  its  preface  : — -"  Those  who  have  penetrated  into  the  abstrusenesses  (sic)  of 
Indian  mythology,  find  that  in  these  temples  was  practised  a  worship  similar  to  that 
practised  by  all  the  several  nations  of  the  world,  in  their  earliest  as  well  as  their  most 
enlightened  periods.  It  was  paid  to  the  •  Phallus  by  the  Asiatics,  to  Priapus  by  the 
Egyptians,  Greeks,  and  Romans,  to  Baal-Peor  by  the  Canaanites  and  idolatrous  Jews. 
The  figure  is  seen  on  the  fascia  which  runs  round  the  circus  of  Nismes,  and  over  the 

portal  of  the  Cathedral  of  Toulouse,  and  several  churches 'of  Bordeaux 

M.  D'Ancarville  has  written  two  large  quarto  volumes  to  prove  it  (Phallic -Worship) 
to  be  the  most  ancient  idea  of  the  deity."  So  one  hundred  years  ago  we  see  these  old 
writers  calling  male  and  female,  the  bull  and  cow,  Liber  and  Libra.  Bacchus  is 
pointed  out  as  the  "mitre-bearer,"  and  in  his  processions  he  is  shown  as  "the  carrier  of 
a  Bason  and  a  Sell,"  the  Womb  and  Sri-linga.  He  carries  a  veil  as  night,  and  a 
serpent,  and  "  sword  as  the  enlivener."  These  French  writers  seem -mostly  agreed  that 
Bacchus  was  Brahma,  whose  Indian  visit,  Bailly  says,  took  place  in  3605  B.C.,  when  it 
is  thought  "  Brahma  or  Bacchus  became  mythological."  His  death  and  deification, 
the  French  savants  fix  at  3553  B.C.,  calling  him  "Darma-deve1  Chiven,  or  Mahodys," 
meaning  "  The  Gracious  One  "  or  "  Prince  of  Peace,"  i.e.,  Siva  or  Maha-deva.  In  Ele- 
phanta  they  describe  to  us  a  distinct  specimen  of  the  Indian  Ardha-Nara,  though  not 
so  clearly  depicted  as  that  in  my  plate  XIV.,  taken  from  "  Anc.  Faiths,"  vol.  II.  The 
Elephanti-androgyne,  says  M.  D'Ancarville,  holds  a  shield  and  something  like  a  sheaf  of 
corn  in  the  two  left  hands,  and  a  serpent  and  elephant  trunk  like  Ganesha  in  the  upper 
right;  the  deity  "rests  his  hands  on  a  Priapus,"  represented  by  a  bull,  and  leans 
mostly  on  the  lower  right  arm.  These  early  explorers  had  also  discovered  in 
Indian  shrines  the  symbolism  of "  great  seas,"  like  that  which  Solomon  made. 
Anquetil  de  Perron  mentioned  them  one  hundred  and  twenty  years  ago,  and  also  found 
fault  with  the  Popish  Portuguese,  for  adapting  many  of  the  Indian  holy  places  in 
caves,  rocks,  temples,  sculptures,  pictures  and  all,  to  the  religion  of  the  Virgin 
and  her  Son.  Montfauyon  also  was  fully  alive  to  the  symbolism  of  shields,  Indian 
and  Asiatic,  for  in  Tom.  IV,  1.,  pi.  xxii.,  he  exhibits  a  very  feminine  one,  such  as 
Solomon  would  have  delighted  in,  calling  it  "  un  bouclier  extraordinaire  d  plusieurs 
losses  qui  resemblent  a  des  mamelles." 

In  most  ancient  languages,  probably  in  all,  the  name  for  the  serpent  also  signifies 
Life,  and  the  roots  of  -these  words  generally  also  signify  the  male  and  female  organs, 
and  sometimes  these  conjoined.  In  low  French  the  words  for  Phallus  and  Life  have 

Serpent  and  Phallic  Worship.  223 

the  same  sound,  though,  as  is  sometimes  the  case,  the  spelling  and  gender  differ  ; 
but  this  is  not  of  material  importance,  as  Jove,  Jehovah,  Sun,  and  Moon  have 
all  been  male  and  female  by  turns.  In  Hebrew,  Baal  is  masculine,  but  in  the  Greek 
translation  he  is  feminine  both  in  the  Old  and  New  Testament  It  would  seem 
that  the  Kaduceus  of  Mercury — that  Eod  of  life,  is  due  to  the  fact  of  the  ancients 
having  observed  that  serpents  conjoin  in  this  double  circular  but  erect  form,  as  in 
Eskulapius'  rod.  Mr  Newton  records  his  belief  of  this  at  p.  117  of  his  Appendix 
to  Dr  Inman's  Symbolism.  It  appears,  as  stated  by  Dr.  C.  E.  Balfour,  in  Fergusson's  Tree 
and  Serpent- Worship,  that  when  at  Ahmednagar  in  1841,  he  saw  two  living  snakes 
drop  into  his  garden  off  the  thatch  of  his  bungalow  in  a  perfectly  clear  moon 
light  night : — "  They  were  (he  says)  cobras,  and  stood  erect  as  in  the  form  of  the 
Eskulapian  rod,  and  no  one  could  have  seen  them  without  at  once  recognising  that 
they  were  in  congress."  It  is  a  most  fortunate  thing,  say  Easterns,  to  see  this,  and  if 
a  cloth  be  then  thrown  over  them,  it  becomes  a  form  of  Lakshmi,  and  of  the  highest 
procreative  energy. 

In  time  we  shall  probably  come  at  the  origin  of  many  other  ancient  hieroglyphs, 
forms,  rites,  and  customs.  The  mysteries  of  Eleusis  have  long  puzzled  all,  yet  they 
too,  are  now  pretty  well  known  to  the  initiated.  The  serpent,  we  have  learned,  can 
always  take  Maha-Deva's  or  Siva's  place,  especially  in  an  Ark ;  and  a  serpent  in 
an  ark,  as  already  dwelt  upon,  is  a  perfect  object  of  worship,  which  neither  is  separ 
ately,  except  on  the  well  known  religious  axiom  that  "  a  part  represents  the  whole." 
This  coin,  from  Mr  Sharpe's  Egyptian  Mythology,  is  held  to  reveal 
the  long  insoluble  secret  of  Eleusis.  Here  we  have  the  ark  or 
cist  which  the  virgins  used  to  carry,  at  certain  solar  phases, 
to  and  from  the  Temple  of  Ceres,  and  on  which,  not  to  say  into 
which,  none  dare  to  look  ;  it  was  a  more  d